Codex Athous Lavrensis

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New Testament manuscripts
papyriuncialsminusculeslectionaries
Uncial 044
Name Athous Laurae
Sign Ψ
Text Gospels, Acts, Pauline epistles, General Epistles
Date 8th/9th century
Script Greek
Found 1886 Gregory
Now at Athos
Size 21 x 15.3 cm
Type mixed; alexandrian / Byzantine
Category III/II
Note marginalia

Codex Athous Laurae designated by Ψ or 044 (in the Gregory-Aland numbering), δ 6 (von Soden), is a Greek uncial manuscript of the New Testament on parchment. The manuscript is lacunose. It has an eclectic and mixed text. It has marginalia

The codex is now kept in a monastery (Great Lavra B' 52) at Athos peninsula.[1]

Description[edit]

Original codex contained entire of the New Testament except of the Book of Revelation. Actually it has lacunae at the beginning and end. The Gospel of Matthew, the Gospel of Mark 1:1-9:5, and one leaf from the Hebrews with text 8:11-9:19 have been lost.

The order of books: four Gospels, Acts of the Apostles, the General epistles, and the Pauline epistles. The General epistles are in an unusual order (1-2 Peter, James, 1-3 John, and Jude). The shorter ending of Mark is before the longer one (like in Codex Regius and all other Greek codices in which it appears).[2]

The codex contains 261 parchment leaves (21 cm by 15.3 cm).[3] The dimensions of text is 15 cm by 8,7 cm.[4]

It was written in one column per page, 31 lines per page, in small uncial letters.[1] The letters have breathings and accents.[5] It contains tables of the κεφαλαια (tables of contents) before each book, the Ammonian Sections (in Mark 233 sections), Eusebian Canons, lectionary equipment on a margin (for liturgical use), musical notes (neumes), and subscriptions.[5] It is one of the oldest manuscripts with musical notes.

The verses Mark 11:26 and Mark 15:28 are omitted. The text of the Pericope Adulterae (John 7:53-8:11) is omitted.[5][6]

The codex is dated palaeographically to the 8th or 9th century.[1]

Text[edit]

The Greek text of this codex is generally described as a representative of the Byzantine text-type, but with a large portion of the Alexandrian, and some Western readings. It has unusually mixed text. Von Soden lists it as generally Alexandrian. In the Gospel of Mark and the General epistles it represents the Alexandrian text-type.[7] In Gospel of Luke and John the Byzantine element is predominate, but with larger proportion of Alexandrian readings than in Codex Sangallensis 48.[2] In the Acts and the Pauline epistles the Byzantine element is predominant.[8] The text of the General epistles seems to be of the same type found in Codex Alexandrinus, 33, 81, and 436. Kurt Aland placed the text of the codex in Category III in the Gospels, Acts, Pauline epistles, and in Category II in the General epistles.[1]

Textual variants

Mark 9:49

It has unique variant θυσια αναλωθησεται instead of αλι αλισθησεται.[9]

Mark 10:7

και προσκολληθησεται προς την γυναικα αυτου (and be joined to his wife) omitted, as in codices Codex Sinaiticus, Vaticanus, 892, 48, syrs, goth.[10]

Mark 10:19

phrase μη αποστερησης omitted, as in codices B (added by second corrector), K, W, f1, f13, 28, 700, 1010, 1079, 1242, 1546, 2148, 10, 950, 1642, 1761, syrs, arm, geo.[11] This omission is typical for the manuscripts of the Caesarean text-type.

Luke 9:35

It uses the longest reading αγαπητος εν ο ευδοκησα — as in codices C3, D, 19, 31, 47, 48, 49, 49m, 183, 183m, 211m;[12][n 1]

John 20:31

ζωην αιωνιον – as codices: א C(*) D L 0100 f13 it vgmss syrp, h copsa, copbo

Acts 12:25

απο Ιερουσαλημ (from Jerusalem) – D, Ψ, 181, 436, 614, 2412, 147, 809, 1021, 1141, 1364, 1439, ar, d, gig, vg, Chrysostom
εις Ιερουσαλημ (to Jerusalem) – א, B, H, L, P, 049, 056, 0142, 81, 88, 326, 330, 451, 629, 1241, 1505, 1877, 2492, 2495, Byz, Lect
εξ Ιερουσαλημ (from Jerusalem) – \mathfrak{P}74, A, 33, 69, 630, 2127
εις Αντιοχειαν (to Antioch) – 97mg, 110, 328, 424mg, 425c
εις την Αντιοχειαν (to Antioch) – 38
απο Ιερουσαλημ εις Αντιοχειαν (from Jerusalem to Antioch) – E, 322, 323
εξ Ιερουσαλημ εις Αντιοχειαν (from Jerusalem to Antioch) – 429, 945, 1739, e, p, syrp, copsa geo
εις Ιερουσαλημ εις Αντιοχειαν (to Jerusalem to Antioch) – 104, copsa (some mss.)

Acts 15:23

It has one of the longest readings γραψαντης επιστολην δια χειρος αυτων εχουσαν τον τυπον τουτον. The other manuscripts read:
γραψαντης δια χειρος αυτων\mathfrak{P}45, \mathfrak{P}74, א*, A, B, copbo
γραψαντης δια χειρος αυτων ταδε — אc, E, (33), Byz, syrh
γραψαντης δια χειρος αυτων επιστολην περιεχουσαν ταδε — C, ar, c, gig, w, geo
γραψαντης επιστολην δια χειρος αυτων περιεχουσαν ταδεD, d
γραψαντης δια χειρος αυτων επιστολην και πεμψαντες περιεχουσαν ταδε614.[13]

In Acts 18:26 it reads την του θεου οδον along with P, 049, 0142, 104, 330, 451, 1241, 1877, 2127, 2492, Byz, Lect;[14]

Acts 20:15

it has singular readings και μεινοντες εις το Γυλιον τη.[15]

Acts 20:28

It reads του κυριου (of the Lord) together with the manuscripts \mathfrak{P}74, A, C*, D, E, 33, 36, 453, 945, 1739, 1891. The Alexandrian manuscripts usually reads του Θεου (of the God), the Byzantine manuscripts have του κυριου και του Θεου (of the Lord and God).[16]

Acts 27:16

Γαυδην — it is only one manuscript with this reading.[n 2]

Acts 28:29

the entire verse is omitted: και ταυτα αυτου ειποντος απηλθον οι Ιουδαιοι πολλην εχοντης εν εαυτοις συζητησιν (And when he had said these words, the Jews departed and had a great dispute among themselves); the omission is supported by a manuscripts Papyrus 74, Codex Sinaiticus, Alexandrinus, Vaticanus, Codex Laudianus, Codex Vaticanus 2061, 33, 81, 1175, 1739, 2464;[17]

Romans 8:1

Ιησου – א, B, D, G, 1739, 1881, itd, g, copsa, bo, eth
Ιησου μη κατα σαρκα περιπατουσιν – A, Db, Ψ, 81, 629, 2127, vg
Ιησου μη κατα σαρκα περιπατουσιν αλλα κατα πνευμα – אc, Dc, K, P, 33, 88, 104, 181, 326, 330, (436 omit μη), 456, 614, 630, 1241, 1877, 1962, 1984, 1985, 2492, 2495, Byz, Lect[18]

The text of Romans 16:25-27 is following 14:23, as in Codex Angelicus Uncial 0209, Minuscule 181 326 330 451 460 614 1241 1877 1881 1984 1985 2492 2495.[19]

1 Corinthians 2:1

μαρτυριον along with B D G P Ψ 33 81 104 181 326 330 451 614 629 630 1241 1739 1877 1881 1962 1984 2127 2492 2495 Byz Lect it vg syrh copsa arm eth;
Other manuscripts read μυστηριον or σωτηριον.[20]

1 Corinthians 7:5

τη προσευχη (prayer) along with \mathfrak{P}11, \mathfrak{P}46, א*, A, B, C, D, G, P, Ψ, 6, 33, 81, 104, 181, 629, 630, 1739, 1877, 1881, 1962, it vg, cop, arm, eth. Other manuscripts read τη νηστεια και τη προσευχη (fasting and prayer) or τη προσευχη και νηστεια (prayer and fasting).[21][22]

1 Corinthians 12:9

χαρισματα ιαματων εν τω ενι πνευματι — A B 33 81 104 436 630 (1739 omit τω) 1881 it vg
χαρισματα ιαματων εν τω αυτω πνευματι — א C3 D G K P 0201 88 181 330 451 614 629 1241 1877 1962 1984 1985 2127 2492 2495 Byz Lect
χαρισματα ιαματων εν τω πνευματι — \mathfrak{P}46
χαρισματα ιαματων — C
χαρισματα — Ψ

Philippians 1:14

του θεου – א A B (D*) P Ψ 33 81 104 326 365 629 1175 1241 2464
κυρίου – F G; Cyp
omitted – p46 D2 Byz, r; Marcion

1 Timothy 3:16

It supports textual variant θεος εφανερωθη.[5][n 3]

History[edit]

The manuscript was first seen by C. R. Gregory on August 26, 1886, who described it as the first. In 1892 it has been seen but not examined by J. Rendel Harris, who was inspecting the Septuaginta manuscripts. Von Goltz and Wobbermin had collated text of Acts, General epistles, and Pauline epistles for Hermann von Soden. The codex was examined by Kirsopp Lake in 1899, who thoroughly examined the Gospel of Mark and collated the text of the Gospel of Luke and John. He did not examine the text of Acts and the Epistles because, according Soden's opinion, their text was ordinary. In 1903, Lake published the text of the Gospel of Mark 9:5-16:20, and a collation of the Gospels of Luke, John, and Epistle to the Colossians in Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica.[23]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ For more details of the variants of this verse see: Textual variants in the Gospel of Luke.
  2. ^ For more details of the variants of this verse see: Textual variants in the Acts of the Apostles.
  3. ^ For more textual variants of this verse see: Textual variants in the First Epistle to Timothy.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Aland, Kurt; Aland, Barbara (1995). The Text of the New Testament: An Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism. Erroll F. Rhodes (trans.). Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 118. ISBN 978-0-8028-4098-1. 
  2. ^ a b Bruce M. Metzger, Bart D. Ehrman, The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption and Restoration, New York – Oxford 2005, Oxford University Press, pp. 84-85.
  3. ^ "Liste Handschriften". Münster: Institute for New Testament Textual Research. Retrieved 16 March 2013. 
  4. ^ Kirsopp Lake, Texts from Mount Athos, Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica, 5 (Oxford 1903), p. 94.
  5. ^ a b c d Gregory, Caspar René (1900). Textkritik des Neuen Testaments 1. Leipzig: J.C. Hinrichs’sche Buchhandlung. p. 94. 
  6. ^ NA26, p. 273.
  7. ^ Codex Sangallensis 48 also represents the Alexandrian text-type in the Gospel of Mark, and the Byzantine text-type in rest of the Gospels.
  8. ^ Waltz, Robert. "An Introduction to New Testament Textual Criticism". A Site Inspired By: The Encyclopedia of New Testament Textual Criticism. Retrieved 2010-11-12.  |chapter= ignored (help)
  9. ^ NA26, p. 121.
  10. ^ UBS3, p. 164.
  11. ^ UBS3, p. 165.
  12. ^ UBS3, p. 246.
  13. ^ NA26, p. 366.
  14. ^ UBS3, p. 491.
  15. ^ UBS3, p. 498.
  16. ^ NA26, p. 384.
  17. ^ Nestle-Aland, Novum Testamentum Graece, p. 408
  18. ^ UBS3, p. 548.
  19. ^ UBS3, pp. 576-577.
  20. ^ UBS3, p. 581.
  21. ^ NA26, p. 450.
  22. ^ UBS3, p. 591.
  23. ^ K. Lake, Texts from Mount Athos, Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica, 5 (Oxford 1903).

Further reading[edit]

  • Kirsopp Lake, Texts from Mount Athos, Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica, 5 (Oxford 1903), pp. 89–185.
  • Kirsopp Lake, The Text of Codex Ψ in St. Mark, JTS I (1900), pp. 290–292.
  • C. R. Gregory, Textkritik des Neuen Testaments (Leipzig 1900), vol. 1, pp. 94–95.
  • Hermann von Soden, Die Schriften des Neuen Testaments in ihrer altesten erreibaren Textgestalt, I, III (Berlin, 1910), pp. 1664,-1666, 1841, 1921, 1928.
  • M.-J. Lagrange, La critique rationnelle (Paris, 1935), pp. 109 f.

External links[edit]