Codetermination in Germany
Codetermination in Germany is a concept with a solid history that involves the right of workers to participate in management of the companies they work for. Known as Mitbestimmung, the modern law on codetermination is found principally in the Mitbestimmungsgesetz of 1976. The law allows workers to elect representatives (usually trade union representatives) for almost half of the supervisory board of directors. The legislation is separate from the main German company law Act for public companies, the Aktiengesetz. It applies to public and private companies, so long as there are over 2000 employees. For companies with 500-2000 employees, one third of the supervisory board must be elected.
- 1 Goals of codetermination
- 2 Types of codetermination
- 3 Historical development
- 4 Codetermination laws
- 5 European law
- 6 See also
- 7 Notes
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Goals of codetermination
Views differ on the goals of codetermination in general. Academic social reformers of a liberal persuasion maintain that workers are not merely factory parts, but citizens with equal rights. The Prussian state aimed for a conciliatory policy between capital and labour, and worker committees were one way to involve and bind workers into a system, and avoid conflict. In return unions conceded objectives on the establishment of a socialist state.
Codetermination aims principally to give worker a voice in the company decisions. This means matters on organisation of the business, the conditions of work and the management of personal and economic decisions affecting the future of the company and jobs. Workers therefore choose Works council representatives and members of the board to represent them.
Interests of workers
On the assumption that the primary goal of employers is to maximise profits in the interests of shareholders, codetermination can reorient the company's goals in the interests of workers. A better balance may be struck so that the company interests are not so one sided. For unions, codetermination is part of democratising the economy. It is also a way for workers to better the terms and conditions of their contracts in an orderly and regulated way.
Interests of employers
Much economic discussion mentions the thesis that employers also have an interest in codetermination. It can be an instrument for long term increase in productivity of the company. Some economists dispute this on the basis that the losses in efficiency in production outweigh any gains in productivity.
Types of codetermination
Three forms of codetermination are distinguished,
- Codetermination in job places
According to the Betriebsverfassungsgesetz (BetrVG, Industrial Relations Law) the worker has a claim to codetermination about his own work position. He has to be informed about his position and responsibilities, and the job procedures (see also, the Arbeitsschutzgesetz). He has a right of making suggestions and to inspect certain company documents.
- Operational codetermination
Operational codetermination (Betriebliche Mitbestimmung) concerns the organisation of the business, job arrangements, personal planning, guidelines for hiring, social services, time registration and performance assessments. This is found in the Betriebsverfassungsgesetz (BetrVG, Industrial Relations Law).
- Corporate codetermination
Corporate codetermination (Unternehmensmitbestimmung) concerns private (GmbH) and public limited companies (AktG). The Drittelbeteiligungsgesetz provides for one third of the supervisory board to be elected by workers in companies with more than 500 employees. For companies with more than 2000 employees the Mitbestimmungsgesetz requires half of the supervisory board (Aufsichtsrat) to be representative of the workers (subject to the chairman of the board being a shareholder appointee). In the coal, mining and steel industry the Montan-Mitbestimmungsgesetz allows complete parity between workers and shareholders for companies with over 1000 workers.
- 1848: The Frankfurt Parliament processed a minority proposal for industry organisation that included boundaries for corporate power by setting up Labour councils.
- 1850: In four printing houses in Saxony's Eilenburg the first worker committees were established.
- 1891: after repeal of the Sozialistengesetz, worker committees could be founded freely. However, this only happened where there were active unions.
- 1905: In reaction to the strike in the Ruhr coal mines, the Prussian Berggesetz introduced worker committees in mining companies with over 100 workers.
- 1916: The Law of Fatherland Disaster Relief Team (Gesetz des Vaterländischen Hilfsdiensts) created worker committees for all companies producing for the war effort with over 50 workers. These committees had hearing rights in social affairs.
- 1920: The Betriebsrätegesetz (Works Council Act) was passed, mandating consultative bodies for workers in businesses with over 20 employees. Social and economic interests of workers were to be represented and considered to the management.
- 1933: After the Nazis seized power, works councils were abolished and unions were broken up.
- 1946/47: The Allied Control Council, through the Kontrollratsgesetz No. 22 allowed works councils as in the Weimar Republic.
- 1951: The Montan-Mitbestimmungsgesetz (Coal, steel and mining codetermination law) was passed for codetermination in businesses with over 1000 employees.
- 1952: The Betriebsverfassungsgesetz was passed for participation of workers at shop floor level.
- 1955: The Bundespersonalvertretungsgesetz was passed on 5 August 1955, allowing codetermination among members of the civil service.
- 1968: The 1968 student uprisings led to demands for democratisation of companies, universities and public institutions.
- 1972: The Betriebsverfassungsgesetz was updated and reissued.
- 1976: The Mitbestimmungsgesetz required codetermination for all companies with over 2000 employees.
Coal and Steel Codetermination Act of 1951
After threats of massive strikes by unions the Gesetz über die Mitbestimmung der Arbeitnehmer in den Aufsichtsräten und Vorständen der Unternehmen des Bergbaus und der Eisen- und Stahlerzeugenden Industrie vom 21. Mai 1951 was passed on the 7th of June, 1951. It provided for equal representation on the supervisory board of directors for workers and employers.
On the worker side, representatives are to name a "further member" who acts explicitly in the interests of the community. The purpose was that in the lead up to World War, these companies were seen to openly support the Nazis financially. To prevent a stalemate on the board, a neutral member is to be appointed, which the parties must agree on. On the management board, one member must be a Staff-director (Arbeitsdirecktor) who cannot be appointed against the votes of the worker directors on the supervisory board.
Companies attempted to avoid the effects of the law after it was passed. The steel company Mannesmann registered another holding company outside the steel industry, intended to avoid the law. In response the Mitbestimmungsergänzungsgesetz (the Codetermination Supplementary Act, known as "Lex Mannesmann") was passed to prevent the practice.
Works Councils Act of 1952
Passed on the 11 October 1952, this law introduce one third selection of supervisory board directors by workers (§§ 76 ff. BetrVG). An exception is made for family companies. For each two shareholder members, the works council can send a third worker representative. They may also participate in committees of the supervisory board.
Works Councils Act of 1972
On 15 January 1972 the Act of 1952 was updated giving more powers for participation in personal and social affairs of company employees. Individual worker rights were strengthened in relation to unions.
Codetermination Act of 1976
Third Participation Act 2004
- Andrea Kuffner: Die Beteiligung der Arbeitnehmer in der Europäischen Aktiengesellschaft, Wiku-Verlag, 2003, S.6
- Sarah Bormann, Angriff auf die Mitbestimmung. Unternehmensstrategien gegen Betriebsräte – der Fall Schlecker (Sigma, Berlin 2007) ISBN 978-3-8360-8685-1
- Bundesministerium für Arbeit und Soziales (Hrsg.): Mitbestimmung - Ein gutes Unternehmen. (Volltext)
- Jens Gäbert and Brigitte Maschmann-Schulz, Mitbestimmung im Gesundheitsschutz, 2008, ISBN 978-3-7663-3498-5 (Umsetzung des Arbeitsschutzgesetzes mit Hilfe des Betriebsverfassungsgesetzes)
- Peter Hanau, Peter Ulmer and Mathias Habersack, Mitbestimmungsrecht. Kommentierung des MitbestG, der DrittelbG und der §§ 34 bis 38 SEBG. (= Beck'sche Kurz-Kommentare; Bd. 24). 2. Auflage. Beck, München 2006, ISBN 3-406-44832-1
- Petra Junghans, Mitwirkung und Mitbestimmung der Betriebsgewerkschaftsleitung in den Betrieben der DDR. Eine empirische Untersuchung in Ost-Berliner Industriebetrieben. WVB, Berlin 2004, ISBN 3-936846-78-2 (zugl. Dissertation, FU Berlin 2003)
- Horst-Udo Niedenhoff, Mitbestimmung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. 14. Auflage. DIV, Köln 2005, ISBN 3-602-14698-7
- Michael Nienerza, Unternehmerische Mitbestimmung in internationalen Konzernen. Dissertation, Universität zu Köln 2005 (Volltext)
- Ralf Pieper, Handbuch Arbeitsschutz, Kapitel 2.7.4 Mitbestimmung, 2005, ISBN 978-3-7663-3558-6
- Hans Pohl (ed), Mitbestimmung und Betriebsverfassung in Deutschland, Frankreich und Großbritannien seit dem 19. Jahrhundert'. Tagungsband zum 16. wissenschaftlichen Symposium auf Schloss Quint bei Trier 1993. Steiner, Stuttgart 1996, ISBN 3-515-06894-5