Coimbatore district

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Coimbatore District
கோயம்புத்தூர் மாவட்டம்
Kovai District
Coimbatore Urban/Rural districts
Landscape near Pollachi
Landscape near Pollachi
Location in Tamil Nadu, India
Location in Tamil Nadu, India
Coordinates: 11°0′45″N 76°58′17″E / 11.01250°N 76.97139°E / 11.01250; 76.97139Coordinates: 11°0′45″N 76°58′17″E / 11.01250°N 76.97139°E / 11.01250; 76.97139
Country  India
State Tamil Nadu
Headquarters Coimbatore
Talukas Coimbatore North, Coimbatore South, Sulur, Pollachi, Mettupalayam, Annur, Kinathukadavu
Government
 • Body Coimbatore Local Planning Authority
 • Collector Archana Patnaik IAS IAS
Area
 • Total 4,850 km2 (1,870 sq mi)
Population (2011)[1]
 • Total 3,458,045
 • Density 572/km2 (1,480/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Tamil
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 641xxx, 642xxx
Telephone code +91-422
ISO 3166 code [[ISO 3166-2:IN|]]
Vehicle registration TN-37,TN-38,TN-40,TN-41,TN-66,TN-99
Coastline 0 kilometres (0 mi)
Largest city Coimbatore
Nearest city Tirupur
Sex ratio M-50.81%/F-49.19% /
Literacy 69%
Vidhan Sabha constituency 12
Planning agency Coimbatore Local Planning Authority
Precipitation 700 millimetres (28 in)
Avg. summer temperature 35 °C (95 °F)
Avg. winter temperature 18 °C (64 °F)
Website www.coimbatore.gov.in

Coimbatore District is one of the districts of the state of Tamil Nadu in India. It is located in the western part of the state in the Kongu Nadu region. Coimbatore is known as the "Manchester of South India"[2][3] and is one of the industrialized towns of Tamil Nadu. The region is bounded by Palghat district of Kerala on the west and by Idukki district of Kerala in the South. Coimbatore shares its borders with Tirupur in the East and Nilgiris in the North. A small portion of Erode district shares the border near Puliampatti in the North East. The headquarters of the district is Coimbatore city. As of 2011, Coimbatore district had a population of 3,458,045 with a sex-ratio of 1,000 females for every 1,000 males.

History[edit]

The district was ruled successively by several dynasties of South India. One part of Chera Dynasty, it is speculated that the present-day Coimbatore came into existence as a jungle village under an Irula chieftain under Cholas during the 11th century. The region was part of Vijayanagara empire from 1300's, later by Nayaks of Madurai until 18th century, occupied by Kingdom of Mysore in 18th century from the Madurai rulers. After the Mysore wars in 1792, the district came under control of the British until the Indian independence in 1947.

Establishment of District[edit]

Under the control of British, in 1805 a new district was carved out barring a few Zamindaris like Puravipalayam, Samathur, Palayamkottai who were erstwhile Polygars under Nayaks of Madurai. The total area the present covered Nilgiris, Erode, Tirrupur and parts of Karur district and Kollegal taluk in Karnataka. Nilgiri District was segregated in 1868 and Avinashi taluk was formed when Karur was separated from the district and merged with Trichinopoly District. Between 1927 and 1929 several readjustments were made.

Post Independence[edit]

In 1956 the Kollegal taluk till then part of Madras State was transferred to Mysore State. Between 1975 and 1979 some subtaluks were promoted to taluks, including Satyamangalam, Perundurai and Mettupalayam, and the Coimbatore district ended up with 12 taluks. In 1979 Erode disrtict was formed after bifurication of six taluks of Bhavani, Gopichettipalaiyam, Satyamangalam, Erode, Perundurai and Dharapuram.The remaining six taluks would later become nine after two new ones were established and a further new district Tirupur was bifurcated and formed in 2012.[4]

Geography and climate[edit]

Spot-billed Pelicans in Singanallur Lake

Coimbatore is in the extreme west of Tamil Nadu, bordering the state of Kerala. It is surrounded by the Western Ghats mountain range on the west and north, with reserve forests and the (Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve) on the northern side.[5] The Noyyal River runs through Coimbatore and forms the southern boundary of the old city limits..[6][7] The city sits amidst Noyyal's basin area and has an extensive tank system fed by the river and rainwater.[8] The eight major tanks/wetland areas of Coimbatore are Singanallur, Valankulam, Ukkadam Periyakulam, Selvampathy, Narasampathi, Krishnampathi, Selvachinthamani, and Kumaraswami tanks.[9] Sanganur pallam, Kovilmedu pallam, Vilankurichi-Singanallur Pallam, Karperayan Koil pallam, Railway feeder roadside drain, Tiruchy-Singanallur Check drain and Ganapathy pallam are some of the streams that drain the city.[6][10]

The eastern side of the Coimbatore district, including the city, is predominantly dry. The entire western and northern part of the district borders the Western Ghats with the Nilgiri biosphere as well as the Anaimalai and Munnar ranges. A western pass to Kerala, popularly referred to as the Palghat Gap provides its boundary. Because of its proximity to the Western Ghats, the district is rich in fauna. The Coimbatore urban wetlands harbours around 116 species of birds. Of these, 66 are resident, 17 are migratory and 33 are local migrants.[11] Spot-billed Pelican, Painted Stork, Open Billed Stork, Ibis, Spot-billed Duck, Teal, Black Winged Stilt are some of the migratory birds that visit Coimbatore wetlands regularly.[5]

Apart from the species common to the plains, wild elephants, wild boars leopards, tigers, bison, species of deer, Nilgiri Tahr, sloth bear and black-headed Oriole can be found.[12] The Anamalai Wildlife Sanctuary 88 km (55 mi) in the Western Ghats at an altitude of 1,400 meters covers an area of 958 km². More than 20% of the district is classified as forest, lying in the west and north. The forests here are abundant in commercially significant trees such as teak, sandalwood, rosewood and bamboo. The Nilgiris slope of the Mettupalayam range is rich in sandalwood trees and bamboo. They vary from rich tropical evergreen forests of Punachi range to jungles of shrubs in southern ranges. Apart from the high altitude regions of Western Ghats, most of the forest area has come under Lantana invasion. The locals refer to it as Siriki Chedi.

The district borders Palakkad district of Kerala in the west, Nilgiris district in the north, Erode district in the northeast and east, Idukki district of Kerala in the south and Dindigul district in the southeast. The district has an area of 7,649 square kilometers. The southwestern and northern parts are hilly, part of the Western Ghats, and enjoys pleasant climate all throughout the year. To the west is the Palghat Gap, the only major pass in the long stretch of the ghats abutting Tamil Nadu and Kerala. The Palghat Gap, connecting Coimbatore city and Palakkad city, serves as an important transit link for both the states. The rest of the district lies in the rain shadow region of the Western Ghats and experiences salubrious climate most parts of the year. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures for Coimbatore city during summer and winter vary between 35°C to 18°C.[13] The average annual rainfall in the plains is around 700 mm with the northeast and the southwest monsoons contributing to 47% and 28% respectively to the total rainfall.[14]

The major rivers flowing through the district are Bhavani, Noyyal, Amaravathi and Aliyar. The Siruvani dam is the main source of drinking water for Coimbatore city and is known for its tasty water. Waterfalls in Coimbatore District include Chinnakallar Falls, Monkey Falls, Sengupathi Falls, Siruvani Waterfalls, Thirumoorthy Falls and Vaideki Falls.

Demographics[edit]

According to 2011 census, Coimbatore district had a population of 3,458,045 with a sex-ratio of 1,000 females for every 1,000 males, much above the national average of 929.[15] A total of 319,332 were under the age of six, constituting 163,230 males and 156,102 females. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes accounted for 15.5% and .82% of the population respectively. The average literacy of the district was 76.23%, compared to the national average of 72.99%.[15] The district had a total of 958,035 households. There were a total of 1,567,950 workers, comprising 75,411 cultivators, 201,351 main agricultural labourers, 44,582 in house hold industries, 1,121,908 other workers, 124,698 marginal workers, 4,806 marginal cultivators, 28,675 marginal agricultural labourers, 5,503 marginal workers in household industries and 85,714 other marginal workers.[16] As per the 2001 Census, Tamil is the principal language spoken in the district, followed by Telugu, Kannada and small group of Malayalam speakers. Hindus formed the majority of the population at 90.08% followed by Muslims at 5.33%, Christians at 4.35% and others at 0.24%.[17]

Administrative divisions[edit]

Coimbatore District is divided into two revenue blocks and ten taluks.[18]

Transport[edit]

Coimbatore city railway station
NH 209 which passes through Coimbatore district

Coimbatore district is well connected by roads and highways. There are 6 regional transport offices namely: Coimbatore Central(Gandhipuram), Coimbatore South (Peelamedu), Coimbatore North (Thudiyalur), Coimbatore West (Kovaipudur), Mettupalayam, Pollachi and Sulur. There are three National Highways — NH-47, NH-67 and NH 209 — that connects the city to other parts of the states. There are railway stations at Peelamedu, Singanallur, Coimbatore North, Mettupalayam, Irugur, Podanur, Pollachi, Sulur, Thudiyalur and Periyanaickenpalayam . The Coimbatore City railway station is the largest and second highest revenue yielding railway station in Southern Railway after Chennai Central railway station. It is one of the two railway entry points for the neighbouring state of Kerala, the other being Mangalore in Karnataka. The district is served by the Coimbatore International Airport.

Flora and fauna[edit]

Western Ghats on the Coimbatore-Palakkad National Highway

Coimbatore district is home to Indira Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park. The park and sanctuary are the core of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve and is under consideration by UNESCO as part of the Western Ghats World Heritage site.[19] The park is home to a wide variety of flora and fauna typical of the South Western Ghats. There are over 2000 species plants of which about 400 species are of prime medicinal value. The animals in the park include Tiger, Leopard, Sloth Bear, Elephant, Indian Giant Flying Squirrel. The birds endemic to the Western Ghats residing here include Nilgiri Wood Pigeon, Nilgiri Pipit, Nilgiri Flycatcher, Malabar Grey Hornbill, Spot-billed Pelican etc. The Amaravathi reservoir and the Amaravathi river are breeding grounds for the Mugger Crocodiles.[20]

Industries[edit]

Coimbatore trade center (or) Codissia Trade Fair Complex
Windmills for electricity generation in Coimbatore District

Coimbatore is an important textile hub. Other industries include manufacturing of electric pumps, auto components and wet grinders. Coimbatore houses many information technology and business process outsourcing companies. The district is home to almost 50% of the poultry population of Tamil Nadu.[21] Agriculture contributes majorly to the economy and the major crops include, rice, sugarcane, gingelly, cotton, coconut, betel, tea and spices.

Education[edit]

Coimbatore has three public universities, Anna University Coimbatore, Bharathiar University and Tamil Nadu Agricultural University apart from several private universities, engineering and arts and science colleges. The city also houses research institutes like Central Institute for Cotton Research, Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Institute for Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding, Indian Council for Forestry Research and Education and Tamil Nadu Institute of Urban Studies. The first college opened in Coimbatore was the Government Arts College (1875–76). The forest college and research institute was opened in 1916. The first engineering college in the city was started by G.D. Naidu as the Arthur Hope College of Technology in 1945. Later it became the Government College of Technology, Coimbatore. PSG College of Technology was established later in 1951. The Air Force Administrative College was established in 1949 to train Indian Air Force personnel.Coimbatore Medical College was opened in 1966 and the Government law college started functioning from 1978. The agricultural school established in 1868 was converted into a full-fledged agricultural university (Tamil Nadu Agricultural University) in 1971 and the Sálim Ali Centre for Ornithology and Natural History was opened in 1990.

Places of interest[edit]

Valparai[edit]

Valparai is about 65 km from Pollachi and is situated at an altitude of 3500 feet above the sea level. Valparai is famous for it tea plantations.

Aanaimalai wildlife sanctuary[edit]

Aanaimalai Wildlife Sanctuary is about 90 km from Coimbatore and is situated at an altitude of 1,400 meters in the Western Ghats near Pollachi. The area of the sanctuary is 958 km². Top Slip is a point located at an altitude of about 800 feet in the Aanaimalai mountain range. It is a picturesque location in the Aanaimalai Hills about 37 km from Pollachi.

Parambikulam national park[edit]

The Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary is a reservoir of tranquil greenery ensconced in a valley between the Anaimalai Hills range of Tamil Nadu and the Nelliampathi Hills range of Kerala. The areas hilly and rocky, drained by several rivers, including the Parambikulam, the Sholayar and the Thekkady. Thickly forested with stands of bamboo, sandalwood, rosewood and teak, the sanctuary has some marshy land and scattered patches of grassland.

Parambikulam - Aliyar dam[edit]

This project consists of a series of dams interconnected by tunnels and canals at various elevations to harness the Parambikulam, Aliyar, Nirar, Sholiyar, Thunkadavu, Thenkkadi and Palar rivers, laid for irrigation and power generation. It is located in the Anaimalai Hills range. Seven streams-five flowing westward and two towards the east- have been dammed and their reservoirs interlinked by tunnels. The water is ultimately delivered to the drought-prone areas in the Coimbatore district of Tamil Nadu and the Chittur area of Kerala. The project has a command area of 1620 square kilometres with 185 MW of power generation capacity.

Temples[edit]

Major temples include Perur Pateeswarar Temple, Marudamalai Murugan Temple, Konniamman Temple, Thandu Mariamman Temple, Panchamuga Anjaneya Temple and Ramalinga Sowdeshwari Amman Temple in Coimbatore; Echanari Vinayagar Temple, Ranganathar Temple in Karamadai, Maasani Amman Temple in Anaimalai, Alagunachi Amman Temple in Pollachi, Thiru Moorthy Temple in Thirumoorthy Hills, Mariamman Temple in Sulakkal and Badrakali Amman Temple in Mettupalayam.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "2011 Census of India" (Excel). Indian government. 16 April 2011. 
  2. ^ http://www.winentrance.com/general_knowledge/india_misscellaneous/nick-names-indian-places.html
  3. ^ http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=EMA-AAAAIBAJ&sjid=XkwMAAAAIBAJ&pg=6189,9133960&dq=manchester+of+south+india+coimbatore&hl=en
  4. ^ Coimbatore district - History
  5. ^ a b L. Joseph Reginald, C. Mahendran, S. Suresh Kumar and P. Pramod (December 2007). "Birds of Singanallur lake, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu". Zoos' Print Journal 22 (12): 2944–2948. 
  6. ^ a b "Business Plan for Coimbatore Corporation". Wilbur Smith Associates. http://www.tn.gov.in/cma/CDP/Corporations/Coimbatore.pdf. 
  7. ^ "Noyyal flows on like a quiet killer". Deccan Chronicle. 28 January 2011. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  8. ^ "A river runs through it". The Hindu. 28 January 2006. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  9. ^ "‘Maintenance of tanks not at cost of environment'". The Hindu. 27 October 2010. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  10. ^ "Corporation begins storm water drain project in Coimbatore". The Hindu. 5 January 2011. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  11. ^ "CONSERVATION OF BIRD LIFE IN AN URBAN WETLAND: PROBLEMS CONCERNS — A CASE STUDY". CHEMICAL, BIOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING Proceedings of the International Conference on CBEE 2009. World Scientific Publishing Co. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  12. ^ "Coimbatore - a hot spot of bio-diversity". The Hindu. 17 February 2011. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  13. ^ http://www.coimbatore.tn.nic.in/pdf/SHB002.pdf
  14. ^ http://www.coimbatore.tn.nic.in/pdf/SHB002.pdf
  15. ^ a b "Census Info 2011 Final population totals". Office of The Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2013. Retrieved 26 January 2014. 
  16. ^ "Census Info 2011 Final population totals - Coimbatore district". Office of The Registrar General and Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2013. Retrieved 26 January 2014. 
  17. ^ [1][dead link]
  18. ^ Palaniappan, V. S. (5 December 2013). "Government sanctions two new taluks". The Hindu. 
  19. ^ UNESCO, World Heritage sites, Tentative lists, Western Ghats sub cluster, Anamalai, 2007. [2]
  20. ^ Whitaker Rom, Whitaker Zai (1989). Crocodiles, Their Ecology, Management, and Conservation. Madras Crocodile Bank, Madras, India.: IUCN/SSC Crocodile Specialist Group, Phil Hall, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. p. 278. ISBN 978-2-88032-987-7. Retrieved 2008-09-30. 
  21. ^ Animal husbandry