Cognitive psychology

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Cognitive psychology is the study of mental processes such as "attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, creativity, and thinking."[1] Much of the work derived from cognitive psychology has been integrated into various other modern disciplines of psychological study including educational psychology, social psychology, personality psychology, abnormal psychology, developmental psychology, and economics.

History[edit]

Philosophically, ruminations of the human mind and its processes have been around since the times of the ancient Greeks. In 387 BC, Plato is known to have suggested that the brain was the seat of the mental processes.[2] In 1637, René Descartes posited that humans are born with innate ideas, and forwarded the idea of mind-body dualism, which would come to be known as substance dualism (essentially the idea that the mind and the body are two separate substances).[3] From that time, major debates ensued through the 19th century regarding whether human thought was solely experiential (empiricism), or included innate knowledge (nativism). Some of those involved in this debate included George Berkeley and John Locke on the side of empiricism, and Immanuel Kant on the side of nativism.[4]

With the philosophical debate continuing, the mid to late 18th century was a critical time in the development of psychology as a scientific discipline. Two discoveries that would later play substantial roles in cognitive psychology were Paul Broca's discovery of the area of the brain largely responsible for language production,[3] and Carl Wernicke's discovery of an area thought to be mostly responsible for comprehension of language.[5] Both areas were subsequently formally named for their founders and disruptions of an individual's language production or comprehension due to trauma or malformation in these areas have come to commonly be known as Broca's aphasia and Wernicke's aphasia.

In the mid-20th century, three main influences arose that would inspire and shape cognitive psychology as a formal school of thought:

  • With the development of new warfare technology during WWII, the need for a greater understanding of human performance came to prominence. Problems such as how to best train soldiers to use new technology and how to deal with matters of attention while under duress became areas of need for military personnel. Behaviorism provided little if any insight into these matters and it was the work of Donald Broadbent, integrating concepts from human performance research and the recently developed information theory, that forged the way in this area.[4]
  • Developments in computer science would lead to parallels being drawn between human thought and the computational functionality of computers, opening entirely new areas of psychological thought. Allen Newell and Herbert Simon spent years developing the concept of artificial intelligence (AI) and later worked with cognitive psychologists regarding the implications of AI. The effective result was more of a framework conceptualization of mental functions with their counterparts in computers (memory, storage, retrieval, etc.)[4]
  • Noam Chomsky's 1959 critique[6] of behaviorism, and empiricism more generally, initiated what would come to be known as the "cognitive revolution".

Ulric Neisser is credited with formally having coined the term "cognitive psychology" (in terms of the current understanding of cognitive psychology) in his book Cognitive Psychology, published in 1967.[7] Neisser's definition of "cognition" illustrates the, then, progressive concept of cognitive processes well:

The term "cognition" refers to all processes by which the sensory input is transformed, reduced, elaborated, stored, recovered, and used. It is concerned with these processes even when they operate in the absence of relevant stimulation, as in images and hallucinations. ... Given such a sweeping definition, it is apparent that cognition is involved in everything a human being might possibly do; that every psychological phenomenon is a cognitive phenomenon. But although cognitive psychology is concerned with all human activity rather than some fraction of it, the concern is from a particular point of view. Other viewpoints are equally legitimate and necessary. Dynamic psychology, which begins with motives rather than with sensory input, is a case in point. Instead of asking how a man's actions and experiences result from what he saw, remembered, or believed, the dynamic psychologist asks how they follow from the subject's goals, needs, or instincts.[7]

Mental processes[edit]

The main focus of cognitive psychologists is on the mental processes that affect behavior. Those processes include, but are not limited to, the following:

Attention[edit]

The psychological definition of attention is "A state of focused awareness on a subset of the available perceptual information".[8] The key function of attention is to discriminate between irrelevant data and filter it out, enabling the desired data to be distributed to the other mental processes.[4] The human brain may, at times, simultaneously receive inputs in the form of auditory, visual, olfactory, taste, and tactile information. Without the ability to filter out some or most of that simultaneous information and focus on one or typically two at most, the brain would become overloaded as a person attempted to process that information.[4]

One major focal point relating to attention within the field of cognitive psychology is the concept of divided attention. A number of early studies dealt with the ability of a person wearing headphones to discern meaningful conversation when presented with different messages into each ear.[4] Key findings involved an increased understanding of the mind's ability to both focus on one message, while still being somewhat aware of information being taken in from the ear not being consciously attended to. E.g., participants (wearing earphones) may be told that they will be hearing separate messages in each ear and that they are expected to attend only to information related to basketball. When the experiment starts, the message about basketball will be presented to the left ear and non-relevant information will be presented to the right ear. At some point the message related to basketball will switch to the right ear and the non-relevant information to the left ear. When this happens, the listener is usually able to repeat the entire message at the end, having attended to the left or right ear only when it was appropriate.[4]

Memory[edit]

Modern conceptions of memory typically break it down into three main sub-classes. These three classes are somewhat hierarchical in nature, in terms of the level of conscious thought related to their use.[9]

  • Procedural memory is memory for the performance of particular types of action. It is often activated on a subconscious level, or at most requires a minimal amount of conscious effort. Procedural memory includes stimulus-response type information which is activated through association with particular tasks, routines, etc. A person is using procedural knowledge when they seemingly "automatically" respond in a particular manner, to a particular situation or process.[9]
  • Semantic memory is the encyclopedic knowledge that a person possesses. Things like what the Eiffel Tower looks like, or the name of a friend from sixth grade would be semantic memory. Access of semantic memory ranges from slightly to extremely effortful, which depends on a number of variables including but not limited to: recency of encoding of the information, number of associations it has to other information, frequency of access, and levels of meaning (how deeply it was processed when it was encoded).[9]
  • Episodic memory is the memory of autobiographical events that can be explicitly stated. It contains all memories that are temporal in nature, such as when you last brushed your teeth, where you were when you heard about a major news event, etc. Episodic memory typically requires the deepest level of conscious thought, as it often pulls together semantic memory and temporal information to formulate the entire memory.[9]

Perception[edit]

Perception involves both the physical senses (sight, smell, hearing, taste, touch, and proprioception) as well as the cognitive processes involved in interpreting those senses. Essentially, it is how people come to understand the world around them through interpretation of stimuli.[10] Early psychologists like Edward B. Titchener, began to work with perception in their structuralist approach to psychology. Structuralism dealt heavily with trying to reduce human thought (or "consciousness," as Titchener would have called it) into its most basic elements by gaining understanding of how an individual perceives particular stimuli.[11]

Current perspectives on perception within cognitive psychology tend to focus on particular ways in which the human mind interprets stimuli from the senses and how these interpretations affect behavior. An example of the way in which modern psychologists approach the study of perception would be the research being done at the Center for Ecological Study of Perception and Action at the University of Connecticut (CESPA). One study at CESPA concerns ways in which individuals perceive their physical environment and how that influences their navigation through that environment.[12]

Language[edit]

Psychologists have had an interest in the cognitive processes involved with language that dates back to the 1870s, when Carl Wernicke proposed a model for the mental processing of language.[13] Current work on language within the field of cognitive psychology varies widely. Cognitive psychologists may study language acquisition,[14] individual components of language formation (like phonemes),[15] how language use is involved in mood,[16] or numerous other related areas.

Significant work has been done recently with regard to understanding the timing of language acquisition and how it can be used to determine if a child has, or is at risk of, developing a learning disability. A study from 2012, showed that while this can be an effective strategy, it is important that those making evaluations include all relevant information when making their assessments. Factors such as individual variability, socioeconomic status, short term and long term memory capacity, and others must be included in order to make valid assessments.[14]

Metacognition[edit]

Metacognition, in a broad sense, is the thoughts that a person has about their own thoughts. More specifically, metacognition includes things like:

  • How effective a person is at monitoring their own performance on a given task (self-regulation).
  • A person's understanding of their capabilities on particular mental tasks.
  • The ability to apply cognitive strategies.[17]

Much of the current study regarding metacognition within the field of cognitive psychology deals with its application within the area of education. Being able to increase a student's metacognitive abilities has been shown to have a significant impact on their learning and study habits.[18] One key aspect of this concept is the improvement of students' ability to set goals and self-regulate effectively to meet those goals. As a part of this process, it is also important to ensure that students are realistically evaluating their personal degree of knowledge and setting realistic goals (another metacognitive task).[19]

Modern[edit]

Modern perspectives on cognitive psychology generally address cognition as a dual process theory, introduced by Jonathan Haidt in 2006, and expounded upon by Daniel Kahneman in 2011.[20] Kahneman differentiated the two styles of processing more, calling them intuition and reasoning. Intuition (or system 1), similar to associative reasoning, was determined to be fast and automatic, usually with strong emotional bonds included in the reasoning process. Kahneman said that this kind of reasoning was based on formed habits and very difficult to change or manipulate. Reasoning (or system 2) was slower and much more volatile, being subject to conscious judgments and attitudes.[20]

Applications[edit]

Abnormal psychology[edit]

Following the cognitive revolution, and as a result of many of the principle discoveries to come out of the field of cognitive psychology, the discipline of cognitive therapy evolved. Aaron T. Beck is generally regarded as the father of cognitive therapy.[21] His work in the areas of recognition and treatment of depression has gained worldwide notoriety. In his 1987 book titled Cognitive Therapy of Depression, Beck puts forth three salient points with regard to his reasoning for the treatment of depression by means of therapy or therapy and antidepressants versus using a pharmacological-only approach:

1. Despite the prevalent use of antidepressants, the fact remains that not all patients respond to them. Beck cites (in 1987) that only 60 to 65% of patients respond to antidepressants, and recent meta-analyses (a statistical breakdown of multiple studies) show very similar numbers.[22]
2. Many of those who do respond to antidepressants end up not taking their medications, for various reasons. They may develop side-effects or have some form of personal objection to taking the drugs.
3. Beck posits that the use of psychotropic drugs may lead to an eventual breakdown in the individual's coping mechanisms. His theory is that the person essentially becomes reliant on the medication as a means of improving mood and fails to practice those coping techniques typically practiced by healthy individuals to alleviate the effects of depressive symptoms. By failing to do so, once the patient is weaned off of the antidepressants, they often are unable to cope with normal levels of depressed mood and feel driven to reinstate use of the antidepressants.[23]

Social psychology[edit]

Many facets of modern social psychology have roots in research done within the field of cognitive psychology. Social cognition is a specific sub-set of social psychology that concentrates on processes that have been of particular focus within cognitive psychology, specifically applied to human interactions. Gordon B. Moskowitz defines social cognition as "... the study of the mental processes involved in perceiving, attending to, remembering, thinking about, and making sense of the people in our social world".[24]

The development of multiple social information processing models (SIP) has been influential in studies involving aggressive and anti-social behavior. Kenneth Dodge's SIP model is one of, if not the most, empirically supported models relating to aggression. Among his research, Dodge posits that children who possess a greater ability to process social information more often display higher levels of socially acceptable behavior. His model asserts that there are five steps that an individual proceeds through when evaluating interactions with other individuals and that how the person interprets cues is key to their reactionary process.[25]

Developmental psychology[edit]

Many of the prominent names in the field of developmental psychology base their understanding of development on cognitive models. One of the major paradigms of developmental psychology, the Theory of Mind (ToM), deals specifically with the ability of an individual to effectively understand and attribute cognition to those around them. This concept typically becomes fully apparent in children between the ages of 4 and 6. Essentially, before the child develops ToM, they are unable to understand that those around them can have different thoughts, ideas, or feelings than themselves. The development of ToM is a matter of metacognition, or thinking about one's thoughts. The child must be able to recognize that they have their own thoughts and in turn, that others possess thoughts of their own.[26]

One of the foremost minds with regard to developmental psychology, Jean Piaget, focused much of his attention on cognitive development from birth through adulthood. Though there have been considerable challenges to parts of his stages of cognitive development, they remain a staple in the realm of education. Piaget's concepts and ideas predated the cognitive revolution but inspired a wealth of research in the field of cognitive psychology and many of his principles have been blended with modern theory to synthesize the predominant views of today.[27]

Educational psychology[edit]

Modern theories of education have applied many concepts that are focal points of cognitive psychology. Some of the most prominent concepts include:

  • Metacognition: Metacognition is a broad concept encompassing all manners of one's thoughts and knowledge about their own thinking. A key area of educational focus in this realm is related to self-monitoring, which relates highly to how well students are able to evaluate their personal knowledge and apply strategies to improve knowledge in areas in which they are lacking.[28]
  • Declarative knowledge and procedural knowledge: Declarative knowledge is a persons 'encyclopedic' knowledge base, whereas procedural knowledge is specific knowledge relating to performing particular tasks. The application of these cognitive paradigms to education attempts to augment a student's ability to integrate declarative knowledge into newly learned procedures in an effort to facilitate accelerated learning.[28]
  • Knowledge organization: Applications of cognitive psychology's understanding of how knowledge is organized in the brain has been a major focus within the field of education in recent years. The hierarchical method of organizing information and how that maps well onto the brain's memory are concepts that that have proven extremely beneficial in classrooms.[28]

Personality psychology[edit]

Cognitive therapeutic approaches have received considerable attention in the treatment of personality disorders in recent years. The approach focuses on the formation of what it believes to be faulty schemata, centralized on judgmental biases and general cognitive errors.[29]

Vs. cognitive science[edit]

The line between cognitive psychology and cognitive science can be blurry. The differentiation between the two is best understood in terms of cognitive psychology's relationship to applied psychology, and the understanding of psychological phenomena. Cognitive psychologists are often heavily involved in running psychological experiments involving human participants, with the goal of gathering information related to how the human mind takes in, processes, and acts upon inputs received from the outside world.[30] The information gained in this area is then often used in the applied field of clinical psychology. One of the paradigms of cognitive psychology derived in this manner, is that every individual develops schemata which motivate the person to think or act in a particular way in the face of a particular circumstance. E.g., most people have a schema for waiting in line. When approaching some type of service counter where people are waiting their turn, most people don't just walk to the front of the line and butt in. Their schema for that situation tells them to get in the back of the line. This then applies to the field of abnormal psychology as a result of individuals sometimes developing faulty schemata which lead them to consistently react in a dysfunctional manner. If a person has a schema that says "I am no good at making friends", they may become so reluctant to pursue interpersonal relationships that they become prone to seclusion.[citation needed]

Cognitive science is better understood as predominantly concerned with gathering data through research. Cognitive science envelopes a much broader scope, which has links to philosophy, linguistics, anthropology, neuroscience, and particularly with artificial intelligence. It could be said that cognitive science provides the database of information that fuels the theory from which cognitive psychologists operate.[31] Cognitive scientists' research mostly involves non-human subjects, allowing them to delve into areas which would come under ethical scrutiny if performed on human participants. I.e., they may do research implanting devices in the brains of rats to track the firing of neurons while the rat performs a particular task. Cognitive science is highly involved in the area of artificial intelligence and its application to the understanding of mental processes.[citation needed]

Criticisms[edit]

In its early years, critics held that the empiricism of cognitive psychology was incompatible with its acceptance of internal mental states. However, the sibling field of cognitive neuroscience has provided evidence of physiological brain states that directly correlate with mental states - thus providing support for the central assumption of cognitive psychology.[32]

As cognitive psychology gained momentum as a movement, through the 1970s, the complexity of the processes involved in human thought, in the opinion of many, fractured studies of cognition so greatly that the field lost cohesion. John C. Malone poses the assertion, in his book: Psychology: Pythagoras to Present, that "Examinations of late twentieth-century textbooks dealing with 'cognitive psychology', 'human cognition', 'cognitive science', and the like quickly reveals that there are many, many varieties of cognitive psychology and very little agreement about exactly what may be its domain".[3]

The information processing approach to cognitive functioning is currently being questioned by new approaches in psychology, such as dynamical systems, and the embodiment perspective.

Major research areas[edit]

Influential cognitive psychologists[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "American Psychological Association (2013). Glossary of psychological terms". Apa.org. Retrieved 2014-08-13. 
  2. ^ "Mangels, J. History of neuroscience". Columbia.edu. Retrieved 2014-08-13. 
  3. ^ a b c Malone, J.C. (2009). Psychology: Pythagoras to Present. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. (a pp. 143, b pp. 293, c pp. 491)
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Anderson, J.R. (2010). Cognitive Psychology and Its Implications. New York, NY: Worth Publishers.
  5. ^ Eysenck, M.W. (1990). Cognitive Psychology: An International Review. West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. (pp. 111)
  6. ^ Chomsky, N. A. (1959), A Review of Skinner's Verbal Behavior
  7. ^ a b Neisser, U. (1967). Cognitive Psychology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Neisser's definition on page 4.
  8. ^ "How does the APA define "psychology"?". Retrieved 15 November 2011. 
  9. ^ a b c d Balota, D.A. & Marsh, E.J. (2004). Cognitive Psychology: Key Readings. New York, NY: Psychology Press. (pp. 364–365)
  10. ^ Cherry, K. (2013). [[Perception and the perceptual process]
  11. ^ "Plucker, J. (2012). Edward Bradford Titchener". Indiana.edu. 2013-11-14. Retrieved 2014-08-13. 
  12. ^ "University of Connecticut (N.D.). Center for the ecological study of perception". Ione.psy.uconn.edu. 2012-11-30. Retrieved 2014-08-13. 
  13. ^ Temple, Christine M. (1990). "Developments and applications of cognitive neuropsychology." In M. W. Eysenck (Ed.)Cognitive Psychology: An International Review. West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. p. 110
  14. ^ a b Conti-Ramsden, G. & Durkin, K. (2012). Neuropsychology Review, 22, 384–401. DOI 10.1007/s11065-012-9208-z
  15. ^ Valimaa-Blum, R. (2009). "The phoneme in cognitive phonology: episodic memories of both meaningful and meaningless units." CogniTextes, 2. DOI : 10.4000/cognitextes.211
  16. ^ "Berkum, J. Language in action - Mood and language comprehension". Mpi.nl. 2010-12-06. Retrieved 2014-08-13. 
  17. ^ Martinez, M.E. (2006). What is metacognition. The Phi Delta Kappan, 87(9), 696–699
  18. ^ "Cohen, A. (2010). The secret to learning more while studying". Blog.brainscape.com. Retrieved 2014-08-13. 
  19. ^ "Lovett, M. (2008). Teaching metacognition". Serc.carleton.edu. Retrieved 2014-08-13. 
  20. ^ a b Kahneman D. (2003) "A perspective on judgement and choice." American Psychologist. 58, 697–720.
  21. ^ "University of Pennsylvania (N.D). Aaron T. Beck, M.D". Med.upenn.edu. 2013-10-23. Retrieved 2014-08-13. 
  22. ^ Grohol, John M. (2009-02-03). "Grohol, J. (2009). Efficacy of Antidepressants". Psychcentral.com. Retrieved 2014-08-13. 
  23. ^ Beck, A.T. (1987). Cognitive Therapy of Depression. New York, NY: Guilford Press
  24. ^ Moskowitz, G.B. (2004). Social Cognition: Understanding Self and Others. New York, NY: The Guilford Press. (pp. 3)
  25. ^ Fontaine, R.G. (2012). The Mind of the Criminal: The Role of Developmental Social Cognition in Criminal Defense Law. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. (p. 41)
  26. ^ "Astington, J.W. & Edward, M.J. (2010). The development of theory of mind in early childhood. Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development, 2010:1–6" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-08-13. 
  27. ^ Brainerd, C.J. (1996). "Piaget: A centennial celebration." Psychological Science, 7(4), 191–194.
  28. ^ a b c Reif, F. (2008). Applying Cognitive Science to Education: Thinking and Learning in Scientific and Other Complex Domains. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. (a pp. 283–84, b pp. 38)
  29. ^ Beck, A.T., Freeman, A., & Davis, D.D. (2004). Cognitive Therapy of Personality Disorders (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press. (pp. 300).
  30. ^ Baddeley, A. & Bernses, O.A. (1989). Cognitive Psychology: Research Directions In Cognitive Science: European Perspectives, Vol 1 (pp. 7). East Sussex, UK: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Ltd. (pg. 7)
  31. ^ "Thagard, P. (2010). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy". Plato.stanford.edu. Retrieved 2014-08-13. 
  32. ^ Gardner, Howard (2006). Changing Minds. Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard Business School Publishing. ISBN 1-4221-0329-3. 

Further reading[edit]

  • John A. Groeger. 2002. "Trafficking in cognition: applying cognitive psychology to driving." Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, Volume 5, Issue 4, pages 235–248
  • A.M. Jacobs. 2001. "Literacy, Cognitive Psychology" of International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, pages 8971–8975
  • Warren Mansell. 2004. "Cognitive psychology and anxiety." Psychiatry, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 6–10
  • Philip Quinlan, Philip T. Quinlan, Ben Dyson. 2008. Cognitive Psychology. Publisher-Pearson/Prentice Hall. ISBN 0131298100, 9780131298101
  • Robert J. Sternberg, Jeff Mio, Jeffery Scott Mio. 2009. Publisher-Cengage Learning. ISBN 049550629X, 9780495506294
  • Nick Braisby, Angus Gellatly. 2012. Cognitive Psychology. Publisher-Oxford University Press. ISBN 0199236992, 9780199236992

External links[edit]