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He was born in Merced, California, the son of Herman Arceneaux from Ascension Parish in Louisiana and Virginia Grant of Waushara County, Wisconsin. His father was of Acadian (Cajun) descent, while on his mother's side his ancestry included English, Norwegian, Scottish, German, Dutch, Welsh, and Native American (Mohawk). Also on his mother's side he was a direct descendent of accused Salem witch Sarah Cloyce. He spent some of his preteen/early teens in France where his Air Force father was stationed for 3 years. The accent and other Cajun flails were manufactured. Curtis was a genius with an extremely high IQ. He could master and did master every musical instrument he tried. He was also an accomplished artist. He was a master story teller who could and did embellish every story he told.  He spent some of his childhood in the French countryside. Arceneaux took his stage name from a Louisiana legend, in which a naughty child called Coco Robicheaux, is abducted by a werewolf (Loup Garou or Rougarou). Also, the name 'Coco Robicheaux' is repeated in the song "I Walk on Gilded Splinters" from Dr. John the Night Tripper's 1968 album, Gris-Gris.
Robicheaux appeared in the episode "Hotshots", of the USA Network series Big Easy, playing a New Orleans musician named "Coco", who had sold his soul to the devil. Two of Robicheaux's songs were also featured in the episode, "Broken String" and "Spiritland". Coco Robicheaux appeared as himself in the second episode of HBO's Treme, first broadcast in the US on April 18, 2010.
One of his last recordings were for the Danish singer Naja Rosa Koppel´s album "The Place I Call Home" (2012)
His very last recording took place on his 64th birthday, one month before his death, with singer Frenchie Moe. Mike Hood, Leon "Kid Chocolate" Brown, Jimmy Carpenter and Jack Cruz also contributed to the song.
- Spiritland (Orleans 1994)
- Louisiana Medicine Man (Orleans 1998)
- Hoodoo Party (Orleans 2000)
- Yeah, U Rite! (Spiritland 2005)
- Like I Said, Yeah, U Rite! (Spiritland 2008)
- Revelator (Spiritland 2010)
- Coco Robicheaux's home page at the Wayback Machine (archived October 21, 2005)
- Biography of Robicheaux in allmusic.com
- Coco Robicheaux's Myspace page
- Orbiting Coco Robicheaux, by Sam Jasper
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