Cold air intake
Most vehicles manufactured from the mid-1970s until the mid-1990s have thermostatic air intake systems that regulate the temperature of the air entering the engine's intake tract, providing warm air when the engine is cold and cold air when the engine is warm to maximize performance, efficiency, and fuel economy. With the advent of advanced emission controls and more advanced fuel injection methods modern vehicles do not have a thermostatic air intake system and the factory installed air intake draws unregulated cold air. Aftermarket cold air intake systems are marketed with claims of increased engine efficiency and performance. The putative principle behind a cold air intake is that cooler air has a higher density, thus containing more oxygen per volume unit than warmer air.
Some strategies used in designing aftermarket cold air intakes are:
- Reworking parts of the intake that create turbulence to reduce air resistance.
- Providing a more direct route to the air intake by eliminating muffling devices.
- Shortening the length of the intake.
- Placing the intake duct so as to use the ram-air effect to give positive pressure at speed.
Aftermarket cold air intakes can pose a risk of damage to the vehicle.
- Hydrolock - The intake opening may be closer to the street than an original-equipment air intake, and more likely to introduce water into the engine when fording streams or flooded roads.
- Noise - Stock air filtration systems usually include resonator-based muffling tubes. Removing them reduces pumping losses but increases noise.
- Inspection - If a vehicle was factory equipped with a thermostatic intake which is replaced with a cold air intake system it will fail visual inspection for emissions in many states.
Intake systems come in many different styles and can be constructed from plastic, metal, rubber (silicone) or composite materials (fiberglass, carbon fiber or Kevlar). The most efficient intake systems utilize an airbox which is sized to complement the engine and will extend the powerband of the engine. The intake snorkel (opening for the intake air to enter the system) must be large enough to ensure sufficient air is available to the engine under all conditions from idle to full throttle.
The most basic cold air intake consists of a short metal or plastic tube leading to a conical air filter. Power may be lost at certain engine speeds and gained at others. Because of the reduced covering, intake noise is usually increased.
Some intakes use heat shields to isolate the air filter from the rest of the engine compartment, providing cooler air from the front or side of the engine bay. This can make a big difference to intake temperatures, especially when the car is moving slowly. Some systems, called "fender mount," move the filter into the fender wall instead. This system draws air up through the fender wall which provides even more isolation and still cooler air.
- Knowling, Michael (November 16, 2007). "Shielded Sucker: A cheap and easy air intake improvement - with no CAI pipe in sight!". AutoSpeed. Retrieved 2013-04-15.
- Edgar, Julian (July 10, 2001). "Siting Cold Air Intakes: Simple testing to find the best place to put the mouth of the cold air intake.". AutoSpeed. Retrieved 2013-04-15.
- "Air Filter Heat Shield Test – Do Heat Shields Make a Difference? – StrikeEngine". Strikeengine.com. Retrieved 2013-10-14.