Codex Climaci Rescriptus
|Name||Codex Climaci Rescriptus|
|Text||Gospels and Old Testament|
|Date||6th - 8th century|
|Script||Christian Palestinian Aramaic and Greek and Syriac|
|Now at||The Green Collection|
|Cite||A. S. Lewis, "Codex Climaci rescriptus", Horae semiticae 8 (1909), pp. 27-31.|
|Size||23 cm by 18.5-15.5 cm|
|Note||nine unique textual readings in Greek|
Codex Climaci rescriptus, known as Uncial 0250 (in the Gregory-Aland numbering), is a Greek uncial manuscript of the New Testament as well as a Christian Palestinian Aramaic uncial manuscript of the Old and New Testament. Paleographically the Greek section has been assigned to the 8th century (or 7th century), and the Christian Palestinian Aramaic section to the 6th century. Formerly it was classified as lectionary manuscript, Gregory gave the number ℓ 1561 to it.
The codex is a 137 leaf remnant of eight separate manuscripts, six of which are in Christian Palestinian Aramaic, which have been dated to the 6th century AD; and two of which are in Greek, which have been dated to the 7th or 8th century AD.
The Christian Palestinian Aramaic sections contain significant parts of the four Gospels, as well as the Acts and Epistles, and the remains of a large volume of the Old Testament in Christian Palestinian Aramaic, on 104 leaves (23 by 18.5 mm), mostly written in two columns per page, 18 lines per page in Estrangelo script.
The Codex Climaci Rescriptus (CCR) is an ancient form of book (codex) that has two different texts written on the same page (rescriptus = rewritten). The latest text is in Syriac from the 6th century AD, but it was discovered, through Multi-Spectrum Imaging (MSI) that an underlying text had been washed off prior to writing the Syriac. The underlying text from the 4th century AD consisted of one of the oldest near complete Bibles in the world and it was written in Palestinian Aramaic, the language Jesus spoke.
Codex Climaci Rescriptus, 6th – 9th century AD. The Codex Climaci Rescriptus is a palimpsest—a manuscript from which the text has been scraped away or washed off, and the pages used again. Underneath the top layer of writing, which contains a 9th-century monastic text in Syriac, are portions of ancient biblical manuscripts written in 6th-7th century Greek and 6th-century Christian Palestinian Aramaic. This manuscript, based on an original text which may date from the 4th century, is the world’s largest corpus of Christian Palestinian Aramaic, the dialect that would have been closest to Jesus’ household language.
In Christian Palestinian Aramaic:
- CCR 1
- a Gospel-book in Christian Palestinian Aramaic, including the texts of Matthew and Mark
Matt. 21:23-41; 27-31; 22:40-23:1; 23:1-25; 24:42-46; 24: 25:14; 26:24-32; 26:40-49; 27:9-19; 27:39-48; 27:64-28:3; 28:4-10
Mark 1:1-10; 1:20-30; 2:2-11; 17-24
- CCR 2
- a Gospel of John in Christian Palestinian Aramaic, plus
the Acts and Epistles
- (The Sotheby's catalogue reports this, but its list of folios reads "I John 1:1-9," i.e., First Epistle, not Gospel. Since it is on the back of II Peter 3:16-18 (136r & v), in canonical order, the ms may have the Epistle text.)
Acts 19:31-36; 20:1; 20:2-7; 20:8-14; 21:3-8; 21:9-14; 24:25-25:1; 25:3-26; 26:23-29; 27:1-13; 27:14-27
Romans 4:17-22; 5:4-15; 6:14-19; 7:2-11; 8: 9-21; 9:30;10:3-9; 15:11-21
I Corin. 1:6-23; 4:1-15; 13: 4-11; 14:4-7; 14:8-14; 14:24-37; 15:3-10; 15:24-49; 16:16-24
II Corin. 1:23-2: 4-11; 4:18-5:6; 5:6-12; 6:3-16; 7:3-8
Galat. 1:1-23; 3:20-24; 4:2; 4:4-29; 5:1; 5:24; 6:4-12; 6: 4
Eph. 1:18-2:8; 4:14-27; 5:8-16; 5:17-24
Coloss. 4: 6-17
I Thess.1:3-9; 5:15-26
II Thess. 1:3-2:2
II Timothy 3:2-14
II Peter 1:1-12; 3:16-18
- CCR 3
- a Lectionary in Christian Palestinian Aramaic, including
significant portions of the Old Testament, as well as the New Testament
Deut. 6: 4-21; 7:1-26
I Sam. 1:1; 2:19-29; 4:1-6; 6:5-18
Job 6:1-26; 7: 4-21
Psalms 2:7; 40(41):1; 50(51):1; 56(57):1; 109(110):1; 131(132):1
Isaiah 40:1-8; 63:9-11
Jerem. 11:22-12: 4-8
Joel 2:12-14; 2:20
Micah 4:1-3; 4:3-5
Matt. 1:18-25; 2:1-2; 2:2-8; 2:18-23
Luke 1: 26-38
- CCR 7
- a biblical codex in Christian Palestinian Aramaic:
Leviticus 8:18-30; 11:42-12:2-8
- CCR 8
- a Lectionary in Christian Palestinian Aramaic
John 15:19-26; 16:9
- CCR 4
- Unique records of homilies and stories about the life of Jesus in Christian Palestinian Aramaic
Fragment of a Homily Fragment of a story about Peter and Paul attempting to convert a Roman leader, Berghamus, before 2000 of his own soldiers, in an unnamed city in the Holy Land
- In Greek (CCR 5 & 6)
Matt. 2:12-23; 3:13-15; 5:1-2.4.30-37; 6:1-4.16-18; 7:12.15-20; 8:7.10-13.16-17.20-21; 9:27-31.36; 10:5; 12:36-38.43-45; 13:36-46; 26:75-27:2.11.13-184.108.40.206-23.26-40;
Luke 22:60-62.66-67; 23:3-4.20-26.32-34.38;
John 6:53-7:25.45.48-51; 8:12-44; 9:12-10:15; 10:41-12:220.127.116.11-24.26-35.44-49; 14:22-15:15; 16:13-18; 16:29-17:5; 18:1-9.11-13.18-24.28-29.31; 18:36-19:18.104.22.168.16.18.23-24.31-34; 20:1-2.13-16.18-20.25; 20:28-21:1.
- it has ἐξελεύσονται (will go out) instead of ἐκβληθήσονται (will be thrown). This variant is supported only by one Greek manuscript Codex Sinaiticus, by Latin Codex Bobiensis, syrc, s, p, pal, arm, and Diatessaron.
- It has additional text (see Luke 7:10): και υποστρεψας ο εκατονταρχος εις τον οικον αυτου εν αυτη τη ωρα ευρεν τον παιδα υγιαινοντα (and when the centurion returned to the house in that hour, he found the slave well) as well as codices א, C, (N), Θ, f1, (33, 1241), g1, syrh.
Discovery and present location
According to Moir this manuscript contains a substantial record of an early Greek uncial manuscript of the Gospels once at Caesarea, which would have been the sister of Codex Sinaiticus, Codex Vaticanus and Codex Alexandrinus, but is now lost.
Until 2010, the codex was housed at the Westminster College in Cambridge. It was listed for sale at a Sotheby's auction, where it failed to sell on July 7, 2009. In 2010, the codex was bought by Steve Green, president of Hobby Lobby, directly from Sotheby's after their unsuccessful auction. The codex now resides in the The Green Collection and is featured in its worldwide-traveling exhibition, Passages.
- K. Aland, M. Welte, B. Köster, K. Junack, "Kurzgefasste Liste der griechischen Handschriften des Neues Testaments", Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, New York 1994, p. 40.
- Aland, Kurt; Barbara Aland; Erroll F. Rhodes (trans.) (1995). The Text of the New Testament: An Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 126. ISBN 978-0-8028-4098-1.
- "Liste Handschriften". Münster: Institute for New Testament Textual Research. Retrieved 25 April 2011.
-  Sotheby's catalogue, which suggests the translation was from the autograph.
- http://www.explorepassages.com/Visit/DiscussionTopics. Missing or empty
- http://www.explorepassages.com/. Missing or empty
-  Sotheby's sale catalogue.
- Kurt Aland, Synopsis Quattuor Evangeliorum. Locis parallelis evangeliorum apocryphorum et patrum adhibitis edidit, Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, Stuttgart 1996, p. XXVI.
- UBS4, p. 26.
- NA26, p. 18
- Ian A. Moir, Codex Climaci rescriptus graecus (Ms. Gregory 1561, L), Texts and Studies NS, 2 (Cambridge, 1956), p. 3.
- C. R. Gregory, "Textkritik des Neuen Testaments", Leipzig 1909, vol. 3, p. 1374-1375.
- Sotheby's Auctions Forbes Magazine report.
- Hobby Lobby Family Collects Bibles for Museum – NYTimes.com, June 11, 2010
- "The Green Collection: Bibles and More". Christianity Today. Oct 24, 2011. Retrieved 19 Dec 2011.
- A. Smith Lewis, A Palestinian Syriac Lectionary containing Lessons from the Pentateuch, Job, Proverbs, Prophets, Acts and Epistles, Studia Sinaitica 6 (1895), p. cxxxix
- Agnes Smith Lewis, Codex Climaci rescriptus, Horae Semiticae 8 (Cambridge, 1909), pp. 27–31.
- Ian A. Moir, Codex Climaci rescriptus grecus (Ms. Gregory 1561, L), Texts and Studies NS, 2 (Cambridge, 1956).
- C. Müller-Kessler, Christian Palestinian Aramaic and its significance to the Western Aramaic dialect group, Journal of the American Oriental Society 119 (1999), pp.
- C. Müller-Kessler and M. Sokoloff, The Christian Palestinian Aramaic Old Testament and Apocrypha, Corpus of Christian Palestinian Aramaic I (1997)
- C. Müller-Kessler and M. Sokoloff, The Christian Palestinian Aramaic New Testament version from the early period. Gospels, Corpus of Christian Palestinian Aramaic IIA (1998), pp.
- C. Müller-Kessler and M. Sokoloff, The Christian Palestinian Aramaic New Testament version from the early period. Acts of the Apostles and Epistles, Corpus of Christian Palestinian Aramaic IIB (1998)
- C. Müller-Kessler (1999). "Die Frühe Christlich-Palästinisch-Aramäische Evangelienhandschrift CCR1 übersetzt durch einen Ostaramäischen (Syrischen) Schreiber?". Journal for the Aramaic Bible 1: 79–86.
- Uncial 0250 at the Wieland Willker, "Textual Commentary"