Cola

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This article is about the beverage. For other uses, see Cola (disambiguation).
Cola
Glass cola.jpg
A glass of cola served with ice cubes and lemon slices
Type Soft Drink
Country of origin United States
Introduced 1886
Color Caramel
Flavor Kola nut

Cola is a carbonated beverage that originally contained caffeine from the kola nut and cocaine from coca leaves, and was flavored with vanilla and other ingredients. Most colas now use other flavoring (and caffeinating) ingredients with a similar taste and no longer contain cocaine. It became popular worldwide after pharmacist John Pemberton invented Coca-Cola in 1886.[1] His non-alcoholic recipe was inspired by the Coca wine of pharmacist Angelo Mariani, created in 1863.[1] It usually contains caramel color, caffeine and sweeteners such as sugar or high fructose corn syrup.

Flavorings[edit]

Despite the name, the primary modern flavoring ingredients in a cola drink are sugar, citrus oils (from oranges, limes, or lemon fruit peel), cinnamon, vanilla, and an acidic flavorant.[2][3] Manufacturers of cola drinks add trace ingredients to create distinctively different tastes for each brand. Trace flavorings may include nutmeg and a wide variety of ingredients, but the base flavorings that most people identify with a cola taste remain vanilla and cinnamon. Acidity is often provided by phosphoric acid, sometimes accompanied by citric or other isolated acids. Coca-Cola's recipe and several others[which?] are maintained as corporate trade secrets.

A variety of different sweeteners may be added to cola, often partly dependent on local agricultural policy. High-fructose corn syrup is predominantly used in the United States and Canada due to the lower cost of government-subsidized corn. In Europe, however, HFCS is subject to production quotas designed to encourage the production of sugar; sugar is thus typically used to sweeten sodas.[4] In addition, stevia or an artificial sweetener may be used; "sugar-free" or "diet" colas typically contain artificial sweeteners only.

Consumers may prefer the taste of soda manufactured with sugar; as in the United States, with imported Mexican Coca-Cola.[5][6] Kosher for Passover Coca-Cola sold in the U.S. around the Jewish holiday also uses sucrose rather than HFCS and is also highly sought after by people who prefer the original taste.[7] In addition, PepsiCo has recently been marketing versions of its Pepsi and Mountain Dew sodas that are sweetened with sugar instead of HFCS. These are marketed under the name Throwback and became "permanent" products on the lineup.[8]

Clear cola[edit]

Clear cola is a colorless variety of cola, popular in the early 1990s. Brands included Crystal Pepsi, Tab Clear and 7 Up Ice Cola.

Health[edit]

For more details on this topic, see Coca-Cola § Health effects.

A 2007 study found that consumption of colas, both those with natural sweetening and those with artificial sweetening, was associated with increased risk of chronic kidney disease. The phosphoric acid used in colas was thought to be a possible cause.[9]

Studies indicate "soda and sweetened drinks are the main source of calories in [the] American diet",[10] so most nutritionists advise that Coca-Cola and other soft drinks can be harmful if consumed excessively, particularly to young children whose soft drink consumption competes with, rather than complements, a balanced diet. Studies have shown that regular soft drink users have a lower intake of calcium, magnesium, ascorbic acid, riboflavin, and vitamin A.[11]

The drink has also aroused criticism for its use of caffeine, which can cause physical dependence (caffeine addiction).[12] A link has been shown between long-term regular cola intake and osteoporosis in older women (but not men).[13] This was thought to be due to the presence of phosphoric acid, and the risk was found to be same for caffeinated and noncaffeinated colas, as well as the same for diet and sugared colas.

Many soft drinks are sweetened mostly or entirely with high-fructose corn syrup, rather than sugar. Some nutritionists caution against consumption of corn syrup because it may aggravate obesity and type-2 diabetes more than cane sugar.[14]

Regional brands[edit]

Asia[edit]

Europe[edit]

North America[edit]

  • Big Cola (Big Cola) made by Peruvian transnational Ajegroup and is sold in the northern parts of Mexico.
  • Jarritos Cola is a brand of cola from Mexico, while popular and native to Mexico, it is widely distributed mainly to Latino residents of the United States.
  • Lulú Cola, produced by Pascual S.C.L. from Mexico
  • Chiva Cola, produced by Grupo Omnilife of C.D. Guadalajara, from Mexico
  • Cott produces many house brand beverages as well as its own line of products, most notably its Black Cherry cola.
  • The Double Cola Company, Double Cola
  • TuKola and Tropicola are brands from Cuba (also sold widely in Italy).
  • Fentimans Curiosity Cola, originating from the United Kingdom in 1905, is now sold across Europe and North America.
  • Jones Soda also makes a cola, using cane sugar.
  • Jolt Cola is sold by Wet Planet Beverages, of Rochester, New York. Originally, the slogan was "All the sugar and twice the caffeine." It dropped the slogan when it switched from cane sugar to high fructose corn syrup.
  • Johnnie Ryan is a regional cola bottled in Niagara Falls, New York. Established in 1935, it makes it with 100% cane sugar and also sells 22 other flavors.[18]
  • Polar Beverages of Worcester, Ma produces its own brand of cola under the Polar name.
  • Red Bull Cola has been available in the United States since 2008.
  • Faygo Cola is a soft drink distributed in the Midwest, Mid-Atlantic, and Central Southern regions of the United States. Faygo can be found in some regions of Canada, Cola being one of more than fifty flavors.
  • Zevia Cola is a zero calorie soft drink that is sweetened with SweetSmart, a next generation sweetening system, which is a blend of high purity Stevia combined with Monk Fruit and Erythritol. Zevia was founded in Seattle in 2007. Zevia can also be found in some regions of Canada. Cola is one of more than fifteen flavors produced by the company.

Africa[edit]

  • Hamoud-Boualem: Famous in Algeria, with different flavours; also sold in Europe and US.

South America[edit]

Oceania[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Coca Wine". Cocaine.org. Retrieved 2013-09-29. 
  2. ^ DeNeefe, Janet (2008-03-13). "The Exotic Romance of Tamarind". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 2013-09-29. 
  3. ^ "Cola 2". Sparror.cubecinema.com. Retrieved 2013-09-29. 
  4. ^ M. Ataman Aksoy, John C. Beghin, ed. (2005). "Sugar Policies: An Opportunity for Change". Global Agricultural Trade and Developing Countries. World Bank Publications. p. 329. ISBN 0-8213-5863-4. 
  5. ^ Is Mexican Coke the real thing? By Louise Chu Associated Press November 9, 2004 The San Diego Union-Tribune
  6. ^ "Coke". Seattletimes.nwsource.com. 2004-10-29. Retrieved 2013-09-29. 
  7. ^ Dixon, Duffie (2009-04-09). "Kosher Coke". USAtoday.com. Retrieved 2013-09-29. 
  8. ^ Horovitz, Bruce (2011-03-11). "Pepsi, Frito-Lay capitalize on fond thoughts of the good ol' days". USA Today. Retrieved 29 September 2011. 
  9. ^ Tina M. Saldana, Olga Basso, Rebecca Darden, and Dale P. Sandler (2007). "Carbonated beverages and chronic kidney disease". Epidemiology 18 (4): 501–6. doi:10.1097/EDE.0b013e3180646338. PMC 3433753. PMID 17525693. 
  10. ^ "Preliminary Data Suggest That Soda And Sweet Drinks Are The Main Source Of Calories In American Diet". Sciencedaily.com. May 27, 2005. Retrieved July 2, 2011. 
  11. ^ Jacobson, Michael F. (2005). "Liquid Candy: How Soft Drinks are Harming Americans' Health", pp. 5–6. Center for Science in the Public Interest. Retrieved October 13, 2010.
  12. ^ Center for Science in the Public Interest (1997). "Label Caffeine Content of Foods, Scientists Tell FDA." Retrieved June 10, 2005. Archived 10 July 2007 at WebCite
  13. ^ Tucker KL, Morita K, Qiao N, Hannan MT, Cupples LA, and Kiel DP (October 1, 2006). "Colas, but not other carbonated beverages, are associated with low bone mineral density in older women: The Framingham Osteoporosis Study" (PDF). American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 84 (4): 336–342. PMID 17023723. Retrieved April 21, 2008. 
  14. ^ "Single food ingredient the cause of obesity ? New study has industry up in arms". (April 26, 2004). FoodNavigator.com. Retrieved February 27, 2007.
  15. ^ "('My Cola' breaks new ground". theSundaily. Retrieved 2013-09-29. 
  16. ^ "haji cola"
  17. ^ "Irish Cola"
  18. ^ "Johnnie Ryan"
  19. ^ "Ajegroup". Ajegroup. Retrieved 2013-09-29. 
  20. ^ "¡Este es mi 28!". IncaKola. Retrieved 2013-09-29. 
  21. ^ http://www.creditosperu.com.pe/pp-pepsico-inc-sucursal-del-peru.php
  22. ^ "Grupo Perú Cola - Hoy el Perú sabe mejor" (in Spanish). Donjorge.com.pe. Retrieved 2013-09-29. 
  23. ^ a b "Bienvenidos a ELSA" (in Spanish). Elsa.cl. Retrieved 2013-09-29. 
  24. ^ "Kiwi Cola"
  25. ^ "Bickford's Old Style Original Kola"

External links[edit]