Cochrane Collaboration

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The Cochrane Collaboration
Cclogo.svg
Motto Working together to provide the best evidence for health care
Formation 1993 (1993)
Type International NPO
Purpose Independent research into data about health care
Headquarters Oxford, England
Region served
Worldwide
Official language
English
Steering Group Co-Chairs
Jeremy Grimshaw,
Lisa Bero[1]
Volunteers Over 31,000 (2013)[2]
Website www.cochrane.org

The Cochrane Collaboration is an independent, non-profit, non-governmental organization consisting of a group of more than 31,000 volunteers in more than 120 countries.[3] The collaboration was formed to organize medical research information in a systematic way to facilitate the choices that health professionals, patients, policy makers and others face in health interventions according to the principles of evidence-based medicine.[4][5]

The group conducts systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials of health-care interventions, which it publishes in The Cochrane Library.[6][7] A few reviews (in fields such as occupational health) have also studied the results of non-randomized, observational studies.

The collaboration formed an official relationship in January 2011 with the World Health Organization as a partner non-governmental organization with a seat on the World Health Assembly to provide input into WHO resolutions.[8][9]

History[edit]

The Cochrane Collaboration was founded in 1993 under the leadership of Iain Chalmers. It was developed in response to Archie Cochrane's call for up-to-date, systematic reviews of all relevant randomized controlled trials of health care.[10][11]

Cochrane's suggestion that the methods used to prepare and maintain reviews of controlled trials in pregnancy and childbirth should be applied more widely was taken up by the Research and Development Programme, initiated to support the United Kingdom's National Health Service. Through the NHS R&D programme, led by the first Director of Research and Development Professor Michael Peckham,[12] funds were provided to establish a 'Cochrane Centre', to collaborate with others, in the UK and elsewhere, to facilitate systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials across all areas of health care.[13][14]

In October 1995 the Collaboration formed the Cochrane Consumer Network[15] to incorporate patient perspectives into the review process. Shortly thereafter, new 'plain language summaries' provided users with a jargon-free synopsis of each systematic review.[16]

The Cochrane Collaboration is currently concentrating on capacity building in health research is individuals, groups, and institutions in LMICs [17]

[edit]

The logo of the Cochrane Collaboration illustrates a meta analysis of data from seven randomized controlled trials (RCTs), comparing one health care treatment with a placebo in a forest plot. The diagram shows the results of a systematic review and meta analysis on inexpensive course of corticosteroid given to women about to give birth too early – the evidence on effectiveness that would have been revealed had the available RCTs been reviewed systematically a decade earlier. This treatment reduces the odds of the babies of such women dying from the complications of immaturity by 30–50%. Because no systematic review of these trials had been published until 1989, most obstetricians had not realized that the treatment was so effective and therefore many premature babies have probably suffered or died unnecessarily.[18]

Reception[edit]

An editorial in the Canadian Medical Association Journal in 2004 noted that Cochrane reviews appear to be more updated and of better quality than other reviews and due to their standardized methodologies, was "the best single resource for methodologic research and for developing the science of meta-epidemiology." Their work has also led to methodological improvements in the medical literature. However, the editorial also noted areas for improvement remained, including adequately assessing potential harms from medical interventions and providing a more user friendly format as well as promoting international collaboration.[19]

South Asian Cochrane Network and Centre[edit]

The South Asian Cochrane Network & Centre (SASIANCC)[20] is a part of the global network of Cochrane Collaboration, and is located at the Christian Medical College, Vellore, India. The centre, originally the South Asian Cochrane Centre, was established in January 2004, as a branch of the Australasian Cochrane Centre, with geographical responsibility for South Asia (Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, the Maldives and Nepal). SASIANCC is hosted by the Prof Bhooshanam V Moses Centre for Evidence-Informed Healthcare at the Carman Block at the Christian Medical College (CMC) Campus, Bagayam, Vellore since December 2004 in memory of the late Prof Bhooshanam Vasanthakumar Moses at the suggestion of his MBBS colleagues, who also donated funds towards establishing the Centre with the aim of increasing the uptake of reliable and locally relevant evidence to inform health decisions, and to co-ordinate the activities of the South Asian Cochrane Network. In July 2008 it was re-designated as an independent centre of The Cochrane Collaboration, with a co-ordinating centre at the Christian Medical College, Vellore, in India, and five network sites in India, two in Pakistan, one in Sri Lanka, and one in Bangladesh.

Its projects have included the National Snakebite Survey in India,[21] the South Asian Toxicology Network, the Cochrane Student Journal Club [22] and the South Asian Database of Controlled Clinical Trials.

United States Cochrane Center[edit]

The United States Cochrane Center (USCC) was established in December 2002 and operates out of three offices.[23] The main office is headquartered at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in Baltimore, Maryland. The USCC is dedicated to promoting awareness of the Cochrane Collaboration and its objectives and access to The Cochrane Library in the United States. The USCC main office in Baltimore is responsible for, among other things, providing training and support for review authors, Trials Search Coordinators, Review Group Coordinators, editors, handsearchers, consumers and others.[24]

A special function of the USCC is to support Consumers United for Evidence-based Healthcare (CUE), a partnership with health and consumer advocacy organizations interested in integrating understanding and interpretation of evidence-based healthcare into their advocacy activities, strengthening the voice of consumers in healthcare research, and providing leadership in these areas. From 1994 to 2005, the USCC coordinated development of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), a source of reports of controlled clinical trials worldwide, a master list of journals being searched, and handsearcher training.

The San Francisco Branch of the US Cochrane Center operates out of the University of California, San Francisco and develops and evaluates systems for assessing and sustaining the quality of Cochrane reviews.

The Caribbean Branch of the USCC was launched in June 2013 and is the reference center for English-speaking Caribbean territories. The branch is housed at the University of the West Indies in Mona, Jamaica.

Campbell & Cochrane Equity Methods Group[edit]

The Campbell and Cochrane Equity Methods is co-registered with the Cochrane Collaboration and the Campbell Collaboration. It is based at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and the University of Ottawa. The group encourages authors of Campbell and Cochrane systematic reviews to consider the effect of the interventions on the disadvantaged or their ability to reduce inequities in health.[25] The group provides guidance to authors who want to incorporate equity into their reviews and has developed tools for planning, conducting, and reporting these systematic reviews.[25]

Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group[edit]

The Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections group is registered since 1994. Its editorial base is currently located in the Bond University in Australia.The group deals with healthcare interventions aimed at prevention, treatment and rehabilitation aspects of acute respiratory infections including diphtheria,meningitis,measles and chickenpox. About 175 systematic reviews have been conducted under its purview.

Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group[edit]

The Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group has been registered with the Cochrane Collaboration since 1997. Its editorial base is currently located at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine in London, England, with a satellite group at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in Baltimore, Maryland.[26] The group prepares systematic reviews of all the interventions used to prevent or treat eye diseases and/or visual impairment.[27][28] Additionally, the group considers the evidence for interventions that aim to help people adjust to visual impairment or blindness.

Cochrane Musculoskeletal Group[edit]

The Cochrane Musculoskeletal Group has been registered with the Cochrane Collaboration since 1993. Its editorial base is currently located at the University of Ottawa in Canada, with satellite groups at Cabrini Institute, Melbourne, Australia, at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, United States, and at the Hôpital Hôtel-Dieu de Paris, Université Paris Descartes, France.[29] The group prepares up-to-date reviews for the treatment, prevention or rehabilitation of musculoskeletal disorders.[30][31] Additionally, also provides secondary products to make the evidence more friendly for those involved in treatments for musculoskeletal diseases.[32]

Cochrane Occupational Health and Safety Review Group[edit]

The Occupational Health and Safety (OSH) Review Group [33] is one of the 53 review groups in the Cochrane Collaboration. The OSH group publishes reviews of the effectiveness of interventions to reduce occupational diseases, injuries and disability. Currently there are 126 review OSH-related topics in the Cochrane Library. The editorial base is located in Kuopio, Finland and funded by the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Cochrane Collaboration Steering Group & Subgroups. Retrieved 2014-02-14.
  2. ^ [1]. Retrieved 2013-09-30.
  3. ^ Allen, C.; Richmond, K. (2011-01-27). "The Cochrane Collaboration: International activity within Cochrane Review Groups in the first decade of the twenty-first century.". J Evid Based Med. doi:10.1111/j.1756-5391.2011.01109.x. PMID 21342476. 
  4. ^ "Cochrane Principles". Retrieved 1 February 2012. 
  5. ^ Hill GB (December 2000). "Archie Cochrane and his legacy. An internal challenge to physicians' autonomy?". J Clin Epidemiol 53 (12): 1189–92. doi:10.1016/S0895-4356(00)00253-5. PMID 11146263. 
  6. ^ Scholten RJ, Clarke M, Hetherington J (August 2005). "The Cochrane Collaboration". Eur J Clin Nutr 59 (Suppl 1): S147–9; discussion S195–6. doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602188. PMID 16052183. 
  7. ^ Ben Goldacre (2012), Bad Pharma, Fourth Estate, p. 14ff.
  8. ^ "NGOs-in-Official-Relations-with-WHO-2011_16-Mar-2011". World Health Organization. March 16, 2011. 
  9. ^ "64th World Health Assembly: List of Participants". World Health Organization. 
  10. ^ Chalmers I, Dickersin K, Chalmers TC (1992). "Getting to grips with Archie Cochrane’s agenda". BMJ 305 (6857): 786–788. doi:10.1136/bmj.305.6857.786. PMC 1883470. 
  11. ^ Cochrane AL (1972). Effectiveness and Efficiency. Random Reflections on Health Services. London: Nuffield Provincial Hospitals Trust. ISBN 0-900574-17-8. 
  12. ^ Peckham M (August 1991). "Research and development for the National Health Service". Lancet 338 (8763): 367–71. doi:10.1016/0140-6736(91)90494-A. PMID 1677710. 
  13. ^ "Chronology of the Cochrane Collaboration". Cochrane.org. Retrieved 2012-08-15. 
  14. ^ Dickersin K, Manheimer E (1998). "The Cochrane Collaboration: evaluation of health care and services using systematic reviews of the results of randomized controlled trials". Clinical Obstetrics & Gynecology 41 (2): 315–331. PMID 9646964. 
  15. ^ "About the Cochrane Consumer Network". cochrane.org. Retrieved 2012-08-15. 
  16. ^ "Plain language summary". Cochrane.org. 2010-04-06. Retrieved 2012-08-15. 
  17. ^ Young T, Garner P, Kredo T, Mbuagbaw L, Tharyan P, Volmink J. Cochrane and capacity building in low- and middle-income countries: where are we at? [editorial]. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013;11:ED000072. http://www.thecochranelibrary.com/details/editorial/5428691/Cochrane-and-capacity-building-in-low--and-middle-income-countries-where-are-we-.html
  18. ^ "Cochrane Collaboration Logo". Cochrane.org. Retrieved 2012-08-15. 
  19. ^ Grimshaw J (September 2004). "So what has the Cochrane Collaboration ever done for us? A report card on the first 10 years". CMAJ 171 (7): 747–9. doi:10.1503/cmaj.1041255. PMC 517860. PMID 15451837. 
  20. ^ South Asian Cochrane Network & Centre Website http://www.cochrane-sacn.org/
  21. ^ Bhaumik S. On a national snake bite survey in India. BMJ Blogs 2013. http://blogs.bmj.com/bmj/2013/03/19/soumyadeep-bhaumik-on-a-national-snake-bite-survey-in-india/
  22. ^ Cochrane Student Journal Club. http://csjc.informer.org.in/
  23. ^ "More about us". US Cochrane Center. Retrieved 2014-05-31. 
  24. ^ "Scope of our eork". US Cochrane Center. Retrieved 2014-05-31. 
  25. ^ a b "Welcome". Equity Methods Group. Retrieved 2014-06-18. 
  26. ^ "Who we are". Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group. 2014-05-09. Retrieved 2014-05-31. 
  27. ^ "Scope of our work". Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group. 2014-04-03. Retrieved 2014-05-31. 
  28. ^ Wormald R, Dickersin K, for the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group (2013). "Evidence-based ophthalmology". Ophthalmology 120: 2361–2363. PMID 24246821. 
  29. ^ "More about us". Cochrane Musculoskeletal Group. 2014-06-16. Retrieved 2014-06-16. 
  30. ^ "Welcome". Cochrane Musculoskeletal Group. 2014-06-17. Retrieved 2014-06-17. 
  31. ^ Ghogomu, EA; Maxwell, LJ; Buchbinder, R; Rader, T; Pardo Pardo, J; Johnston, RV; Christensen, RD; Rutjes, AW; Winzenberg, TM; Singh, JA; Zanoli, G; Wells, GA; Tugwell, P; Editorial Board of the Cochrane Musculoskeletal, Group (Feb 2014). "Updated method guidelines for cochrane musculoskeletal group systematic reviews and metaanalyses.". The Journal of rheumatology 41 (2): 194–205. PMID 24293581. 
  32. ^ Rader, T; Pardo Pardo, J; Stacey, D; Ghogomu, E; Maxwell, LJ; Welch, VA; Singh, JA; Buchbinder, R; Légaré, F; Santesso, N; Toupin April, K; O'Connor, AM; Wells, GA; Winzenberg, TM; Johnston, R; Tugwell, P; Cochrane Musculoskeletal Group, Editors (Feb 2014). "Update of strategies to translate evidence from cochrane musculoskeletal group systematic reviews for use by various audiences.". The Journal of rheumatology 41 (2): 206–15. PMID 24293571. 
  33. ^ Occupational Safety and Health Review Group Website http://osh.cochrane.org/

External links[edit]