Coffea liberica (or Liberian coffee) is a species of flowering plant in the Rubiaceae family. It is a coffee that is native to western and central Africa from Liberia to Uganda and Angola. It is also naturalized in Seychelles, the Andaman & Nicobar Islands, French Polynesia, Central America, the West Indies, Venezuela, Colombia and Brazil.
Cultivation and use
The Coffea liberica tree grows up to 20 metres in height, producing larger fruits than those found on Coffea arabica trees. This coffee was brought to Indonesia to replace the arabica trees killed by the coffee rust disease at the end of the 19th century. Liberica coffee tastes more like Coffea robusta than like the more popular arabica. It is still found in parts of Central and East Java today.
Liberica is a major crop in the Philippines. The town of Lipa (now Lipa City) became the biggest producer of arabica in the 1880s, but collapsed when the coffee rust disease arrived in the 1890s, killing almost all coffee arabica plants, which threatened the variety with extinction. Today, the provinces of Batangas and Cavite in the Philippines are producers of a variety of liberica known as 'Baraco'.
Coffea dewevrei, Coffea dybowskii and Coffea excelsa were formerly considered as separate species but were reclassified in 2006 as synonyms for Coffea liberica var. dewevrei.
- Davis, AP; Govaert R; Bridson DM; Stoffelen P (December 2006). "An annotated taxonomic conspectus of the genus Coffea (Rubiaceae)". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 152 (4): 465–512. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2006.00584.x.
- Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, Coffea liberica
- World Checklist of Rubiaceae
- Coffea liberica, United Nations' Food and Agriculture Organization website
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