|Country of origin||United States|
Cola is a carbonated beverage that originally contained caffeine from the kola nut and cocaine from coca leaves, and was flavored with vanilla and other ingredients. Most colas now use other flavoring (and caffeinating) ingredients with a similar taste and no longer contain cocaine. It became popular worldwide after pharmacist John Pemberton invented Coca-Cola in 1886. His non-alcoholic recipe was inspired by the Coca wine of pharmacist Angelo Mariani, created in 1863. It usually contains caramel color, caffeine and sweeteners such as sugar or high fructose corn syrup.
Despite the name, the primary modern flavoring ingredients in a cola drink are sugar, citrus oils (from oranges, limes, or lemon fruit peel), cinnamon, vanilla, and an acidic flavorant. Manufacturers of cola drinks add trace ingredients to create distinctively different tastes for each brand. Trace flavorings may include nutmeg and a wide variety of ingredients, but the base flavorings that most people identify with a cola taste remain vanilla and cinnamon. Acidity is often provided by phosphoric acid, sometimes accompanied by citric or other isolated acids. Coca-Cola's recipe and several others[which?] are maintained as corporate trade secrets.
A variety of different sweeteners may be added to cola, often partly dependent on local agricultural policy. High-fructose corn syrup is predominantly used in the United States and Canada due to the lower cost of government-subsidized corn. In Europe, however, HFCS is subject to production quotas designed to encourage the production of sugar; sugar is thus typically used to sweeten sodas. In addition, stevia or an artificial sweetener may be used; "sugar-free" or "diet" colas typically contain artificial sweeteners only.
Consumers may prefer the taste of soda manufactured with sugar; as in the United States, with imported Mexican Coca-Cola. Kosher for Passover Coca-Cola sold in the U.S. around the Jewish holiday also uses sucrose rather than HFCS and is also highly sought after by people who prefer the original taste. In addition, PepsiCo has recently been marketing versions of its Pepsi and Mountain Dew sodas that are sweetened with sugar instead of HFCS. These are marketed under the name Throwback and became "permanent" products on the lineup.
A 2007 study found that consumption of colas, both those with natural sweetening and those with artificial sweetening, was associated with increased risk of chronic kidney disease. The phosphoric acid used in colas was thought to be a possible cause.
Studies indicate "soda and sweetened drinks are the main source of calories in [the] American diet", so most nutritionists advise that Coca-Cola and other soft drinks can be harmful if consumed excessively, particularly to young children whose soft drink consumption competes with, rather than complements, a balanced diet. Studies have shown that regular soft drink users have a lower intake of calcium, magnesium, ascorbic acid, riboflavin, and vitamin A.
The drink has also aroused criticism for its use of caffeine, which can cause physical dependence (caffeine addiction). A link has been shown between long-term regular cola intake and osteoporosis in older women (but not men). This was thought to be due to the presence of phosphoric acid, and the risk was found to be same for caffeinated and noncaffeinated colas, as well as the same for diet and sugared colas.
Many soft drinks are sweetened mostly or entirely with high-fructose corn syrup, rather than sugar. Some nutritionists caution against consumption of corn syrup because it may aggravate obesity and type-2 diabetes more than cane sugar.
- MyCola, sold in Malaysia by Arqam
- Amrat Cola, popular in Pakistan.
- Campa Cola was India's most popular brand prior to the introduction of Coca-Cola and Pepsi to the Indian market in 1991.
- Future Cola, a local brand in China.
- Est Cola, a local brand in Thailand.
- Mecca Cola, sold in the Middle East, parts of Europe and North Africa.
- Pakola, popular in Pakistan.
- Parsi Cola, popular in Iran.
- Red Bull Cola, popular in Thailand.
- Thums Up, popular in India.
- Topsia Cola, popular in Iran.
- Cola Turka is a local brand in Turkey.
- Zam Zam Cola, popular in Iran and parts of the Arab world.
- Big Cola, popular in Indonesia.
- Bovonto, popular in South India.
- Pop Cola, popular in the Philippines.
- My Cola, popular in Sri Lanka.
- KIK Cola, popular in Sri Lanka.
- Afri-Cola, a German brand, had a higher caffeine content (about 250 mg/L) until the product was relaunched with a new formulation in 1999. It was relaunched a second time in April 2006 with the original formulation with the higher caffeine content.
- Barr Cola made by A.G. Barr (the makers of the popular Irn Bru drink) in the United Kingdom.
- Breizh Cola is a local brand from Brittany (France). It offers different and unique flavors like a clove aroma, bottled in an original cider bottle.
- Brisa Cola is a local brand from Madeira, Portugal and produced by Empresa de Cervejas da Madeira.
- Cadet Cola is a local brand from Ireland, produced by Gleeson Soft Drinks in Tipperary, Ireland.
- Cola Cola — Albania
- Cockta is a local brand from former Yugoslavia, originally produced by Slovenijavino company from Slovenia (then part of Yugoslavia). A couple of years ago it was bought by Droga Kolinska, a Slovenian company owned by the Croatian Atlantic Grupa. It is still popular in former Yugoslav republics, especially in Slovenia and Croatia. It does not contain any caffeine.
- Corsica Cola is a regional cola distributed by the Corsican brewery Pietra.
- Cuba Cola is the native cola of Sweden.
- Curiosity Cola, is an upmarket botanically brewed cola produced by Fentimans, from the UK.
- Freeway Cola a Lidl brand sold across Europe.
- Fritz-kola is a cola soft drink from Hamburg, Germany. It uses the highest possible concentration of caffeine for beverages allowed by German law (250 mg/L) and is available in most of Germany, as well as parts of western and central Europe.
- Galicola, is a cola soft drink from Galicia, Spain.
- haji cola, a local brand in Germany.
- Золотой орех (Golden nut), a cola-flavored beverage produced in Russia since the end of 1990s by the OST company based in Chernogolovka town.
- Irish Cola is a local brand in Ireland.
- In Denmark, the native Jolly Cola was more popular than Coca-Cola and Pepsi Cola during the 1960s and 1970s.
- Kletta Gos Cola — Iceland
- Kofola is the third best selling soft-drink in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, behind Coca-Cola and Pepsi.
- Planet Cola, a brand sold at Auchan.
- Polo-Cockta, a Polish brand.
- Red Bull Cola has been available throughout Europe since 2008.
- Ubuntu Cola is a fairtrade cola from the United Kingdom available in parts of Western Europe.
- Virgin Cola was popular in South Africa and Western Europe in the 1990s but has waned in availability.
- Vita-Cola is a German cola brand with a distinct citrus flavor; nowadays it is mostly sold in eastern Germany.
- Big Cola (Big Cola) made by Peruvian transnational Ajegroup and is sold in the northern parts of Mexico.
- Jarritos Cola is a brand of cola from Mexico, while popular and native to Mexico, it is widely distributed mainly to Latino residents of the United States.
- Lulú Cola, produced by Pascual S.C.L. from Mexico
- Chiva Cola, produced by Grupo Omnilife of C.D. Guadalajara, from Mexico
- Cott produces many house brand beverages as well as its own line of products, most notably its Black Cherry cola.
- The Double Cola Company, Double Cola
- TuKola and Tropicola are brands from Cuba (also sold widely in Italy).
- Fentimans Curiosity Cola, originating from the United Kingdom in 1905, is now sold across Europe and North America.
- Jones Soda also makes a cola, using cane sugar.
- Jolt Cola is sold by Wet Planet Beverages, of Rochester, New York. Originally, the slogan was "All the sugar and twice the caffeine." It dropped the slogan when it switched from cane sugar to high fructose corn syrup.
- Johnnie Ryan is a regional cola bottled in Niagara Falls, New York. Established in 1935, it makes it with 100% cane sugar and also sells 22 other flavors.
- Polar Beverages of Worcester, Ma produces its own brand of cola under the Polar name.
- Red Bull Cola has been available in the United States since 2008.
- Faygo Cola is a soft drink distributed in the Midwest, Mid-Atlantic, and Central Southern regions of the United States. Faygo can be found in some regions of Canada, Cola being one of more than fifty flavors.
- Zevia Cola is a zero calorie soft drink that is sweetened with SweetSmart, a next generation sweetening system, which is a blend of high purity Stevia combined with Monk Fruit and Erythritol. Zevia was founded in Seattle in 2007. Zevia can also be found in some regions of Canada. Cola is one of more than fifteen flavors produced by the company.
- Hamoud-Boualem: Famous in Algeria, with different flavours; also sold in Europe and US.
- Big Cola: a cola produced by Peruvian company Ajegroup which operates in 14 countries including South America.
- Coca-Cola: produced in Peru by Corporación José R. Lindley S.A. and distributed in the same channels as Inca Kola.
- Pepsi is produced by AmBev (a Brazilian company that owns Anheuser-Busch InBev), the largest bottler of Pepsi Cola outside the United States. In Peru, Pepsi is bottled and distributed by Pepsico Inc Sucursal Del Peru.
- Perú Cola: created by Peruvian bottler Embotelladora Don Jorge S.A.C. to compete with Coca-Cola and Kola. Real.
- RC Cola: produced and marketed by Colombian bottler Embotelladora Latinoamericana S.A. (ELSA)
- Schin Cola is a local variety of cola produced in Brazil by Primo Schincariol.
- Ship: produced and marketed by Colombian bottler Embotelladora Latinoamericana S.A. (ELSA)
- Kiwi Cola is a cola produced under the WAI-KAWA brand in New Zealand, and contains a Kawakawa leaf infusion.
- Bickford's Old Style Original Kola is produced by Bickford's Australia in Adelaide, South Australia. It is not readily available outside South Australia.
- LA Ice Cola is an Australian cola owned by P&N beverages. It is similar to Coca-Cola and Pepsi, which are its rivals.
- Cola wars
- Open source colas – soft drinks whose recipe is open sourced
- List of brand name soft drinks products
- List of soft drink flavors
- List of soft drink producers
- List of soft drinks by country
- "Coca Wine". Cocaine.org. Retrieved 2013-09-29.
- DeNeefe, Janet (2008-03-13). "The Exotic Romance of Tamarind". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 2013-09-29.
- "Cola 2". Sparror.cubecinema.com. Retrieved 2013-09-29.
- M. Ataman Aksoy, John C. Beghin, ed. (2005). "Sugar Policies: An Opportunity for Change". Global Agricultural Trade and Developing Countries. World Bank Publications. p. 329. ISBN 0-8213-5863-4.
- Is Mexican Coke the real thing? By Louise Chu Associated Press November 9, 2004 The San Diego Union-Tribune
- "Coke". Seattletimes.nwsource.com. 2004-10-29. Retrieved 2013-09-29.
- Dixon, Duffie (2009-04-09). "Kosher Coke". USAtoday.com. Retrieved 2013-09-29.
- Horovitz, Bruce (2011-03-11). "Pepsi, Frito-Lay capitalize on fond thoughts of the good ol' days". USA Today. Retrieved 29 September 2011.
- Tina M. Saldana, Olga Basso, Rebecca Darden, and Dale P. Sandler (2007). "Carbonated beverages and chronic kidney disease". Epidemiology 18 (4): 501–6. doi:10.1097/EDE.0b013e3180646338. PMC 3433753. PMID 17525693.
- "Preliminary Data Suggest That Soda And Sweet Drinks Are The Main Source Of Calories In American Diet". Sciencedaily.com. May 27, 2005. Retrieved July 2, 2011.
- Jacobson, Michael F. (2005). "Liquid Candy: How Soft Drinks are Harming Americans' Health", pp. 5–6. Center for Science in the Public Interest. Retrieved October 13, 2010.
- Center for Science in the Public Interest (1997). "Label Caffeine Content of Foods, Scientists Tell FDA." Retrieved June 10, 2005. Archived 10 July 2007 at WebCite
- Tucker KL, Morita K, Qiao N, Hannan MT, Cupples LA, and Kiel DP (October 1, 2006). "Colas, but not other carbonated beverages, are associated with low bone mineral density in older women: The Framingham Osteoporosis Study" (PDF). American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 84 (4): 336–342. PMID 17023723. Retrieved April 21, 2008.
- "Single food ingredient the cause of obesity ? New study has industry up in arms". (April 26, 2004). FoodNavigator.com. Retrieved February 27, 2007.
- "('My Cola' breaks new ground". theSundaily. Retrieved 2013-09-29.
- "haji cola"
- "Irish Cola"
- "Johnnie Ryan"
- "Ajegroup". Ajegroup. Retrieved 2013-09-29.
- "¡Este es mi 28!". IncaKola. Retrieved 2013-09-29.
- "Grupo Perú Cola - Hoy el Perú sabe mejor" (in Spanish). Donjorge.com.pe. Retrieved 2013-09-29.
- "Bienvenidos a ELSA" (in Spanish). Elsa.cl. Retrieved 2013-09-29.
- "Kiwi Cola"
- "Bickford's Old Style Original Kola"
|Look up cola in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- Cola and Mentos mints trick
- OpenCola recipe (originally published by Cory Doctorow)
- Straight Dope article about caffeine levels on soft drinks