|Release date||October 1983|
|CPU||Zilog Z80A @ 3.58MHz|
The Coleco Adam is a home computer, and expansion for the ColecoVision (port 3), released in 1983 by American toy manufacturer Coleco. It was an attempt to follow on the success of the company's ColecoVision video game console. The Adam was not very successful, partly because of early production problems.
Coleco announced the Adam at the Summer Consumer Electronics Show (CES) in June 1983, and executives predicted sales of 500,000 by Christmas 1983. From the time of the computer's introduction to the time of its shipment, the price increased, from USD $525 to $725.
The Adam is famous for an incident connected with its showing at the June, 1983 CES. To showcase the machine, Coleco decided to demonstrate a port of its ColecoVision conversion of Donkey Kong on the system. Nintendo was in the midst of negotiating a deal with Atari to license its Famicom for distribution outside of Japan, and the final signing would have been done at CES. Atari had exclusive rights to Donkey Kong for home computers (as Coleco had for game consoles), and when Atari saw that Coleco was showing Donkey Kong on a computer, its proposed deal with Nintendo was delayed. Coleco had to agree not to sell the Adam version of Donkey Kong. Ultimately, it had no bearing on the Atari/Nintendo deal, as Atari's CEO Ray Kassar was fired the next month and the proposal went nowhere, with Nintendo deciding to market its system on its own.
Coleco had originally gotten good press after the unveil in 1983, and had promised to deliver 500,000 units to buyers by the end of that year. However, by December 1983, Coleco could not fulfill its promise and only shipped 95,000 units. After multiple technical issues, Coleco partnered with Honeywell information systems to open up repair chain stores around the nation. On Dec.29th Wednesday, 1984, after continuing complaints about Adam failures and low sales, Coleco announced the discontinuation of the Adam, and would be selling off its inventory. Coleco shared that it lost $35 million in late 1983, the time of the Adam's launch. Along with a loss of $13.4 million in the first 9 months of 1984. Coleco did not reveal which company they were selling the inventory to only to say that, "they had worked with this partner before", no final sales numbers were revealed of the Adam computer and Expansion.
In its favor, the Adam had a large software library from the start. It was derived from and compatible with the ColecoVision's software and accessories, and, in addition, the popular CP/M operating system was available as an option. Its price gave a complete system: an 80 kB RAM computer, tape drive, letter-quality printer, and software including the Buck Rogers: Planet of Zoom video game. The IBM PCjr sold for $669 but included no peripherals, and although the popular Commodore 64 sold for around $200, its price was not much lower after the purchase of a printer, tape or disk drive, and software.
Like many home computers of its day, the Adam was intended to use a television set for its display. The SmartWriter electronic typewriter loaded when the system was turned on. In this mode, the system operated just like a typewriter, printing letters as soon as the user typed them. Pressing the Escape/WP key put SmartWriter into word processor mode, which functioned similarly to a modern word processor.
A less expensive version of the Adam plugged into a ColecoVision, which delivered on one of ColecoVision's launch commitments that owners would one day be able to upgrade their game system to a fully featured computer system.
The Adam was not without weaknesses:
- The Adam generates a surge of electromagnetic energy on startup, which can erase the contents of any removable media left in or near the drive. Making this problem worse, some of the Coleco manuals instructed the user to put the tape in the drive before turning the computer on; presumably these were printed before the issue was known.
- Since Coleco made the unusual decision of using the printer to supply power to the entire Adam system, if the printer's electronics failed or the printer was missing, none of the system worked. However, some cases of malfunction such as an inability to print documents still allowed the computer to function.
- Unlike other home computers at the time, the Adam did not have its BASIC interpreter permanently stored in ROM. Instead, it featured a built-in electronic typewriter and word processor, SmartWriter, as well as the Elementary Operating System (EOS) OS kernel and the 8kB OS-7 ColecoVision operating system. The SmartBASIC interpreter was delivered on a proprietary format Digital Data Pack tape cassette.
- Once put into Word Processor mode, SmartWriter could not get back into the typewriter mode without the system being rebooted.
- The Adam's Digital Data Pack drives, although faster and of higher capacity than the audio cassette drives used for competing computers, were less reliable and still not as fast as a floppy disk drive. Coleco eventually shipped a 160K 5¼ inch disk drive for it.
- Software developers who received technical information had to agreed to an extremely restrictive license. Coleco demanded the right to inspect and demand changes in their software, forced them to destroy inventories of software if Coleco revoked the license, and prohibited them from publicly criticizing Coleco in any way.
Selected software programs
- Adam Banner
- Business Pack I
- Adam Calculator
- Update for Coleco AdamLink Modem
- Data Calculator
- Home Budget Planning
- Power Print
- Personal Checkbook
- Personal Accountant
- Smart Filer
- Smart Letters & Forms
- Savings and Loan
- Turbo Load
BYTE reported in September 1983 that the Adam's introduction had "dominated" the Consumer Electronics Show in Chicago, and compared its potential impact on the home-computer industry to that of the Osborne 1. Compute!'s March 1984 review approved of the Adam's prepackaged, all-in-one nature and called the keyboard "impressive", but cited widespread reports of hardware failures. BYTE's April 1984 review was much harsher, stating that "It is often said that if something sounds too good to be true, it probably is. The Coleco Adam is no exception to this rule". It called the tape-drive technology "impressive", and approved of the keyboard, but reported several cases of data errors and deletions when using the tape drives, a buggy word processor, and a BASIC manual that was "the worst I have ever seen". The reviewer reported that he was waiting for his fifth Adam after four previous systems malfunctioned in two month; only the keyboard did not fail. Surmising that "the computer was apparently rushed into production", he advised "don't buy an Adam—yet. Wait until Coleco fixes all of the Adam's bugs and delivers on all of its promises", and concluded "Coleco is [apparently] betting the whole company on the Adam and it's not yet clear that it's going to win that bet".
The Adam received some good reviews based on the quality of its keyboard and printer, and offered competitive sound and graphics. Its BASIC interpreter, called SmartBASIC, was largely compatible with Applesoft BASIC, which meant that many type-in programs from computer books and magazines would work with the Adam with little or no modification.
However, sales were weak, especially after the technical issues became obvious. Coleco lost $35 million in the fourth quarter of 1984 as returns flooded in. Officially, Coleco blamed "manuals which did not offer the first-time user adequate assistance." Coleco reintroduced Adam with a new instruction manual, lower price, and a $500 college scholarship along with each unit for use by a young child (to be paid when the child reached college). Fewer than 100,000 units ultimately sold.
Ketchum Advertising, a NYC marketing agency, won the assignment of promoting the computer. The agency staffed up to handle the work, and the prestige, of the new business. However, agency executives opened their New York Times on a morning in January 1985 to read, with no previous warning, that Coleco was abandoning the computer. Agency employees branded this news the Adam Bomb.[verification needed]
The Adam was permanently discontinued in 1985, less than two years after its introduction.
A group of Adam enthusiasts gather every year at the annual AdamCon. The 22nd AdamCon was held June 18–20, 2010 in Montreal, Canada. The 23rd AdamCon (AdamCon23) was held in Grand Rapids, Minnesota from July 14 thru July 17, 2011.</ref> The 24th AdamCon was held July 13–15, 2012 in Québec, Canada.
Third-party developers contributed to the overall success of the ADAM after Coleco abandoned the ADAM. Developers such as Orphanware, In House Reps, Thomas Electronics, Oasis Pensive, Eve, E&T, Micro Innovations, Microfox Technologies and others added multiple-density disk drives, memory expanders, speech synthesizers, serial cards, printer cards, IDE cards and other hardware so the ADAM could follow other computers into a newer modern age. In 2012, most of this hardware is still available to upgrade the ADAM.
- CPU: Zilog Z80 @ 3.58 MHz
- Support processors: three Motorola 6801s @ 1 MHz (memory & I/O, tape, and keyboard control)
- Memory: 80 kB RAM, 16 kB video RAM; 32 kB ROM
- Expansion: 3 internal slots, 1 cartridge slot, and a 62.5 kbit/s half-duplex serial bus called AdamNet. The stand-alone also has an external expansion port of the same type as the ColecoVision expansion port, on the right hand side.
- Secondary storage: Digital Data Pack tape cassette, 256 kB
- Graphics: Texas Instruments TMS9928A (a close relative of the TMS9918 in the TI-99/4A)
- 256 × 192 resolution
- 32 sprites
- Sound: Texas Instruments SN76489AN (a rebranded version of the TMS9919 in the TI-99/4A)
- 3 voices
- white noise
- Woutat, Donald (January 3, 1985). "Coleco Discontinues Its Adam Computer Line". LA Times. Retrieved 2010-08-26.
- Lemmons, Phil (September 1983). "A Report on the Consumer Electronics Show". BYTE. p. 230. Retrieved 20 October 2013.
- Bateman, Selby and Halfhill, Tom R. (1984). "Coleco's Adam: A Hands-On Report". Compute! Magazine. Retrieved April 29, 2007.
- Gilder, Jules H. (April 1984). "The Coleco Adam". BYTE. p. 206. Retrieved 22 October 2013.
- Greenwald, John (1984-06-18). "How Does This". Time Magazine. Retrieved April 29, 2007.
- Winter, Christine (January 3, 1985). "Coleco Signing Off Adam Computer". Chicago Tribune.
- AdamCon - Coleco Adam Convention News and Adam News Archives
- InfoWorld (Vol. 6, Num. 17): 66. 23 April 1984. ISSN 0199-6649.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Coleco Adam.|
- Coleco Adam Technical Reference Manual (Coleco Industries, Inc., 1984)
- Coleco ADAM Schematics (in PDF format; restored and unrestored)
- Video Game Nostalgia's Adam page
- Expandable Computer News Archive
- ADAM article at The Dot Eaters, an extensive history of Coleco and the ADAM
- www.old-computers.com Coleco Adam's page
- Adamcon home page
- Oldcomputers.net's Adam page has some nice photos of components
- Video of Coleco ADAM