Coat of arms of Ukraine

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Coat of arms of Ukraine
Lesser Coat of Arms of Ukraine.svg
Details
Armiger Ukraine
Adopted 19 February 1992
Escutcheon Azure, a tryzub Or
Earlier versions Coat of Arms of UNR.svg
Use Ukrainian People's Republic (1918-1920)

The state coat of arms of Ukraine (Ukrainian: Державний Герб України) or commonly the Tryzub (Ukrainian: Тризуб, "trident") is the national coat of arms of Ukraine, featuring the same colors found on the Ukrainian flag; a blue shield with a gold trident. It represents the triune God on earth and in heaven.[citation needed] It appears on the Presidential standard of Ukraine. Blue colored tridents are considered to be irregular representation by the Ukrainian Heraldry Society.

The small coat of arms was officially adopted on 19 February 1992, while constitutional provisions exist for establishing the great coat of arms, which is not yet officially adopted. The small coat of arms was designed by Andriy Grechylo, Olexiy Kokhan and Ivan Turetskyi. It is a representation of the seal-trident of Vladimir the Great.

The trident was not thought of as a national symbol until 1917, when one of the most prominent Ukrainian historians, Mykhailo Hrushevsky, proposed to adopt it as a national symbol (alongside other variants, including an arbalet, a bow or a cossack carrying a musket, i.e. images that carried considerable historical and cultural and heraldic significance for Ukraine). On 22 March 1918, the Central Rada (parliament) adopted it as the coat of arms of the short-lived Ukrainian People's Republic.

During the Soviet period of 1919-1991 the state symbols were consistent with the Russian SFSR and the Soviet Union - a hammer and sickle over the rising sun.

Tryzub[edit]

The modern "trident" symbol was adopted as the coat of arms of the Ukrainian People's Republic in February 1918. The design has precedents in seals of the Kievan Rus'. The first known archeological and historical evidence of this symbol can be found on the seals of the Rurik dynasty. It was stamped on the gold and silver coins issued by Prince Volodymer the Great (980–1015), who might have inherited the symbol from his ancestors (such as Sviatoslav I Igorevich) as a dynastic coat of arms, and he passed it on to his sons, Sviatopolk I (1015–19) and Yaroslav the Wise (1019–54). The symbol was also found on the bricks of the Church of the Tithes in Kiev, the tiles of the Dormition Cathedral in Volodymyr-Volynskyi, and the stones of other churches, castles, and palaces. There are many examples of it used on ceramics, weapons, rings, medallions, seals, and manuscripts.

White gyrfalcon, possibly the prototype of Ukraine´s trident
Drawing of the coat of arms

Most historians agree that the medieval symbol was not intended as depicting a trident, but most likely a stylized falcon. Depictions of a flying falcon with a cross above its head have been found in Old Ladoga, the first seat of the Kievan Rurik dynasty,[1] of Scandinavian lineage.[2] Such a falcon, along with a cross are also featured on the coins of Olaf Guthfrithsson, Viking konung.[1] Falconry for centuries has been a royal sport in Europe. The gyrfalcon (known also as Norwegian falcon) was considered a royal bird and is mentioned (ukr.: кречет) in one of the earliest epics of Ruthenia, the 12th century poem The Tale of Igor's Campaign.

Later images of the trident ("tryzub") among the Rurikids resemble more a bident or the letter "У", which also in the modern Cyrillic alphabet denotes the sound "u" as in "Ukraine" (though the Cyrillic alphabet at the time did not have such a letter, using the digraph OѴ/Ѹ or its monogram Ꙋ instead).

Other uses[edit]

The Tryzub was also used in conjunction with the Russian tricolor, as the symbol of the anti-communist movement National Alliance of Russian Solidarists in the early 20th century. Furthermore the Tryzub is heavily used in the military heraldry of the Italian Army to commemorate the Italian participation on the Eastern Front during World War II. At least 36 units of the Italian Army carry the Tryzub in their Coat of Arms, as they were awarded a Medal for Military Valor during their service on the territory of Ukraine.

Three-finger salute[edit]

A three-fingered hand salute is sometimes used to mimic the Tryzub;[3][4] as for example in pro-independence demonstrations in the late 1980s and in the logo of the (Ukrainian) Svoboda party.[4]

Historical coats of arms[edit]

Lands of Kievan Rus[edit]

Insignia of the Kievan Rus
Alex K Halych-Volhynia.svg Alex K Kyiv Michael 2.svg Alex Chernigiv.svg Alex K Podolia.svg Alex Volhynia.svg Coat of Arms of Belz Principality.svg Alex K Halych.svg Alex Peremyshel.svg
Coat of arms of the Duchy of Galicia–Volhynia Coat of arms of the Duchy of Kiev Coat of arms of the Duchy of Chernihiv Coat of arms of the Duchy of Podillia Coat of arms of the Duchy of Volhynia Coat of arms of the Duchy of Belz Coat of arms of the Duchy of Halych Coat of arms of the Duchy of Peremyshl

Former lands of Kievan Rus (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth)[edit]

Insignia of the lands of Kievan Rus
1597 Bielski Rus Voivodship.svg 1597 Bielski Kyiv Voivodship.svg POL województwo czernihowskie COA IRP.svg POL województwo podolskie IRP COA.svg 1597 Bielski Volyn Voivodship.svg POL województwo bełskie IRP COA.svg
Coat of arms of the Voivodeship of Russia Coat of arms of the Voivodeship of Kiev Coat of arms of the Voivodeship of Chernihiv Coat of arms of the Voivodeship of Podillia Coat of arms of the Voivodeship of Volhynia Coat of arms of the Voivodeship of Belz

Former lands (Russian and Austrian empires)[edit]

Insignia of Russian and Austrian empires
Wappen Königreich Galizien & Lodomerien.png Coat of Arms of Kiev Governorate.png Coat of Arms of Chernigov Governorate.png Coat of Arms of Podolia Governorate.png COA of Volin gubernia.png
Coat of arms of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria Coat of arms of the Government of Kiev Coat of arms of the Government of Chernihiv Coat of arms of the Government of Podillia Coat of arms of the Government of Volhynia

Cossack with musket[edit]

Main article: Cossack with musket

A Cossack with a musket was an emblem of the Zaporizhian Host and later the state emblem of the Hetmanate and the Ukrainian State. The origin of the emblem is uncertain, while its first records date back to 1592. On the initiative of Pyotr Rumyantsev the emblem was phased out and replaced by the Russian double-headed eagle in 1767.

A Cossack with a rifle was restored by the Hetman of Ukraine Pavlo Skoropadsky in 1918. However, later the emblem disappeared again until in 2005 it reappeared on the proposed Great Seal of Ukraine.

Carpathian Ruthenia[edit]

The coat of arms was created after the end of the First World War, when Carpathian Ruthenia (then called Subcarpathian Rus') was transferred from Hungary to the newly created state of Czechoslovakia. It was designed in 1920 by Czech historian Gustav Friedrich. The Ruthenians had been promised autonomy within the new country, and therefore a coat of arms was created for their land.[citation needed]

Emblem of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialistic Republic
Karptska Ukraina COA.svg Karptska Ukraina-2 COA.svg
Coat of arms of Carpathian Ruthenia Coat of arms of the current Zakarpattia Oblast

The coat of arms shows the Ukrainian tinctures (heraldic colours) of blue and gold in its first (dexter) field and a red bear on silver in its second field. The bear is perhaps a symbol of Carpathian wildlife. The horizontal lines (in heraldry called bars) could perhaps have been inspired by the partitions per fess in the coat of arms of Hungary, to which the territory had belonged.

The arms were also used by the short-lived state of Carpatho-Ukraine in 1939, but with the addition of the Ukrainian trident in the uppermost blue field, used previously by the Ukrainian People's Republic. Since the territory is the same for the current Zakarpattia Oblast, the oblast uses the arms as its own.

Ukrainian Soviet Socialistic Republic[edit]

The coat of arms of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic was adopted on March 14, 1919 by the government of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic and subsequently modified on November 7, 1928, January 30, 1937 and November 21, 1949. The coat of arms of 1949 is based on the coat of arms of the Soviet Union and features the hammer and sickle, the red star, a sunrise and ears of wheat on its outer rims. The rising sun stands for the future of the Soviet Ukrainian nation, the star as well as the hammer and sickle for the victory of communism and the "world-wide socialist community of states". The banner bears the Soviet Union state motto ("Workers of the world, unite!") in both the Ukrainian and Russian languages. The name of the Ukrainian SSR is shown only in Ukrainian. In 1992, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the independence of Ukraine, the emblem was changed to the present coat of arms of Ukraine, the tryzub (trident) coat of arms.

Emblem of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialistic Republic
Emblem of the Ukrainian SSR (1929-1937).png Emblem of the Ukrainian SSR (1929-1937) (black version).jpg Emblem of the Ukrainian SSR (1937-1949).png Emblem of the Ukrainian SSR.svg
1919-29 1929-37 1937-49 1949-92

Nationalist movement[edit]

Great coat of arms[edit]

Constitutional provisions exist for the establishment of a Great Coat of Arms of Ukraine,[5] although it was never officially adopted and was published in various heraldic sources. In this variant, the shield is supported by a lion from the Galician Coat of Arms on the left and a Cossack in traditional dress, wielding a musket, the symbol of the Cossack Hetmanate on the right. The Coat of Arms is crowned with the crown of Vladimir the Great, symbolizing Ukrainian sovereignty and decorated with viburnum and wheat at the bottom.

The official adoption of the Great Coat of Arms has to be endorsed by a majority of a two-thirds vote in the Verkhovna Rada, the Ukrainian parliament.

In 1917 Mykhailo Hrushevsky proposed the Great Coat of Arms in the form of a single shield topped by a dove with olive branch. The shield was split five ways. At its center there was a smaller shield depicting a plough as a symbol of productive peaceful work surrounded by state symbols of the old Ukraine: the princely arms of Vladimir the Great (tryzub), Litvin Pogon with a golden lion, cossack with musket, the crossbow of Kiev and the lion of Lviv.

See also[edit]

References[edit]