Coins of the Philippine peso

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Philippine peso coins are issued by the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas for circulation in the Philippines and are currently available in seven denominations.

History[edit]

Both Spain and the United States struck coins for the Philippines while the latter was their colony. Spanish issues were 1 peso, 2 pesos and 4 pesos (all gold from 1861–1868 and again in 1880-1885). Silver fractional coinage ran from 1864–1868 and again from 1880–1885 and were in the denominations of ten centavo, twenty centavo and fifty centavo.

The United States also struck coins for use in the Philippines from 1903 to 1945. Denominations included the ½ centavo, one centavo, five centavo, 10 cen, 20 centavo, 50 centavo, and one peso. The ½ and 1 centavo coins were struck in bronze, the 5 centavo struck in Copper (75%)- Nickel(25%), the 10, 20, 50 centavo and peso coins were struck in a silver composition. From 1903 to 1906, the silver coins had a silver content of 90%, while those struck after 1906 had a reduced silver content of 75% for 10 through 50 centavos and 80% for the peso. In both cases the silver was alloyed with copper.

The obverse of these coins remained largely unchanged during the years 1903 to 1945. The ½ centavo, one centavo, and five centavo coins depict a Filipino man kneeling against an anvil, with a hammer resting at his side. He is on the left side (foreground), while on the right side (background) there is a simmering volcano, Mt. Mayon, topped with smoke rings. This figure is an allegory for the hard work being done by the native peoples of the Philippines in building their own future.

The obverse of the 10, 20, 50 centavo, and peso coins are similar, but they show the figure of Liberty, a standing female figure (considered by many to be the daughter of the designer 'Blanca') in the act of striking the anvil with a hammer. This was done to show the work being done by Americans in building a better Philippines. Liberty appears on the silver coins, instead of the base metal coins.

The reverse of the coins comes in two varieties. The earliest coins were minted when the islands were a US Territory, and they bear the arms of the US Territories. This is a broad winged eagle, sitting atop a shield divided into two registers. The upper register has 13 stars, and the lower register has 13 vertical stripes. The date appears at the bottom, and "United States of America" appears at the top.

When the islands became a US Commonwealth, the arms of the Commonwealth were adopted. This seal is composed of a much smaller eagle with its wings pointed up, perched over a shield with peaked corners, above a scroll reading "Commonwealth of the Philippines". It is a much busier pattern, and widely considered less attractive.

Coins were minted at the Philadelphia, San Francisco, Denver, and (after it was opened in 1920) Manila mints. Most of the coins struck at the Manila mint occurred after 1925.

Proof sets were struck for collectors from 1903 to 1908. It is likely that a large majority of these sets remained unsold at the time they were issued. The recorded mintage for sets in 1905, 1906, and 1908 is a modest 500.

Defenders of Corregidor threw a large number of silver coins into the ocean, rather than allow the Japanese to accumulate this wealth. A great deal of the booty was later recovered, but many of those were badly corroded.

Among the rarest coins in the U.S. Philippines series from the collectors' standpoint are the 1906-S One Peso, the 1916-S Five Centavos, the 1918-S Five Centavo Mule, the 1903-S Twenty Centavos (especially in Mint State) and the 1915-S One Centavo.

Three Commemorative coins were minted to celebrate the Commonwealth in 1936. They show President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Commonwealth President Manuel L. Quezon and U.S. High Commissioner Frank Murphy, who also has served as the last Governor General of the Islands. The 50 Centavo commemorative has a reported mintage of 20,000 pieces, was struck in 75% silver, and weighs 10 grams (the same specifications as other 50 centavos). The two varieties of One Peso commemorative had reported mintages of 10,000 pieces. They weigh 20 grams, and are 90% silver.

After the granting of independence to the Philippines in 1946, no coins were minted for the Philippine Republic until 1958, other than a small silver commemorative issue in 1947 to honor General Douglas MacArthur. Totals of 200,000 50 centavos and 100,000 one peso coins were minted with the general's image on the obverse and the national coat-of-arms on the reverse. Struck at the San Francisco Mint, they carry the "S" mintmark below the date.

In 1958, the 20 centavos was replaced with a 25 centavos and all coins were resized to be the same diameter as their US equivalents, albeit in more base metals, other than the centavo. The same seated man with anvil and volcano or standing liberty with anvil and volcano designs were retained for the obverses while the seal of the Central Bank of the Philippines dominated the reverse. These coins were minted by the Philadelphia Mint from 1958 through 1963, and then by the Royal Mint in England and the Vereinigte Deutsche Metallweke in West Germany in 1965 (dated 1964) and 1966. In view of all subsequent issues using the Tagalog language, this coinage is often referred to as the "English Series" since it uses the English language.

The next series was introduced in 1967, introducing images of various Philippine national heroes, and the use of the Tagalog (or "Pilipino") language, hence being called the "Pilipino Series." The sizes of the coins were reduced. These coins were struck by the various US mints, except for some 50 centavos pieces dated 1972 which were minted in Singapore, and a couple commemorative issues struck by the Sherritt Mint in Canada. In 1972 the one peso denomination was reintroduced.

In commemoration of Fedinand Marcos' declaration of Martial Law (which he titled "Ang Bagong Lipunan," the new society), a new series of coinage was issued in 1975, referred to as the Ang Bagong Lipunan Series. The 50 sentimo was done away with as a denomination and a new 5 peso issue took its place. A variety of mints provided these coins, including the Royal Mint in England and the Vereinigte Deutsche Metallweke in West Germany, Philadelphia and San Francisco mints in the US, the Franklin Mint (a private mint also in the US), the Sherritt Mint in Canada, and finally the Philippine's own mint, once it was opened and able to produce coinage. From this point on, the Philippine Mint (Bangko Sentral Pilipinas, "BSP") produced nearly all Philippine coinage.

After eight years, the Ang Bagong Lipunan series gave way to a new series titled the Flora and Fauna Series, in which the coins, in addition to featuring various Philippine national heroes as before, also began featuring various plant and animal life forms native to the Philippines. The 50 Sentimo and 2 Piso denominations were reintroduced, which latter had not been struck as a coin since the Spanish had struck it in gold. The 5 Piso denomination was stopped, but resumed (in a new smaller size) concurrent to the final four years of the Flora and Fauna Series which featured reduced sizes for all denominations. The Flora and Fauna Series was struck from 1983 through 1994.

In 1995 the New BSP Series was introduced, which remains the current coinage of the Philippines. Only this current series of coins are legal tender as of January 2, 1998, when the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas issued BSP Circular No. 81 which called for the demonetization of all previous existing Central Bank coins minted before 1995.

Recently, fake 10- and 5-piso coins dating 2001 and 2002 have entered circulation. Because of this, the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas issued a warning and several security measures on importing and falsifying Philippine coins. And it is because the BSP has announced that there is an artificial shortage of coins last June 2006. The BSP has asked the public to use all small coins or to have them exchanged for banknotes in local banks or other financial institution.

In December 2008 a Philippine Congress resolution called for the retirement and demonetization of all coins less than 1 Piso.

Formerly circulating coins[edit]

The Philippines under U.S. Sovereignty[edit]

The Philippines under U.S. Sovereignty (1898–1935)
Image Face Value Technical parameters Description Total Mintage[1] Years of Issue[2]
Obverse Reverse Diameter Thickness Mass Composition Edge Obverse Reverse
1/2 centavo 17.5 mm Bronze Plain Figure of a man seated beside an anvil holding a hammer and Mt. Mayon, year of minting des. 12,084,000
5,654,000
471
500
500
1903
1904
1905
1906
1908
1 centavo 24 mm Bronze Plain Figure of a man seated beside an anvil holding a hammer and Mt. Mayon, year of minting des. 10,790,000
17,040,400
10,000,000
500
500
2,187,000
1,737,612
2,700,000
4,803,000
3,001,000
5,000,000
5,000,500
2,500,000
4,330,000
7,070,000
11,660,000
4,540,000
2,500,000
3,552,259
7,282,673
3,519,100
9,325,000
9,000,000
9,279,000
9,150,000
5,657,161
5,577,000
5,659,355
4,000,000
8,392,692
3,179,000
17,455,463
1903
1904
1905
1906
1908
1908 S
1909 S
1910 S
1911 S
1912 S
1913 S
1914 S
1915 S
1916 S
1917 S
1918 S
1919 S
1920 S
1920
1921
1922
1925 M
1926 M
1927 M
1928 M
1929 M
1930 M
1931 M
1932 M
1933 M
1934 M
1936 M
5 centavos 20.5 mm (1903–1928) 19 mm (1930–1935) Copper-Nickel Plain Figure of a man seated beside an anvil holding a hammer and Mt. Mayon, year of minting des. yyyy 1903
1904
1905
1906
1908
1916 S
1917 S
1918 S
1919 S
1920
1921
1925 M
1926 M
1927 M
1928 M
1929 M
1930 M
1931 M
1932 M
1933 M
1934 M
1935 M
10 centavos 17.5 mm (1903–1906) 16.5 mm (1907–1935) 75% Silver Reeded Lady Liberty striking an anvil with a hammer and Mt. Mayon, year of minting des. yyyy 1903
1903 S
1904
1904 S
1905
1906
1907
1907 S
1908
1908 S
1909 S
1911 S
1912 S
1913 S
1914 S
1915 S
1916 S
1917 S
1918 S
1919 S
1920
1921
1929 M
1935 M
20 centavos 23 mm (1903–1906) 20 mm (1907–1929) # # yyyy 1903
1903 S
1904
1904 S
1905
1905 S
1906
1907
1907 S
1908
1908 S
1909 S
1910 S
1911 S
1912 S
1913 S
1914 S
1915 S
1916 S
1917 S
1918 S
1919 S
1920
1921
1928 M
1929 M
50 centavos 30 mm (1903–1906) 27 mm (1907–1921) # # yyyy 1903
1903 S
1903 S
1904
1904 S
1905
1905 S
1906
1907
1907 S
1908
1908 S
1909 S
1917 S
1918 S
1919 S
1920
1921
1 Peso 38 mm (1903–1906) 35 mm (1907–1912) # # yyyy 1903
1903 S
1904
1904 S
1905
1905 S
1906
1906 S
1907 S
1908
1908 S
1909 S
1910 S
1911 S
1912 S

Commonwealth Issues[edit]

In 1935 when the Commonwealth was established by the Congress of the United States, they issued a three-piece commemorative set (that sold very poorly) to commemorate the occasion. In 1937 the Commonwealth Arms were adapted to all circulating coinage. (Mints M Manila, D Denver, S San Francisco, no mint mark Philadelphia)

Commonwealth Issues
Image Face Value Technical parameters Description Total Mintage[3] Years of Issue[4]
Obverse Reverse Diameter Thickness Mass Composition Edge Obverse Reverse
1 centavo 24  mm # mm # g Bronze Plain The figure of an adolescent native, seated at an anvil and holding a hammer in his right hand.
In the distance is seen the smoking volcano of Mt. Mayon, located on the main island of Luzon.
The statement of value appears above him (One, and/or Five Centavos)in English,
while the name of the archipelago is written below in Spanish as FILIPINAS.[5]
The coat of arms of the Commonwealth of the Philippines. Around this appeared the legend UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, the mint mark, and the date of coinage.[6] 15,790,492
10,000,000
6,500,000
4,000,000
5,000,000
58,000,000
1937 M
1938 M
1939 M
1940 M
1941 M
1944 S
5 centavos 19 mm # mm # g 75% Copper 25% Nickel Zinc Plain 2,493,872
4,000,000
2,750,000
21,198,000
14,040,000
72,796,000
1937 M
1938 M
1941 M
1944
1944 S
1945 S
10 centavos 16.5 mm # mm 2 g 75% Silver 25% Copper Reeded The standing figure of an adolescent female was utilized. She is
clad in a long, flowing gown and holds in her right hand a hammer, resting atop an anvil, as seen on the minor coins. Behind her is again Mt. Mayon, an almost perfectly conical volcanic mountain southwest of the capital city of Manila. The statement of value appears above her (Ten, Twenty,and/or Fifty Centavos) in English, while the name of the archipelago is written below in Spanish as FILIPINAS.[7]
3,500,000
3,750,000
2,500,000
31,592,000
137,208,000
1937 M
1938 M
1941 M
1944 D
1945 D
20 centavos 20 mm # 4 g 2,665,000
3,000,000
1,500,000
28,596,000
82,804,000
1937 M
1938 M
1941 M
1944 D
1945 D
50 centavos 27.5 mm # 10 g 19,187,000
18,120,000
1944 S
1945 S

Commonwealth Commemorative Issues[edit]

Commonwealth Commemorative Issues
Image Face Value Technical parameters Description Total Mintage Years of Issue
Obverse Reverse Diameter Thickness Mass Composition Edge Obverse Reverse
50 centavos # mm # mm # g Silver
#%Sil./#%Cup.
Reeded description Busts of Murphy and Quezon 20,000 1936 M
1 Peso # mm # mm # g Reeded description Busts of Murphy and Quezon 10,000 1936 M
1 Peso # mm # mm # g Reeded description Busts of Roosevelt and Quezon 10,000 1936 M

English Series[edit]

In 1958, a new, entirely base metal coinage was introduced, consisting of bronze 1 centavo, brass 5 centavos and nickel-brass 10, 25 and 50 centavos.

English Series
Image Face Value Technical parameters Description Total Mintage Date of
Obverse Reverse Diameter Thickness Mass Composition Edge Obverse Reverse issue withdrawal
1 centavo 18.5 mm Bronze Plain Figure of a man seated beside an anvil holding a hammer and Mt. Mayon, year of minting Bank title and coat of arms 1958 1967
5 centavos 20.0 mm Brass Plain Figure of a man seated beside an anvil holding a hammer and Mt. Mayon, year of minting Bank title and coat of arms 1958 1967
10 centavos 17.5 mm Nickel-brass Reeded Lady Liberty striking an anvil with a hammer and Mt. Mayon, year of minting Bank title and coat of arms 1958 1967
25 centavos 23.5 mm
50 centavos 30.0 mm

Pilipino Series[edit]

In 1969, the coinage was altered to reflect the use of Filipino names for the currency units. 1-piso coins were introduced in 1971

Pilipino Series
Image Value Diameter Composition Edge Obverse Reverse Year of
first minting withdrawal
1 sentimo 10.0 mm Aluminum Plain Lapu-Lapu State title, coat of arms, year of minting 1969 1974
5 sentimos 13.0 mm Brass Plain Melchora Aquino State title, coat of arms, year of minting 1969 1974
10 sentimos 17.5 mm Nickel-brass Reeded Francisco Baltazar State title, coat of arms, year of minting 1969 1974
25 sentimos 21.0 mm Juan Luna
50 sentimos 27.0 mm Marcelo H. del Pilar
1 33.0 mm José Rizal State title, coat of arms, year of minting between the words "BANGKO" and "SENTRAL" 1972

Ang Bagong Lipunan Series[edit]

In 1974, the "Ang Bagong Lipunan" ("The New Society") series, was introduced with the ₱5 coins included. Aluminium replaced bronze and cupro-nickel replaced nickel-brass that year.

Ang Bagong Lipunan Series
Image Value Diameter Composition Edge Obverse Reverse Year of
first minting withdrawal
1 sentimo 11.5 mm (length of side of rounded square shaped edge) Aluminum Plain State title, Lapu-Lapu, value "ANG BAGONG LIPUNAN," BSP logo, year of minting 1975 1983
5 sentimos 13.5 mm (8-pointed rounded scallop edge) Brass Plain State title, Melchora Aquino, value "ANG BAGONG LIPUNAN," BSP logo, year of minting 1975 1983
10 sentimos 17.5 mm Cupro-Nickel Reeded State title, Francisco Baltazar, value "ANG BAGONG LIPUNAN," BSP logo, year of minting 1975 1983
25 sentimos 21.0 mm State title, Juan Luna, value
₱1 28.5 mm State title, José Rizal, value "ANG BAGONG LIPUNAN," coat of arms with the scroll text altered to "ISANG BANSA, ISANG DIWA" ("One Nation, One Spirit") with two digits of the year minted on both sides, bank title
₱5 35.0 mm "ANG BAGONG LIPUNAN," "Setyembre 21, 1972" ("September 21, 1972"), Ferdinand Marcos, year of minting State title, coat of arms with the scroll text altered to "ISANG BANSA, ISANG DIWA" ("One Nation, One Spirit") 1982

Flora and Fauna Series[edit]

The Flora and Fauna series was introduced in 1983 which included ₱2 coins. The sizes of the coins were reduced and ₱5 coins were reintroduced in 1991, with the production of 50-sentimo and ₱2 coins ceasing in 1994.

Flora and Fauna Series
Image Value Diameter Composition Edge Obverse Reverse Year of
first minting withdrawal
1 sentimo 15.5 mm 99.2% Al
0.8% Mg
Plain State title, Lapu-Lapu, year of minting Value, Voluta imperialis 1983 1994
5 sentimo 17.0 mm State title, Melchora Aquino, year of minting Value, Vanda sanderiana
10 sentimo 19.0 mm State title, Francisco Baltazar, value Value, Pandaka pygmaea
25 sentimo 21.0 mm Brass Reeded State title, Juan Luna, year of minting Value, Graphium idaeoides 1983 1990
50 sentimo 25.0 mm 75% Cu
25% Ni
Plain State title, Marcelo H. del Pilar, year of minting Pithecophaga jefferyi, value 1983 1990
₱1 29.0 mm Reeded State title, José Rizal, year of minting Value, Anoa mindorensis
₱2 29.8 mm (decagon) Plain State title, Andrés Bonifacio, year of minting Cocos nucifera, value
Improved Flora and Fauna Series (1991–1994)
25 sentimo 16.0 mm Brass Plain State title, Juan Luna, year of minting Value, Graphium idaeoides 1991 1994
50 sentimo 17.5 mm Reeded State title, Marcelo H. del Pilar, year of minting Pithecophaga jefferyi, value
₱1 21.6 mm Stainless steel Plain State title, José Rizal, year of minting Value, Anoa mindorensis 1991 1994
₱2 24.0 mm Reeded State title, Andrés Bonifacio, year of minting Cocos nucifera, value
₱5 25.5 mm Nickel brass Reeded State title, Emilio Aguinaldo, year of minting Pterocarpus indicus, value 1991 1994

Circulating coins[edit]

1995 series
Image Face Value Technical parameters Description Years of Issue
Obverse Reverse Diameter Mass Composition Edge Obverse Reverse Introduced Withdrawn
1 sentimo 15.5 mm 2.0 g Copper plated steel Plain "Republika ng Pilipinas", value, year of minting Logo of Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas 1995
5 sentimos 15.5 mm 1.9 g Plain
(with 4 mm central hole)
"Republika ng Pilipinas", value, year of minting Words "Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas" along the border
10 sentimos 17.0 mm 2.5 g Reeded "Republika ng Pilipinas", value, year of minting Logo of Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas
25 sentimos 20.0 mm 3.8 g Brass Plain "Republika ng Pilipinas", value, year of minting Logo of Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas 1995
3.6 g Brass plated steel 2004
1 peso 24.0 mm 6.1 g Cupronickel Reeded "Republika ng Pilipinas", Profile of José Rizal, value, year of minting Logo of Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas 1995
5.35 g Nickel plated steel 2004
5 pesos 27.0 mm 7.7 g 70% copper
5.5% nickel
24.5% zinc
Plain
12-pointed scallop border design, "Republika ng Pilipinas", Profile of Emilio Aguinaldo, value, year of minting 12-pointed scallop border design, Logo of Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas 1995
10 pesos 26.5 mm 8.7 g Ring: Cupronickel Interrupted milled Ring: "Republika ng Pilipinas", year of minting Logo of Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas 2000
Center: Aluminium bronze Center: Profiles of Andrés Bonifacio and Apolinario Mabini, value

Current legal tender commemorative coins[edit]

On December 9, 2011, The Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (BSP) issued a commemorative one-peso coin in celebration with the 150th Birth Anniversary of José Rizal. The coins are in the same dimensions as the circulating one peso coins with Rizal's profile on the front instead of the side. The new coin also has the new logo of the central bank and is legal tender with the current series.[8]

On December 18, 2013, The Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (BSP) issued a commemorative ten-peso coin in celebration with the 150th Birth Anniversary of Andres Bonifacio. The coins are in the same dimensions but the design changed. These also featured the new logo of the central bank and is also legal tender.

Current legal tender commemorative coins
Image Value Diameter Weight Composition Edge Obverse Reverse First Minted Year
1 peso 24.0 mm 5.35 g Nickel plated steel Reeded "Republika ng Pilipinas", Profile of José Rizal, "150 Years", "1861-2011" Logo of the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas with a facade of the sun, value, year of minting 2011
10 pesos 26.5 mm 8.7 g Bi-metallic (Copper nickel outer ring with an aluminum bronze center plug) Segmented "Republika ng Pilipinas", Profile of Andres Bonifacio Monument of Andres Bonifacio, "Dangal at Kabayanihan", signature of Andres Bonifacio, logo of the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, "150 Years", "1863-2013" 2013

References[edit]

  1. ^ All mintage numbers are from Red Book A Guide Book of United States Coins, page #
  2. ^ All year dates and mint mark denominations are from Red Book A Guide Book of United States Coins, page #
  3. ^ All mintage numbers are from Red Book A Guide Book of United States Coins, page #
  4. ^ All year dates and mint mark denominations are from Red Book A Guide Book of United States Coins, page #
  5. ^ [1]
    All of these coins bore a single reverse design, the federal shield surmounted by an American eagle clutching an olive branch in its right claw and a bundle of arrows in its left. Around this appeared the legend UNITED STATES OF AMERICA and the date of coinage. The obverse of the minor coins (the half centavo and one centavo, both coined in bronze, and the copper-nickel five centavos) featured the semi-nude figure of an adolescent native, seated at an anvil and holding a hammer in his right hand. In the distance is seen the smoking volcano of Mt. Mayon, located on the main island of Luzon. The statement of value appears above him in English, while the name of the archipelago is written below in Spanish as FILIPINAS. This employment of Spanish is curious, given the islands’ recent history, yet it remained for some years afterward the principal language of the educated class. For the silver coins (ten, twenty and fifty centavos, plus the one-peso piece), the standing figure of an adolescent female was utilized. She is clad in a long, flowing gown and holds in her right hand a hammer, resting atop an anvil, as seen on the minor coins. Behind her is again Mt. Mayon, an almost perfectly conical volcanic mountain northeast of the capital city of Manila. These designs are credited to Filipino sculptor Melecio Figueroa, who lived just long enough to see his coins enter circulation.
  6. ^ [2]
    The transition from protectorate to commonwealth, which occurred November 15, 1935, was commemorated on a set of three coins dated 1936-M. The fifty-centavo piece shows facing portraits of outgoing Governor-General Frank Murphy and incoming President Manuel Quezon. They are portrayed again on one of the peso coins, this time in profile, their busts overlapping. This same configuration is used for the other one-peso commemorative, but on its obverse the subjects are President Quezon and President of the United States Franklin D. Roosevelt. This is a very rare instance of a living U. S. president appearing on a United States coin. The common reverse for all three coins depicted the arms of the Commonwealth of the Philippines. Featuring elements symbolic of Spain, The USA and the islands themselves, it was adopted as the common reverse for all regular-issue coins beginning in 1937.
  7. ^ [3]
    All of these coins bore a single reverse design, the federal shield surmounted by an American eagle clutching an olive branch in its right claw and a bundle of arrows in its left. Around this appeared the legend UNITED STATES OF AMERICA and the date of coinage. The obverse of the minor coins (the half centavo and one centavo, both coined in bronze, and the copper-nickel five centavos) featured the semi-nude figure of an adolescent native, seated at an anvil and holding a hammer in his right hand. In the distance is seen the smoking volcano of Mt. Mayon, located on the main island of Luzon. The statement of value appears above him in English, while the name of the archipelago is written below in Spanish as FILIPINAS. This employment of Spanish is curious, given the islands’ recent history, yet it remained for some years afterward the principal language of the educated class. For the silver coins (ten, twenty and fifty centavos, plus the one-peso piece), the standing figure of an adolescent female was utilized. She is clad in a long, flowing gown and holds in her right hand a hammer, resting atop an anvil, as seen on the minor coins. Behind her is again Mt. Mayon, an almost perfectly conical volcanic mountain northeast of the capital city of Manila. These designs are credited to Filipino sculptor Melecio Figueroa, who lived just long enough to see his coins enter circulation.
  8. ^ "BSP to Issue One-Piso Commemorative Rizal Coin in December". Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas. Retrieved 2011-12-30. 

External links[edit]