Coconut oil

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Solidified "coconut butter" sold by a Norwegian company

Coconut oil is an edible oil extracted from the kernel or meat of matured coconuts harvested from the coconut palm (Cocos nucifera). It has various applications in food, medicine, and industry. Because of its high saturated fat content it is slow to oxidize and, thus, resistant to rancidification, lasting up to two years without spoiling.[1]

Many health organizations advise against the consumption of high amounts of coconut oil due to its high levels of saturated fat.[2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9]

Production[edit]

Dry process[edit]

Traditional way of making coconut oil using an ox-powered mill in Seychelles

Coconut oil can be extracted through "dry" or "wet" processing. Dry processing requires the meat to be extracted from the shell and dried using fire, sunlight, or kilns to create copra.[10] The copra is pressed or dissolved with solvents, producing the coconut oil and a high-protein, high-fiber mash. The mash is of poor quality for human consumption and is instead fed to ruminants; there is no process to extract protein from the mash. A portion of the oil extracted from copra is lost to the process of extraction.

Wet process[edit]

The all-wet process uses raw coconut rather than dried copra, and the protein in the coconut creates an emulsion of oil and water.[11] The more problematic step is breaking up the emulsion to recover the oil. This used to be done by prolonged boiling, but this produces a discolored oil and is not economical; modern techniques use centrifuges and pre-treatments including cold, heat, acids, salts, enzymes, electrolysis, shock waves, or some combination of them. Despite numerous variations and technologies, wet processing is less viable than dry processing due to a 10–15% lower yield, even compared to the losses due to spoilage and pests with dry processing. Wet processes also require investment of equipment and energy, incurring high capital and operating costs.[12]

Proper harvesting of the coconut (the age of a coconut can be 2 to 20 months when picked) makes a significant difference in the efficacy of the oil-making process. Copra made from immature nuts is more difficult to work with and produces an inferior product with lower yields.[13]

Conventional coconut oil uses hexane as a solvent to extract up to 10% more oil than just using rotary mills and expellers. The oil is then refined to remove certain free fatty acids, in order to reduce susceptibility to rancidification. Other processes to increase shelf life include using copra with a moisture content below 6%, keeping the moisture content of the oil below 0.2%, heating the oil to 130–150 °C (266–302 °F) and adding salt or citric acid.[14]

Virgin coconut oil (VCO) can be produced from fresh coconut meat, milk, or residue. Producing it from the fresh meat involves removing the shell and washing, then either wet-milling or drying the residue, and using a screw press to extract the oil. VCO can also be extracted from fresh meat by grating and drying it to a moisture content of 10–12%, then using a manual press to extract the oil. Producing it from coconut milk involves grating the coconut and mixing it with water, then squeezing out the oil. The milk can also be fermented for 36–48 hours, the oil removed, and the cream heated to remove any remaining oil. A third option involves using a centrifuge to separate the oil from the other liquids. Coconut oil can also be extracted from the dry residue left over from the production of coconut milk.[14]

A thousand of mature coconuts weighing approximately 1,440 kilograms (3,170 lb) yield around 170 kilograms (370 lb) of copra from which around 70 litres (15 imp gal) of coconut oil can be extracted.[15]

RBD[edit]

Coconuts sundried in Kozhikode, Kerala for making copra, which is used for making coconut oil

RBD stands for "refined, bleached, and deodorized." RBD oil is usually made from copra (dried coconut kernel).

The dried copra is placed in a hydraulic press with added heat and the oil is extracted. This yields up practically all the oil present, amounting to more than 60% of the dry weight of the coconut.[16]

This "crude" coconut oil is not suitable for consumption because it contains contaminants and must be refined with further heating and filtering.

Another method for extraction of a "high-quality" coconut oil involves the enzymatic action of alpha-amylase, polygalacturonases, and proteases on diluted coconut paste.[17]

Unlike virgin coconut oil, refined coconut oil has no coconut taste or aroma. RBD oil is used for home cooking, commercial food processing, and cosmetic, industrial, and pharmaceutical purposes.

Hydrogenation[edit]

RBD coconut oil can be processed further into partially or fully hydrogenated oil to increase its melting point. Since virgin and RBD coconut oils melt at 24 °C (76 °F), foods containing coconut oil tend to melt in warm climates. A higher melting point is desirable in these warm climates, so the oil is hydrogenated. The melting point of hydrogenated coconut oil is 36–40 °C (97–104 °F).

In the process of hydrogenation, unsaturated fats (monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids) are combined with hydrogen in a catalytic process to make them more saturated. Coconut oil contains only 6% monounsaturated and 2% polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the partial hydrogenation process, some of these are transformed into trans fatty acids.[18]

Fractionation[edit]

Fractionated coconut oil is a fraction of the whole oil, in which the different medium-chain fatty acids are separated for specific uses. Lauric acid, a 12-carbon chain fatty acid, is often removed because of its high value for industrial and medical purposes.[19] The fractionation of coconut oil may be used to make caprylic/capric triglyceride oil.[20] Medium-chain triglycerides such as caprylic/capric triglyceride oil are most frequently used for medical applications, special diets, and cosmetics, sometimes also being used as a carrier oil for fragrances.

Figures[edit]

The United States Department of Agriculture has published estimated production figures for coconut oil as follows; tabulated years are from October 1 through September 30:[21]

World coconut oil production (million tonnes)
Year 2005–06 2006–07 2007–08 2008–09 2009–10 2010–11
Production 5.91 5.42 5.79 5.62 6.60 6.24

Coconut oil makes up around 2.5% of world vegetable oil production.

Standards[edit]

The World Health Organization's Codex Alimentarius guidelines on food, food production, and food safety, published by the Food and Agriculture Organization, includes standards for commercial partners who produce coconut oil for human consumption.[22]

The Asian and Pacific Coconut Community (APCC), whose 18 members produce about 90 per cent of the coconut sold commercially,[23] has published its standards for virgin coconut oil (VCO), defining virgin coconut oil as obtained from fresh, mature coconut kernels through means which do not "lead to alteration of the oil".[24]

Composition and comparison[edit]

The following table provides information about the composition of coconut oil and how it compares with other vegetable oils.

Vegetable oils
Type Saturated
fatty acids[25]
Mono-
unsaturated
fatty acids[25]
Polyunsaturated fatty acids Oleic acid
(ω-9)
Smoke point
Total poly[25] linolenic acid
(ω-3)
Linoleic acid
(ω-6)
Not hydrogenated
Canola (rapeseed) 7.365 63.276 28.142 9-11 19-21 400 °F (204 °C)[26]
Coconut 91.00 6.000 3.000 2 6 350 °F (177 °C)[26]
Corn 12.948 27.576 54.677 1 58 28 450 °F (232 °C)[27]
Cottonseed 25.900 17.800 51.900 1 54 19 420 °F (216 °C)[27]
Flaxseed/Linseed (European)[28] 6–9 10–22 68–89 56–71 12–18 10–22 225 °F (107 °C)
Olive 14.00 72.00 14.00 <1.5 9–20 380 °F (193 °C)[26]
Palm 49.300 37.000 9.300 10 40 455 °F (235 °C)[29]
Peanut 16.900 46.200 32.000 32 48 437 °F (225 °C)[27]
Safflower
(>70% linoleic)
8.00 15.00 75.00 410 °F (210 °C)[26]
Safflower
(high oleic)
7.541 75.221 12.820 410 °F (210 °C)[26]
Soybean 15.650 22.783 57.740 7 50 24 460 °F (238 °C)[27]
Sunflower
(<60% linoleic)
10.100 45.400 40.100 0.200 39.800 45.300 440 °F (227 °C)[27]
Sunflower
(>70% oleic)
9.859 83.689 3.798 440 °F (227 °C)[27]
Fully hydrogenated
Cottonseed (hydrog.) 93.600 1.529 .587 .287[25]
Palm (hydrogenated) 47.500 40.600 7.500
Soybean (hydrogen.) 21.100 73.700 .400 .096[25]
Values as percent (%) by weight of total fat.

Health[edit]

Coconut tree

Many health organizations advise against the consumption of high amounts of coconut oil due to its high levels of saturated fat, including the United States Food and Drug Administration,[2] World Health Organization,[3] International College of Nutrition,[4] the United States Department of Health and Human Services,[5] American Dietetic Association,[6] American Heart Association,[7] British National Health Service,[8] and Dietitians of Canada.[9]

Coconut oil contains a large proportion of lauric acid—a saturated fat that raises blood cholesterol levels by increasing the amount of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. This may create a more favourable blood cholesterol profile, although it is unclear whether coconut oil may promote atherosclerosis through other pathways.[30] Because much of the saturated fat of coconut oil is in the form of lauric acid, coconut oil may be a better alternative to partially hydrogenated vegetable oil when solid fats are required.[31] In addition, virgin coconut oil (VCO) is composed mainly of medium-chain triglycerides,[32] which may not carry the same risks as other saturated fats.[31][33]

Advocacy against coconut and palm oils in the 1970s and 1980s due to their perceived danger as a saturated fat caused companies to substitute trans fats instead of them, unaware of their health-damaging effects.[34]

A repellent made from coconut oil can be used to prevent tungiasis-causing sand fleas from invading the body.[35]

Uses[edit]

Coconut oil
Nutritional value per serving
Serving size 100g
Energy 3,607 kJ (862 kcal)
Fat 100
- saturated 86.5
- monounsaturated 5.8
- polyunsaturated 1.8
Vitamin E 0.09 mg (1%)
Vitamin K 0.5 μg (0%)
Iron 0.04 mg (0%)
Percentages are roughly approximated
using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

In food[edit]

Coconut oil is commonly used in cooking, especially for frying and is a common flavor in many South Asian curries. It has been used for cooking (in tropical parts of the world) for thousands of years.[citation needed] In recent years, virgin coconut oil (VCO) has become increasingly popular in health and natural food circles and with vegans. It was described in a New York Times article as having a "haunting, nutty," flavor that also has a touch of sweetness, which works well in baked goods, pastries, and sautés.[36] Coconut oil is used by movie theatre chains to pop popcorn, adding a large amount of saturated fat in the process.[37] Coconut oil (along with Laurel leaf oil and palm kernel oil) contains a large proportion of lauric acid, which is converted to monolaurin in the body, a fat otherwise found only in breast milk.[38] Lauric acid is destroyed by some oil processing methods.

Other culinary uses include replacing solid fats produced through hydrogenation in baked and confectionery goods.[31] Hydrogenated or partially hydrogenated coconut oil is often used in non-dairy creamers, and snack foods including popcorn. Hydrogenated coconut oil is also sold in Australia under the brand-name Copha and is the main ingredient in Australian snacks such as, Chocolate crackles and White Christmas.

The smoke point of coconut oil is 177 °C (351 °F).[26]

Industry[edit]

Coconut oil has been tested for use as a feedstock for biodiesel to be used as a diesel engine fuel. In this manner, it can be applied to power generators and transport using diesel engines. Since straight coconut oil has a high gelling temperature (22–25 °C), a high viscosity, and a minimum combustion chamber temperature of 500 °C (932 °F) (to avoid polymerization of the fuel), coconut oil typically is transesterified to make biodiesel. Use of B100 (100% biodiesel) is possible only in temperate climates, as the gel point is approximately 10 °C (50 °F). The oil must meet the Weihenstephan standard[39][better source needed] for pure vegetable oil used as a fuel, otherwise moderate to severe damage from carbonisation and clogging will occur in an unmodified engine.

The Philippines, Vanuatu, Samoa, and several other tropical island countries are using coconut oil as an alternative fuel source to run automobiles, trucks, and buses, and to power generators.[40][better source needed] Coconut oil is currently used as a fuel for transport in the Philippines.[41][42] Further research into the potential of coconut oil as a fuel for electricity generation is being carried out in the islands of the Pacific, although to date it appears that it is not useful as a fuel source due to the cost of labour and supply constraints.[43]

Coconut oil has been tested for use as an engine lubricant[44] and as a transformer oil.[45]

Acids derived from coconut oil can be used as herbicides.[46]

Coconut oil (and derivatives, such as coconut fatty acid) are used as raw materials in the manufacture of surfactants such as cocamidopropyl betaine, cocamide MEA, and cocamide DEA.

Personal uses[edit]

Homemade coconut oil extracted from fresh mature grated coconut meat

Coconut oil can be used as a skin moisturizer, helping with dry skin[47] and reduces protein loss when used in hair.[48] Coconut oil can also be used as sexual lubricant, although it can damage latex condoms.[49][verification needed]

Before the advent of electrical lighting, coconut oil was the primary oil used for illumination in India and was exported as cochin oil.[50]

Coconut oil is an important base ingredient for the manufacture of soap. Soap made with coconut oil tends to be hard, although it retains more water than those made with other oils and therefore increases manufacturer yields. It is more soluble in hard water and salt water than other soaps allowing it to lather more easily.[51] A basic coconut oil soap is clear when melted and a bright white when hardened.[52]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ a b "Around the Block Nutrition Facts at a Glance: More on Nutrients to Get Less Of". Food and Drug Administration. 09/05/2012 2012-09-05. Retrieved 2014-01-25. 
  3. ^ a b "Avoiding Heart Attacks and Strokes" (PDF). World Health Organization. Retrieved 2011-04-06. 
  4. ^ a b Singh RB, Mori H, Chen J, Mendis S, Moshiri M, Zhu S, Kim SH, Sy RG, Faruqui AM (December 1996). "Recommendations for the prevention of coronary artery disease in Asians: a scientific statement of the International College of Nutrition". J Cardiovasc Risk 3 (6): 489–494. doi:10.1097/00043798-199612000-00002. PMID 9100083. 
  5. ^ a b "Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010". Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved 17 March 2011. 
  6. ^ a b "American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada Offer Up-to-Date Guidance on Dietary Fat". American Dietetic Association. Retrieved 2011-03-16. 
  7. ^ a b "Tropical Oils". American Heart Association. Retrieved 2011-03-16. 
  8. ^ a b "Lower your cholesterol". National Health Service. Retrieved 2011-03-16. 
  9. ^ a b "Heart Healthy Eating: Cholesterol". Dietitians of Canada. 2010-09-01. Retrieved 2013-07-05. 
  10. ^ Grimwood, BE; Ashman F; Dendy DAV; Jarman CG; Little ECS; Timmins WH (1975). Coconut Palm Products – Their processing in developing countries. Rome: FAO. pp. 49–56. ISBN 978-92-5-100853-9. 
  11. ^ Hamid, M.A.; Sarmidi, M.R.; Mokhtar, T.H.; Sulaiman, W.R.W.; Aziz, R.A. (2011). "Innovative Integrated Wet Process for Virgin Coconut Oil Production". Journal of Applied Sciences 11 (13): 2467. doi:10.3923/jas.2011.2467.2469. 
  12. ^ Grimwood et al., 1975, pp. 193–210.
  13. ^ Grimwood et al., 1975, p. 29.
  14. ^ a b Kurian; Peter KV (2007). Commercial Crops Technology: Vol.08. Horticulture Science Series. New India Publishing. pp. 202–6. ISBN 81-89422-52-9. 
  15. ^ Bourke, RM; Harwood T (2009). Food and Agriculture in Papua New Guinea. Australian National University. p. 327. ISBN 978-1-921536-60-1. 
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  19. ^ Gervajio, G. C. (2005). "Fatty Acids and Derivatives from Coconut Oil". Bailey's Industrial Oil and Fat Products. doi:10.1002/047167849X.bio039. ISBN 047167849X.  edit
  20. ^ Emil Raymond Riegel; James Albert Kent (2003). Riegel's Handbook of Industrial Chemistry. Springer. pp. 1100–1117. ISBN 978-0-306-47411-8. Retrieved 20 October 2012. 
  21. ^ "Table 19: World: Palm Oil, Coconut Oil, and Fish Meal Supply and Distribution" (PDF). United States Department of Agriculture. 2011-04-08. Retrieved 2011-04-14. 
  22. ^ "Codex Standard for Named Vegetable Oils (Codex Stan 210-1999, Revision 3)" (PDF). Codex Alimentarius. Food and Agriculture Organization. 2009. Retrieved 2011-08-09. 
  23. ^ "About us". Asian and Pacific Coconut Community. Retrieved 2011-08-09. 
  24. ^ "APCC Standards for Virgin Coconut Oil" (PDF). Jakarta, Indonesia: Asian and Pacific Coconut Community. 2003. Retrieved 2011-08-09. 
  25. ^ a b c d e "Nutrient database, Release 24". United States Department of Agriculture.  All values in this column are from the USDA Nutrient database unless otherwise cited.
  26. ^ a b c d e f Katragadda, H. R.; Fullana, A. S.; Sidhu, S.; Carbonell-Barrachina, Á. A. (2010). "Emissions of volatile aldehydes from heated cooking oils". Food Chemistry 120: 59. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.09.070.  edit
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  29. ^ Scheda tecnica dell'olio di palma bifrazionato PO 64 (Italian)
  30. ^ Mensink RP, Zock PL, Kester AD, Katan MB (May 2003). "Effects of dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of serum total to HDL cholesterol and on serum lipids and apolipoproteins: a meta-analysis of 60 controlled trials" (PDF). Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 77 (5): 1146–55. PMID 12716665. 
  31. ^ a b c Tarrago-Trani, MT; Phillips, KM; Lemar, LE; Holden, JM (2006). "New and existing oils and fats used in products with reduced trans-fatty acid content" (PDF). Journal of the American Dietetic Association 106 (6): 867–880. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2006.03.010. PMID 16720128. 
  32. ^ Kaunitz, H. (1986). "Medium chain triglycerides (MCT) in aging and arteriosclerosis". Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology : official organ of the International Society for Environmental Toxicology and Cancer 6 (3–4): 115–121. PMID 3519928.  edit
  33. ^ Marina, AM; Che Man YB; Amin I (2009). "Virgin coconut oil: emerging functional food oil". Trends in Food Science & Technology 20 (10): 481–487. doi:10.1016/j.tifs.2009.06.003. 
  34. ^ McNamara, D. J. (2010). "Palm oil and health: A case of manipulated perception and misuse of science". Journal of the American College of Nutrition 29 (3 Suppl): 240S–244S. PMID 20823485.  edit
  35. ^ Feldmeier, H (2009). "Tungiasis and cutaneous larva migrans: unpleasant travel souvenirs". Medizinische Monatsschrift fur Pharmazeuten 32 (12): 440–4. PMID 20088345. 
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  37. ^ "Two Thumbs Down’ for Movie Theater Popcorn". Center for Science in the Public Interest. 2009-11-18. Retrieved 2011-04-24. 
  38. ^ Beare-Rogers, J.; Dieffenbacher, A.; Holm, J.V. (2001). "Lexicon of lipid nutrition (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry 73 (4): 685–744. doi:10.1351/pac200173040685. 
  39. ^ "Weihenstephan vegetable oil fuel standard (German Rapeseed Fuel Standard)". Retrieved 2011-08-09. 
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  46. ^ James, TK; Rahman A (2005). "Efficacy of several organic herbicides and glyphosate formulations under simulated rainfall" (PDF). New Zealand Plant Protection 58: 157–163. 
  47. ^ Agero AL, Verallo-Rowell VM (September 2004). "A randomized double-blind controlled trial comparing extra virgin coconut oil with mineral oil as a moisturizer for mild to moderate xerosis". Dermatitis 15 (3): 109–16. doi:10.2310/6620.2004.04006. PMID 15724344. 
  48. ^ Rele, A.; Mohile, R. (2003). "Effect of mineral oil, sunflower oil, and coconut oil on prevention of hair damage" (pdf). Journal of cosmetic science 54 (2): 175–192. PMID 12715094.  edit
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  52. ^ Browning, M (2003). 300 Handcrafted Soaps – Great Melt & Pour Projects. Sterling Publishing. p. 9. ISBN 978-1-4027-0797-1. 

Further reading[edit]