Coat of arms of Queensland

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Coat of arms of Queensland
Coa Queensland.png
Versions
State Badge of Queensland.svg
State Badge of Queensland
Details
Armiger Elizabeth II in Right of Queensland
Adopted 1893
Crest Two stalks of sugarcane surround the State Badge, a Maltese Cross with a centred Crown of St. Edward
Torse Green and Gold
Escutcheon Wheat Sheaf, Gold rising from a pile of quartz, the heads of a bull and a ram
Supporters Red Deer and Brolga
Motto Audax at Fidelis
"Bold but Faithful"

The coat of arms of Queensland is the oldest in Australia, and was first granted in by Queen Victoria in 1893 through the simplest form of heraldic grants; with the shield of arms, motto, helmet, mantling and crest.

Suggestions and submissions[edit]

Up to 1892, suggestions were being made as to what the state's coat of arms was to constitute and the pictures below illustrate the four main depictions that were considered.

Below are the four proposed coat of arms submitted to the British College of Arms and from which the first edition of the coat of arms was taken.

These suggestions were accompanied by a letter by the Chief Secretary to the Government Office in London.[1]

Heraldic description[edit]

Below is the traditional description, followed by the same description in modern English:-

'Per fesse, the Chief Or, the Base per sale Sable and Gules, in chief a Bull's head couped in profile muzzled, and a merino Ram's head respecting each other proper, the dexter charged with a Garb of the first, and in the sinister Base on a mount a Pile of Quartz, issuant there from a Gold Pyramid, in front of the Mount a Spade surmounted by a Pick saltire-wise all proper'[2]

Translated this means:

'Across the top of the shield a gold panel on which there is a bull's head in profile muzzled, cut off at the neck and a merino ram's head, facing each other, both naturally coloured. In the lower portion of the shield on the left hand side on the black background a golden sheaf of wheat; on the right side on a red background and on a green mound, a golden obelisk standing on a pile of quartz with a crossed pick and shovel in the foreground'[3]

Development and change[edit]

The development of the coat of arms continued during the year and by the end of 1893, the Maltese Cross impaled with the St Edward's Crown had been incorporated, above the shield in between the two stalks of sugar cane. The alterations continued over the years because the crown that is impaled upon the Maltese cross keeps in synchronisation with the monarch in England, due to the switching of crowns. The Imperial State Crown or Tudor Crown, and the St. Edward's Crown are the two coronation crowns that have been used since Charles II's restoration in 1660.

Queen Victoria, Edward VII and George VI used the Imperial Crown, while George V and Elizabeth II used the St Edward's Crown.[4] Therefore between the years of 1893–1910 and 1936–1952, the Imperial crown was bestowed upon the cross; between the years of 1910–1936 and from 1952 onwards, it was the Saint Edward's crown.

The final and current addition to the coat of arms was created in 1977, during the Silver Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II, with the granting of supporting animal. A Red Deer, to represent the old world and it is a classic animal of heraldry; and a Brolga, which represents the native population and it is the state's official bird.[5]

Industrial influence[edit]

The symbols on the shield are representations of Queensland's most abundant industries. The wheat industry's origins belong with the first settlers in 1788, as the farms were worked by the convicts brought over from England, an idea of Governor Phillip.[6] During the years till 1795, the wheat industry slowly gained popularity and by the late 19th century was a strong force in the agricultural industry of the state. The sugar industry became established by 1868 in Mackay which was a mere four years after the first commercial sugar mill was opened in Cleveland, south of Brisbane.[7] Sugar and Coffee regulations were brought in by Parliament later that year as the industry spread rapidly and with the creation of the Mackay Central Sugar Mill Manufacturing Company ten years later in 1878, the sugar industry had reached its colonial peak.[8]

The sheep industry had been in existence since the early 1820s within Australia and by the early 1880s the geographical expansion of this industry had hit Queensland in which major wool auctions were held throughout the state.[9] The mining industry began with the discovery of copper on 20 May 1867 by Ernest Henry in Cloncurry and the industry climbed with the Gold Rush which occurred on 3 September 1873 when gold was discovered in Georgetown.[10] The beef industry was quite prevalent by the late 1880s and by 1890, Queensland had exported Australia's first major export overseas which consisted of 1500 tons and by the 20th century that number had exploded to 43000 tons.[11]

Supporting animals[edit]

As for the supporting animals, the brolga is Australia's only native crane and is described as "more than a metre tall and their outstretched wings can measure two metres across. The adults are mainly grey and have a long thin neck, a bare head and a patch of striking red coloured skin on the lower part of the head below the eyes".[12] They are mostly found along the coast from Rockhampton to the Gulf of Carpentaria and have featured on the coat of arms since 1977 and has been the state bird since 1986. The red deer has a more regal origin; along with being a traditional and classic beast of heraldry, Queen Victoria gave the newly created colony a herd of deer from the royal hunting ground—hence their inclusion upon the arms.[13]

The Maltese Cross[edit]

The Maltese cross has a stranger history than the rest of the elements upon the arms. Not even the Queensland government is aware of why the Maltese Cross was chosen for the coat of arms, as described in the letter below which resides in the Queensland State Archives.[14]

Official coat of arms[edit]

Below is a visual evolution of the Queensland coat of arms.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Queensland State Archives (1892) 'Despatches Written By The Agent General', SRS 5321, 1, 75
  2. ^ Queensland Government (1997) 'Badge, Arms, Floral and other Emblems of Queensland Act 1959', www.legislation.qld.gov.au, [26 May 2004]
  3. ^ The Heraldry and Genealogy Society of Canberra (2004) 'State and Territory Arms of Australia', http://www.hagsoc.org.au/heraldry/state_arms.php, [9 March 2004][dead link]
  4. ^ Rose, Tessa (1992) 'The Coronation Ceremony of the Kings and Queens of England and the Crown Jewels', HMSO, London, England, pp31-33
  5. ^ Hartemink, Ralf (1997) 'Queensland Coat of Arms', http://www.ngw.nl/indexgb.htm, [20 March 2004]
  6. ^ Dunsdorfs, Edgars (1956) 'The Australian Wheat Growing Industry 1788–1948', University Press, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, pp6
  7. ^ Kerr, John (1988) 'A Century of Sugar', Watson Ferguson, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, pp10
  8. ^ Kerr, John (1988) 'A Century of Sugar', ibid., pp16
  9. ^ Ville, Simon (2000) 'The Rural Entrepreneurs', Cambridge University Press, Victoria, Australia, pp42
  10. ^ Carroll, Brian (1977) 'Australia's Mines and Miners', Macmillan Publishing, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, pp30
  11. ^ Kelly, JH (1971) 'Beef in Northern Australia', Australian National University Press, Canberra, Australia, pp11
  12. ^ Federal Government (2002) ' Australian Symbols', McPherson's Printing Group, Canberra, Australia, pp33
  13. ^ Federal Government (2002) ' Australian Symbols', McPherson's Printing Group, Canberra, Australia, pp31
  14. ^ Queensland State Archives (1966) 'Flag, Badge, Arms and Seal of Queensland', SRS1043, 1, 267, 84