Coilin protein is one of the main molecular components of Cajal bodies (CBs). Cajal bodies are nuclear suborganelles of varying number and composition that are involved in the post-transcriptional modification of small nuclear and small nucleolar RNAs. In addition to its structural role, coilin acts as glue to connect the CB to the nucleolus. The N-terminus of the coilin protein directs its self-oligomerization while the C-terminus influences the number of nuclear bodies assembled per cell. Differential methylation and phosphorylation of coilin likely influences its localization among nuclear bodies and the composition and assembly of Cajal bodies. This gene has pseudogenes on chromosome 4 and chromosome 14.
To study CBs, coilin can be combined with GFP (Green Fluorescent Protein) to form Coilin-GFP hybrid protein. The hybrid protein can then be used to locate CBs underneath a microscope, usually near the nucleolus of the cell. Other proteins that make up the CB include snRNPs and nucleolar snoRNPs.
Coilin got its name from the coiled shaped of the CB in which it is found. It was first identified using human autoimmune serum.
^Hong, Sunghoi; Ka Sojeong; Kim Sungjo; Park Yongjae; Kang Seongman (May 2003). "p80 coilin, a coiled body-specific protein, interacts with ataxin-1, the SCA1 gene product". Biochim. Biophys. Acta (Netherlands) 1638 (1): 35–42. doi:10.1016/S0925-4439(03)00038-3. ISSN0006-3002. PMID12757932.
^Hong, Sunghoi; Lee Soyeon; Cho Ssang-Goo; Kang Seongman (Jun 2008). "UbcH6 interacts with and ubiquitinates the SCA1 gene product ataxin-1". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. (United States) 371 (2): 256–60. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2008.04.066. PMID18439907.
Robertson NG, Khetarpal U, Gutiérrez-Espeleta GA et al. (1995). "Isolation of novel and known genes from a human fetal cochlear cDNA library using subtractive hybridization and differential screening". Genomics23 (1): 42–50. doi:10.1006/geno.1994.1457. PMID7829101.
Kusuda J, Tanuma R, Gotoh E et al. (1995). "Assignment of a human autoimmune antigen, p80-coilin gene to chromosome 17q21-q23 and of its possible pseudogene to chromosome 14". Hum. Genet.95 (2): 233–4. doi:10.1007/BF00209411. PMID7860074.
Lyon CE, Bohmann K, Sleeman J, Lamond AI (1997). "Inhibition of protein dephosphorylation results in the accumulation of splicing snRNPs and coiled bodies within the nucleolus". Exp. Cell Res.230 (1): 84–93. doi:10.1006/excr.1996.3380. PMID9013710.
Young PJ, Le TT, Dunckley M et al. (2001). "Nuclear gems and Cajal (coiled) bodies in fetal tissues: nucleolar distribution of the spinal muscular atrophy protein, SMN". Exp. Cell Res.265 (2): 252–61. doi:10.1006/excr.2001.5186. PMID11302690.
Shpargel KB, Ospina JK, Tucker KE et al. (2003). "Control of Cajal body number is mediated by the coilin C-terminus". J. Cell. Sci.116 (Pt 2): 303–12. doi:10.1242/jcs.00211. PMID12482916.
Sleeman JE, Trinkle-Mulcahy L, Prescott AR et al. (2004). "Cajal body proteins SMN and Coilin show differential dynamic behaviour in vivo". J. Cell. Sci.116 (Pt 10): 2039–50. doi:10.1242/jcs.00400. PMID12679382.