Coat of arms of Norway

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Coat of arms of Norway
Royal CoA of Norway.svg
Greater variant used by the monarch
Versions
Coat of arms of Norway (1905).svg
Lesser variant, used by the monarch and state since 14 December 1905, design by Eilif Peterssen
Coat of arms of Norway.svg
Lesser variant, used by the state since 1937, design by Hallvard Trætteberg, modified in 1992 by Sverre Morken
Details
Armiger King Harald V of Norway
Adopted 1992 (present design)
1280 or earlier (origin)
Escutcheon Gules, a lion rampant Or, crowned and bearing an axe Or with blade Argent
For the royal version, the following is added:
the shield on a mantle Purple lined Ermine, crowned Or
Orders For the royal version only: Order of St. Olav

The Coat of arms of Norway (Norwegian Bokmål: Norges riksvåpen; Nynorsk: Noregs riksvåpen) is blazoned Gules, a lion rampant Or, crowned Or, holding an axe Or with a blade argent, meaning that it is a standing golden lion bearing a golden crown and holding a golden axe with a silver blade, everything on a red background.

The coat of arms is used by the King (including the King's Council), the Parliament, and the Supreme Court, which are the three powers according to the Constitution. It is also used by several national, regional, and local authorities that are subordinate to the aforementioned, for example the County Governors and both the district courts and the courts of appeal. Since 1905, two parallel versions exist: the original, more complex one used by the King and the simpler one used by the State.

In addition, there are former and existing lands (e.g. the Earldom of Iceland and the Orkneys), cities (e.g. Kristiansand), organisations (e.g. the Museum of Cultural History), companies (e.g. Adresseavisen), and families (e.g. the Counts of Gyldenløve and Gudbrand Gregersen) who have been granted the right to bear the coat of arms or derivations of this. Unless officially granted, it is illegal to use the coat of arms.

The coat of arms—originally a golden lion on a red shield—was adopted before or during the early part of the 13th century. In the late part of the same century, a silver axe was added, symbolising Olaf II as the Eternal King of Norway. In continuous use since then, the coat of arms is one of the oldest state coats of arms in the world. Following changing historical epochs, fashions and styles, the coat of arms has appeared in several rather different designs. The lion has gone from fit to fat and then back to fit. For many centuries, the axe had a long shape that made it look more like a halberd.

The lion, which in Norway is commonly known as The Norwegian Lion (Den norske løve etc.), has been a popular and embraced symbol for centuries. This popularity is, not least, visible in older folk art.

The Royal Coat of Arms is used by the King and Queen, by the Royal House, and by the Royal Court. The lion with the axe only appears in the Royal Standard. The Royal Coat of Arms had a design by Eilif Peterssen made in 1905, in which the design of the lion is somewhat more naturalistic than in the State Coat of Arms. Today the design is a little changed, especially the crown with the demi-lion omitted.[1]

Royal coats of arms[edit]

In the coat of arms of the realm a heraldic, royal crown is placed directly on top of the shield. In the Royal Coat of Arms, the shield is on a mantle purple lined ermine with a royal crown on top. Three sides of the shield are surrounded by the collar of the Royal Order of St. Olaf.

The following coats of arms are displayed with the collar of the Order of St. Olaf. However, not all Princes and Princesses are Grand Cross holders or, for that sake, members of this order at all, wherefore their respective coats of arms do not include this achievement.

Heraldic crowns[edit]

Physical crowns of the King (here Haakon VII) and the Queen (here Maud), as seen to the left. For more information, see Regalia of Norway.

The following images are digital representations of the royal crowns, i.e. the physical crowns that are located in Trondheim. The images below are drawn based on how the physical crowns look. Images of the heraldic crowns, on the other hand, are drawn based on a blazon. Whilst there are big visual differences between the physical crowns and the heraldic crowns, technical differences are rather small. Note in this regard that whilst the King's physical crown has solely a cross on the top, the King's heraldic crown is equipped with the Norwegian Lion behind the mentioned cross.

History[edit]

Origin[edit]

Among the state coats of arms that are still in use today, the Coat of Arms of Norway is among the oldest in Europe and even world-wide. It is known since the early 13th century, when it served as the coat of arms of the kings of the Sverre dynasty. It is told that Sverre, who was King between 1184 and 1202, had a lion in his coat of arms. This coat of arms appears in 1225, when it was used by Earl Skule Bårdsson, who had relations to the royal family. A coat of arms with a lion was also used by Haakon the Young Haakonson, who was King between 1240 and 1257. This was in 1250. Haakon the Young's father, King Haakon the Old Haakonson, had a lion in his seal, too.

Snorre Sturlason claims that a golden lion on a red background was used already in 1103 by King Magnus III, the son of King Olav III. In 1894, historian Gustav Storm concluded that this is ahistorical. Storm explained that the claimed lion in King Magnus's coat of arms is unknown both in the older Saga literature and in other contemporary sources. It is possible that Snorre, who wrote under the instruction of the King, attributed King Sverre's coat of arms to earlier Kings of Norway.

It has been suggested but remains unconfirmed that Norway's coat of arms were an inverted version of or at least inspired by Scotland's. In the High Medieval Ages, there was extensive political and social contact between the two kingdoms, and considerable parts of the British Isles were either directly or indirectly a part of Norway. At least one coat of arms in Norway was deliberately derived from Scotland's coat of arms, possibly as a gift of honour from the Scottish King, namely the coat of arms of Baron Audun Hugleiksson. Otherwise, King Henry II of England (r. 1154–1189), a contemporary of King Sverre of Norway (r. 1184–1202), had in his coat of arms a golden lion on a red background. Despite all theories, the exact origin of the coat of arms is impossible to decide.

Coat of arms Bearer Description
Skule-jarls-segl.JPG Earl Skule Used in 1225.
Kong Haakon Haakonsson PI III 1.jpg King Haakon the Old Seal of 1247/1248, in which a small lion lies between the King's feet.
Kong Haakon Haakonsson PI III 2.jpg King Haakon the Old Reverse of the latter.
Kong Haakon den Unge PI IV 2.jpg King Haakon the Young Seal of 1250.
Eirik-Magnusson-segl.JPG King Eric II Seal of 1298. Whilst the lion in the shield does not appear to bear an axe, the one on the caparison does.

Addition of silver axe[edit]

Approximately in 1280, either King Magnus VI (dead in 1280) or the guardianship of his son Eric Magnuson let the lion be equipped with a crown of gold and in the foremost paws an axe of silver. The axe was a symbol of Saint Olaf, i.e. King Olaf II, and by inserting it into the coat of arms it was symbolised that the King was the rightful heir and descendant of the 'Eternal King of Norway' (Latin: Rex Perpetuus Norvegiae).

Coat of arms Bearer Description
Kong Eirik Magnusson PI VIII 2.jpg King Eric II Seal of 1285.
Kong Eirik Magnusson PI VII 2.jpg King Eric II Seal of 1283 and 1285. This is a variant in which the shield has flowers.
Hertug Haakon Magnusson PI XI 1.jpg Duke Haakon Magnusson Seal of between 1292 and 1298.
Kong Haakon V Magnusson PI XII 2.jpg King Haakon V Seal of between 1300 and 1302.
IngeborgHåkansdotterSealcrop.jpg Duchess Ingeborg Seal of 1318.
Kong Haakon VI Magnusson PI XVII 2.jpg King Haakon VI Seal on documents between 1358 and 1369.
Kong Haakon VI Magnusson PI XVII 1.jpg King Haakon VI Seal on documents between 1358 and 1376.
Kung Magnus Erikssons domsigill.jpg King Magnus VII (r. 1319–1343)
Kong Olav Magnusson PI XVIII 1.jpg King Olaf IV Seal of 1382 and 1384.
Haakon Magnussens segl-013.jpg King Haakon V
Dronning Margareta PI XVIII 2.jpg Queen Margaret Her seal as Norway's sovereign. She holds both an Olaf axe and the Royal Coat of Arms—a powerful symbolism.

Combinations until 1450[edit]

With the death of King Haakon V in 1319, the reign of the Sverre dynasty came to an end. The Throne and thus the Royal Coat of Arms was inherited by Magnus VII, who was a maternal grandson of Haakon V and who himself belonged patrilineally to the family known as the Bjälbo dynasty.

Subsequently, Norway remained in personal union with neighbouring countries. When acting as the ruler of one particular country, the sovereign would normally use the arms of that kingdom. When acting as sovereign of the united kingdoms, he would marshal the escutcheon by quartering. This was a tendency in Europe in general.

The first union kings placed the Royal Coat of Arms in the first quarter of the quartered coat of arms. At the beginning of the Kalmar Union, Norway as a hereditary kingdom was considered more important than Sweden and Denmark, which were still electoral kingdoms. Consequently, King Eric III of Pomerania placed his Norwegian Coat of Arms in an inescutcheon, superimposed on the coats of arms of his other realms. However, the Norwegian Coat of Arms would later be degraded, so that the Coat of arms of Denmark would occupy the first field, whilst Norway's was placed in the second.

Coat of arms Bearer Description
GelreNorge.jpg King Magnus VII (r. 1319–1343) Coat of arms as presented in the Gelre Armorial. The royal coat of arms is combined with that of the Bjälbo dynasty, to which Magnus belonged patrilineally. It displays the original crest of the Norwegian coat of arms.
Erik av Pommern 2000px.png King Eric III (r. 1389–1442)
Royal Arms of Norway, Denmark & Sweden (1442-1448).svg King Christopher (r. 1442–1448) Other versions:

Modern interpretation of the coat of arms of King Christopher.

Marshalled versions from 1450 to 1814[edit]

In 1450, Count Christian of Oldenburg and of Delmenhorst became King of Norway. He was already King of Denmark since 1448, and in 1457, he became King of Sweden as well. Norway's coat of arms was placed in the lower dexter field and, when Sweden left the Kalmar Union in 1523, in the upper sinister field. The latter lasted until 1814.

Varying from time to time, the Kings between 1450 and 1814 bore the coats of arms of the following kingdoms, peoples, and lands:

Coat of arms Bearer Description
Blason Christian Ier de Oldenbourg (1425-1481) Roi de Suède, de Danemark et de Norvège (retouched).svg King Christian I
Royal Arms of Norway, Denmark & Sweden (1460-1523).svg King Christian I
King John
King Christian II
1460–1523.
Royal Arms of Norway & Denmark (1523-1535).svg King Frederick I
Royal Arms of Norway & Denmark (1535-1559).svg King Christian III
Royal Arms of Norway & Denmark (1559-1699).svg King Frederick II
King Christian IV
King Frederick III
King Christian V
Royal Arms of Norway & Denmark (1699-1819).svg King Frederick IV
King Christian VI
King Frederick V
King Christian VII
King Frederick VI
After his abdication in 1814, Frederick VI kept the coat of arms of Norway in his escutcheon until 1819.

Marshalled versions from 1814 to 1905[edit]

On 4 November 1814, the Norwegian Storting elected King Charles XIII of Sweden as King of Norway. This personal union with Sweden lasted until the dissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden in 1905.

Without legitimate heirs of the body, King Charles adopted the French marshall Bernadotte, Prince of Pontecorvo, who took the name Carl Johan.

The union arms introduced by King Charles XIII and Crown Prince Carl Johan were never used officially in Norway. Only the lion coat of arms of Norway appeared on coins and on seals of official documents signed by the King in his capacity as Norwegian king.

The union arms introduced by King Oscar I in 1844 was used by members of the royal family, by the common diplomatic service of both kingdoms, and on official documents concerning both countries. In Norway, the union arms was never used on coins or official documents.

In Sweden,Crown Princes and Princes bore the coat of arms belonging to his duchy. See Duchies in Sweden, but these titles and arms were never used in Norway.

Coat of arms Bearer Description
Blason de Charles XIV Jean de Suède.svg Crown Prince Carl Johan 1814–1818.
Karl XIV Johan Roi de Suède et de Norvège.svg King Charles III John 1818–1844.
Coat of Arms of the Union between Sweden and Norway.svg King Oscar I 1844–1859.
Coat of Arms of the Union between Sweden and Norway.svg King Charles IV 1859–1872.
Coat of Arms of the Union between Sweden and Norway.svg King Oscar II 1872–1905.

Since 1814[edit]

The halberd was officially discarded and the shorter axe reintroduced by Royal Order in Council 10 July 1844, when an authorised design was instituted for the first time. On 14 December 1905 the official design for royal and government arms was again changed, this time reverting to the medieval pattern, with a triangular escutcheon and a more upright heraldic lion. The painter Eilif Peterssen was responsible for the design.

Coat of arms Bearer Description
Greater coat of arms of Karl XIV Johan.svg King Charles II (r. 1814–1818)
King Charles III John (r. 1818–1844)
All achievements are not displayed.
Løve 1844.jpg King Oscar I (r. 1844–1859)
King Charles IV (r. 1859–1872)
King Oscar II (r. 1872–1905)
Achievements are not displayed.
Royal CoA of Norway.svg King King Haakon VII (r. 1905–1957)
King Olaf V (r. 1957–1991)
King Harald V (r. 1991–)

Through centuries and following changing fashions in heraldry and arts, the Coat of Arms has appeared in several ways in the matter of design, shape, and so on. In the late Middle Ages, the axe handle gradually grew longer and came to resemble a halberd. The handle was usually curved in order to fit the shape of the escutcheon (or the changing union quarterings) preferred at the time, and also to match the shape of coins.

The Coat of Arms has also been used by subordinate state authorities and in semi-official contexts, such as on bank-notes.

State Coat of Arms[edit]

Royal decree of 20 May 1927 states:[2]The Coat of Arms of the Real may be used only by the State's authorities in the exercise of their official activity. The Coat of Arms may be used by the Royal Court, by the Government and its Ministries, by the Parliament, by the Law Courts, and by some others. Matters of the Coat of Arms are treated by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The State Coat of Arms has no acievement save the surmounting crown.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Website of the Royal House of Norway
  2. ^ FOR 1927-05-20 nr 3729: Forskrift angående bruk av Rikets segl og Riksvåbenet. Lovdata lest 3. april 2013.

Literature[edit]

  • P. Petersen: Historisk-heraldisk Fremstilling af Kongeriget Norges Vaaben, og Sammes Afbildning i Bannere, Flag, Mynter og Sigiller, Christiania 1836
  • Gustav Storm: Norges gamle Vaaben, Farver og Flag, Kristiania 1894
  • Chr. Brinchmann: Norske konge-sigiller og andre fyrste-sigiller fra middelalderen, Kristiania 1924
  • Poul Bredo Grandjean: Det danske Rigsvaaben, Copenhagen 1926
  • Hallvard Trætteberg: «Norges statssymboler inntil 1814», Historisk Tidsskrift, Vol. 29 No. 8 and 9, Oslo 1933
  • Hallvard Trætteberg: Norges våbenmerker. Norske by- og adelsvåben, published by Kaffe Hag, Oslo 1933
  • Hallvard Trætteberg: «Norges krone og våpen», i Festskrift til Francis Bull på 50 årsdagen, Oslo 1937
  • Hallvard Trætteberg: «The Coat of Arms of Norway», The American-Scandinavian Review, June 1964
  • Hallvard Trætteberg: «Det norske kongevåpen i Gelre-våpenboka», Heraldisk Tidsskrift, Vol 3, No 23 p. 126 ff., Copenhagen 1970-74
  • Hallvard Trætteberg: «Norges våpen i engelske kilder i middelalderen», Heraldisk Tidsskrift, Vol 3, No 21 p. 29 ff., Copenhagen 1970-74
  • Odd Fjordholm: «Om opphavet til det norske løvevåpen. En historiografisk framstilling». Heraldisk Tidsskrift, p. 31-41, Copenhagen 1984
  • Hans Cappelen: Heraldikk på norske frimerker Oslo 1988.
  • Harald Nissen: «Det norske kongevåpnet», Heraldisk Tidsskrift, Vol10 No 91, Copenhagen March 2005
  • Hans Cappelen: «Norge i 1905: Gammelt riksvåpen og nytt kongevåpen», Heraldisk Tidsskrift, Vol 10 No 94, Copenhagen October 2006
  • Tom Sverre Vadholm: «Hellig-Olavs øks som norsk symbol», Heraldisk Tidsskrift, Vol 11, No 102, Copenhagen October 2010, p. 59-82

External links[edit]