State Emblem of the Soviet Union
|State Emblem of the Soviet Union|
|Adopted||6 July 1923|
|Crest||Red five-pointed star with golden border|
|Escutcheon||Hammer and sickle, Globe and the Rising sun. An emblem is surrounded by an Ears of wheat wrapped around a red ribbon with the National Motto in all 15 Languages of the Soviet Union.|
|Motto||Workers of the world, unite!|
The State Emblem of the Soviet Union (Russian: Государственный герб Советского Союза, Gosudarstvenny gerb Sovetskogo Soyuza) was adopted in 1923 and was used until the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. Though it mainly featured traditional Communist symbolism, heraldic and Hermetic signs may also be noted.
First version (1923–1936)
The project of the first version of the state emblem was accepted on 6th July, 1923 by the 2nd session of the Central Executive Committee (CIK) and the version was completed on September 22 of that year. This design was fixed in the 1924 Soviet Constitution: "The State Emblem of the USSR is composed of a sickle and a hammer on a globe depicted in the rays of the sun and framed by ears of wheat, with the inscription "proletariats of the world, unite!" in six languages - Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian, Georgian, Armenian, Azerbaijani. At the top of the Emblem is a five-pointed star."
Ivan Dubasov was an important contributor when creating the emblem.
Second version (1936–1946)
According to the 1936 Soviet Constitution, the USSR consisted of eleven republics. Hence the major new version's difference from the previous one was eleven ribbons bearing USSR State Motto inscriptions in eleven languages.
Third version (1946–1956)
The number of republics in the USSR became 16 after September 1939, before the Great Patriotic War began in June 1941, but the state emblem was changed to reflect this only after the war. By a Decision of Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on June 26, 1946, all 16 constituent republics were represented on the emblem. The USSR State Motto was inscribed on 16 ribbons in 16 languages. The (Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Moldavian, and Finnish were added to the previous version). Inscriptions in Azerbaijani, Turkmen, Uzbek, Tajik, Kazakh, Kyrgyz languages were updated due to the transfer from Latin to Cyrillic script of the respective languages within the USSR.
Fourth version (1956–1991)
In 1956, the Karelo-Finnish SSR was transformed into the Karelo-Finnish ASSR, and soon this was reflected on the USSR state emblem. By a decision of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on September 12, 1956, the ribbon bearing the USSR State Motto in Finnish was removed.
A minor change in the Belarusian inscription was a decision of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on April 1, 1958.
Inscriptions on the ribbons (which are translated into English as "Proletarians of the world, unite!") are as follows:
|Turkmen: Әхли юртларың пролетарлары, бирлешиң (Ähli ýurtlaryň proletarlary, birleşiň)!||Estonian: Kõigi maade proletaarlased, ühinege!|
|Tajik: Пролетарҳои ҳамаи мамлакатҳо, як шавед (Proletarhoi hamai mamlakatho, yak shaved)!||Armenian: Պրոլետարներ բոլոր երկրների, միացե'ք (Proletarner bolor erkrneri, miac’e'k’)|
|Latvian: Visu zemju proletārieši, savienojieties!||Kyrgyz: Бардык өлкөлөрдүн пролетарлары, бириккиле (Bardyk ölkölördün proletarlary, birikkile)!|
|Lithuanian: Visų šalių proletarai, vienykitės!||Moldovan: Пролетарь дин тоатe цэриле, уници-вэ (Proletari din toate țările, uniți-vă)!|
|Georgian: პროლეტარებო ყველა ქვეყნისა, შეერთდით (P’rolet’arebo q’vela kveq’nisa, sheertdit)!||Azerbaijani: Бүтүн өлкәләрин пролетарлары, бирләшин (Bütün ölkələrin proletarları, birləşin)!|
|Uzbek: Бутун дунё пролетарлари, бирлашингиз (Butun dunyo proletarlari, birlashingiz)!||Kazakh: Барлық елдердің пролетарлары, бірігіңдер (Barlıq elderding proletarları, birigingder)!|
|Ukrainian: Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся (Proletari vsikh krayin, yednaytesya)!||Belarusian: Пралетарыі ўсіх краін, яднайцеся (Pralyetaryi wsikh krain, yadnaytsyesya)!|
|Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь (Proletarii vsekh stran, soyedinyaytes)!|
The state emblem showed a yellow hammer and sickle covering a globe with a red star above. A bundle of wheat on both sides of the globe were wrapped in a red ribbon on which the Soviet Union National Motto, "Workers of the world, unite!" was inscribed in yellow in all 15 official languages of the Soviet Republics, in the reverse order they were mentioned in the Soviet Constitution. The bases of the bundles formed a saltire below the globe where a golden Sun rose between them, indicating the dawn of a new day for mankind.
It was technically an emblem rather than a coat of arms, since it did not follow heraldic rules, but in Russian it was called герб (gerb), the word used for a traditional coat of arms.
- Ukrainian: Державний герб СРСР; Belarusian: Дзяржаўны герб СССР; Kazakh: ССРО мемлекеттік елтаңбасы; Lithuanian: TSRS Valstybinis herbas; Latvian: PSRS valsts ģerbonis; Estonian: NSVL riigivapp
- Bolotina, S. (November 1983). "How Our State Emblem Was Created". Nauka i Zhizn (in Russian): pp. 20–24. ISSN 0028-1263.
- (Russian) Герб СССР