Cold Bay, Alaska

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Cold Bay
City
Cold Bay sometime in the late 20th century. Cold Bay Airport's runways are visible.
Cold Bay sometime in the late 20th century. Cold Bay Airport's runways are visible.
Cold Bay is located in Alaska
Cold Bay
Cold Bay
Location in Alaska
Coordinates: 55°12′33″N 162°42′51″W / 55.20917°N 162.71417°W / 55.20917; -162.71417
Country United States
State Alaska
Borough Aleutians East
Incorporated 1982[1]
Government
 • Mayor Jorge Lopez[2]
Area
 • Total 70.9 sq mi (183.7 km2)
 • Land 54.4 sq mi (140.8 km2)
 • Water 16.6 sq mi (42.9 km2)
Elevation 138 ft (42 m)
Population (2010)[3]
 • Total 108
Time zone Alaska (AKST) (UTC-9)
 • Summer (DST) AKDT (UTC-8)
ZIP code 99571
Area code 907
FIPS code 02-16530
Website http://www.coldbay.org/

Cold Bay (Udaamagax[4] in Aleut) is a city in Aleutians East Borough, Alaska, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 108.

Cold Bay is one of the main commercial centers of the Alaska Peninsula, and is home to Cold Bay Airport.

History[edit]

There is evidence of prehistoric occupation by Aleuts and later Russian encampments. Cold Bay's American history began with the Japanese invasion of the Aleutians in World War II. General Simon Bolivar Buckner ordered the creation of Fort Randall, an airbase on the shores of Cold Bay, in 1942 as a part of a general expansion of American assets in the Aleutians.[5] It (along with Otter Point) served as a base for the 11th Air Force to provide protection to the only deep water port in the Aleutians at the time, Dutch Harbor. This protection was proved necessary when during Yamamoto's Midway Campaign a diversionary attack was launched against Dutch Harbor. The initial attack was repulsed by the surprise presence of P-40s stationed here. A second larger attack with its own fighter escort the next day succeeded in causing minor damage.[6] Later, with the victory in the Pacific, the forces grew to 20,000 troops. The quonset huts used to house this massive encampment still stand around the community today. It also was a base of operations for the US Navy with the USS Casco among those based in Cold Bay, according to the Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships, published by the Department of the Navy. (Reference: http://www.history.navy.mil/danfs/c4/casco-iii.htm )

In the spring and summer of 1945, Cold Bay was the site of the largest and most ambitious transfer program of World War II, Project Hula, in which the United States transferred dozens of ships and craft to the Soviet Union and trained Soviet personnel in their operation in anticipation of the Soviet Union entering the war against Japan.[7]

In later decades, control of the airfield passed to civil authorities who maintained it as a particularly useful location for fuelling and emergency landing needs on great circle flights from the west coast of the U.S. to eastern Asia. A DEW line station was established nearby and eventually was decommissioned.

During the Ronald Reagan era, privatization of the airline industry caused many of the compelling interests supporting the need for the community to evaporate. Today, Cold Bay functions as a hub for traffic from Anchorage and Seattle to the small communities around it, and continues to serve as an emergency runway for aircraft flying through the North Pacific.

On 30 October 2013, Delta Air Lines flight 208 made an emergency landing at Cold Bay's airport after a warning message appeared on an engine control panel.[8] A second aircraft from Seattle was sent to pick up the passengers and take them to their intended destination, San Francisco. Passengers were allowed to stay in Cold Bay's community centre while they waited for the plane from Seattle.

Community life[edit]

Cold Bay is a highly transient community, lacking the generational attachment characteristic of the surrounding native villages. Residents, drawn to the area largely by the Wildlife Refuge, Weather Service, or air traffic jobs, rarely stay more than a year in Cold Bay.

The Cold Bay School employs one teacher and serves the community's seven students.[9] Despite its remote location, the school has been involved in state and national activities, hosting the military's "Operation Arctic Care" outreach health program in 2002, and briefly becoming involved with reporting for CNN Student Bureau that same year.

The Bearfoot Inn

Cold Bay has one store, Bearfoot Inn Alaska, formerly known as the World Famous Weathered Inn. It supplies groceries to the residents of Cold Bay and other communities within the Aleutians East Borough, although many residents order groceries and supplies from suppliers in Anchorage and Seattle. The Bearfoot Inn also offers lodging with its 8-room hotel and 6-room bunk house. Within the main building there is the Bearfoot Inn Bar which is open 3 to 6 days a week depending on the season. Bearfoot Inn is within walking distance of the airport.

Cold Bay Lodge is the only restaurant in town. The lodge can accommodate up to 40 people, has wireless Internet access, and is less than a mile from the airport.

A major community event is the Silver Salmon Derby, a fishing contest that takes place every fall. Participants vie in both adult and child categories for cash prizes for the largest fish. A raft race and "Polar Bear Jump" are also held. The Derby concludes with a banquet and door prize giveaway in the school gymnasium.

Izembek National Wildlife Refuge[edit]

The 498,000-acre (2,020 km2) Izembek refuge was established in 1960. It encompasses several large lagoons, including the 30-mile (48 km) Izembek Lagoon, which serve as a food source and shelter for a large migratory bird population.

Approximately 130,000 Pacific Black Brant, 62,000 Emperor Geese, 50,000 Taverner's Canada Geese, 300,000 ducks, and 80,000 shore birds stop over in the Izembek area during migration and as many as 50,000 Steller's Eiders find winter grounds there.[10]

Geography[edit]

Cold Bay is located at 55°12′33″N 162°42′51″W / 55.20917°N 162.71417°W / 55.20917; -162.71417 (55.209038, -162.714298).[11] It is west of Hawaii.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 70.9 square miles (184 km2), of which, 54.4 square miles (141 km2) of it is land and 16.6 square miles (43 km2) of it (23.34%) is water.

Cold Bay holds the record for most overcast town in America

Climate[edit]

Cold Bay has the typical subpolar oceanic climate (Köppen Cfc) of southwest Alaska, though the summers are almost cool enough to qualify as a polar climate (ET).

Climate data for Cold Bay, Alaska
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 51
(11)
50
(10)
56
(13)
60
(16)
67
(19)
72
(22)
77
(25)
78
(26)
76
(24)
69
(21)
59
(15)
54
(12)
78
(26)
Average high °F (°C) 33.1
(0.6)
32.0
(0)
34.8
(1.6)
37.9
(3.3)
44.4
(6.9)
50.4
(10.2)
55.1
(12.8)
55.9
(13.3)
52.2
(11.2)
44.3
(6.8)
38.9
(3.8)
35.3
(1.8)
42.9
(6.1)
Average low °F (°C) 24.1
(−4.4)
22.8
(−5.1)
25.0
(−3.9)
28.6
(−1.9)
34.8
(1.6)
40.9
(4.9)
46.0
(7.8)
47.1
(8.4)
43.2
(6.2)
34.8
(1.6)
29.9
(−1.2)
26.6
(−3)
33.7
(0.9)
Record low °F (°C) −8
(−22)
−9
(−23)
−13
(−25)
4
(−16)
18
(−8)
29
(−2)
33
(1)
33
(1)
26
(−3)
10
(−12)
1
(−17)
−1
(−18)
−13
(−25)
Precipitation inches (mm) 2.84
(72.1)
2.27
(57.7)
2.10
(53.3)
1.97
(50)
2.29
(58.2)
2.10
(53.3)
2.52
(64)
3.24
(82.3)
4.41
(112)
4.34
(110.2)
4.19
(106.4)
3.67
(93.2)
35.94
(912.7)
Snowfall inches (cm) 10.8
(27.4)
10.6
(26.9)
10.5
(26.7)
5.7
(14.5)
1.6
(4.1)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
2.7
(6.9)
8.3
(21.1)
11.2
(28.4)
61.3
(155.7)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01-inch) 19.0 17.3 18.0 16.1 17.4 16.0 16.7 19.9 20.7 22.7 21.6 20.6 226
Avg. snowy days (≥ 1.0 inch) 3.6 3.6 3.6 1.8 0.5 0 0 0 0 1.0 2.5 3.6 20.2
Source #1: [12]
Source #2: [13](snowfall means)

Transportation[edit]

Cold Bay is serviced by Cold Bay Airport, holding the fifth-largest runway in Alaska[citation needed], and a second, smaller one.

A road link to King Cove is being drawn up and planned, with some controversy surrounding the planned route through the Izembek refuge.

Demographics[edit]

At the 2000 census,[14] there were 88 people, 36 households and 18 families residing in the city. The population density was 1.6 per square mile (0.6/km²). There were 98 housing units at an average density of 1.8 per square mile (0.7/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 71.59% White, 3.41% Black or African American, 17.05% Native American, 4.55% Asian, 2.27% Pacific Islander, and 1.14% from two or more races. 2.27% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 36 households of which 33.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.4% were married couples living together, 2.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 50.0% were non-families. 36.1% of all households were made up of individuals and none had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 3.11.

Age distribution was 23.9% under the age of 18, 9.1% from 18 to 24, 39.8% from 25 to 44, 27.3% from 45 to 64. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 183.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 204.5 males.

The median household income was $55,750, and the median family income was $64,375. Males had a median income of $36,250 versus $38,333 for females. The per capita income for the city was $20,037. There were no families and 27.3% of the population living below the poverty line, including no one under eighteen or over 64.

References[edit]

  1. ^ 1996 Alaska Municipal Officials Directory. Juneau: Alaska Municipal League/Alaska Department of Community and Regional Affairs. January 1996. p. 42. 
  2. ^ "Community: Cold Bay". Community Database Online. Juneau: Alaska Department of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, Division of Community and Regional Affairs. February 11, 2014. Retrieved February 21, 2014. 
  3. ^ "2010 City Population and Housing Occupancy Status". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 14 May 2012. 
  4. ^ Bergsland, K. (1994). Aleut Dictionary. Fairbanks: Alaska Native Language Center. 
  5. ^ Buckner Goes to Alaska - Terrain, Weather and Communications at Alaskan Airbases
  6. ^ "Aleutian Eagles", "Birds of a Feather" series, The Military Channel
  7. ^ Russell, Richard A., Project Hula: Secret Soviet-American Cooperation in the War Against Japan, Washington, D.C.: Naval Historical Center, 1997, ISBN 0-945274-35-1, pp. 1, 16, 35.
  8. ^ D'oro, Rachel. "Delta Jet Lands at Remote AK Airport as Precaution". ABC. Retrieved 30 October 2013. 
  9. ^ Cold Bay School at Greatschools
  10. ^ Izembek National Wildlife Refuge website
  11. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  12. ^ "COLD BAY, ALASKA: NORMALS, MEANS, AND EXTREMES - Period of Record Monthly Climate Summary 3/2/1950 to 12/31/2009". Western Regional Climate Center. Retrieved 6 November 2011. 
  13. ^ "COLD BAY WB AIRPORT, ALASKA - Period of Record Monthly Climate Summary 3/2/1950 to 12/31/2009". Western Regional Climate Center. Retrieved 6 November 2011. 
  14. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 55°12′33″N 162°42′51″W / 55.209038°N 162.714298°W / 55.209038; -162.714298