Colin Hannah

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Air Marshal
Sir Colin Hannah
KCMG KCVO KBE CB
Head-and-shoulders portrait of man in dark military uniform wearing peaked cap
Official RAAF portrait of Sir Colin Hannah
19th Governor of Queensland
In office
21 March 1972 – 20 March 1977
Monarch Queen Elizabeth II
Premier Sir Joh Bjelke-Petersen
Preceded by Sir Alan Mansfield
Succeeded by Sir James Ramsay
Personal details
Born 22 December 1914
Menzies, Western Australia
Died 22 May 1978(1978-05-22) (aged 63)
Surfers Paradise, Queensland
Nationality Australian
Profession Air Force officer
Military service
Allegiance Australia
Service/branch Royal Australian Air Force
Years of service 1935–1972
Rank Air Marshal
Commands No. 6 Squadron (1943)
No. 71 Wing (1944)
Western Area (1945–46)
RAAF Amberley (1949–51)
Operational Command (1965–67)
Support Command (1968–69)
Chief of the Air Staff (1970–72)
Battles/wars World War II
Malayan Emergency
Vietnam War
Awards Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George
Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order
Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire
Companion of the Order of the Bath

Air Marshal Sir Colin Thomas Hannah, KCMG, KCVO, KBE, CB (22 December 1914 – 22 May 1978) was a senior commander in the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) and a Governor of Queensland. Born in Western Australia, he was a member of the Militia before joining the RAAF in 1935. After graduating as a pilot, Hannah served in Nos. 22 and 23 Squadrons from 1936 to 1939. During the early years of World War II, he was the RAAF's Deputy Director of Armament. He then saw action in the South West Pacific as commander of No. 6 Squadron and, later, No. 71 Wing, operating Bristol Beaufort bombers. By 1944, he had risen to the rank of group captain, and at the end of the war was in charge of Western Area Command in Perth.

Hannah commanded RAAF Station Amberley, Queensland, in 1949–50, and saw service during the Malayan Emergency as senior air staff officer at RAF Far East Air Force Headquarters, Singapore, from 1956 to 1959. His other post-war appointments included Deputy Chief of the Air Staff from 1961 to 1965, Air Officer Commanding (AOC) Operational Command from 1965 to 1967, and AOC Support Command from 1967 to 1969. In January 1970, he was promoted to air marshal and became Chief of the Air Staff (CAS), the RAAF's senior position. Knighted in 1971, Hannah concluded his three-year appointment as CAS a year early, in March 1972, to become Governor of Queensland. He attracted controversy in this role after making outspoken comments regarding the Federal government of the day, and the British government refused to agree to his term being extended. Hannah retired in March 1977, and died the following year.

Early career[edit]

Portrait of eight men in dark military uniforms with peaked caps, five standing and three seated
Flying Officer Hannah (front row, right) as adjutant at RAAF Station Pearce, with the base's commanding officer, Wing Commander Ray Brownell (front row, centre) and other staff, 1938

Born on 22 December 1914 in Menzies, Western Australia, Hannah was the son of Thomas Howard Hannah, a public servant who later became a magistrate in Perth, and his wife Johanna. Hannah attended the Hale School, leaving with a Junior Certificate in 1930.[1] He served with an Australian Militia unit, the 8th Field Artillery Brigade, from February 1933, and became a clerk in the Crown Law Department of the State Public Service later that year.[1][2]

Hannah joined the Royal Australian Air Force on 15 January 1935 as an air cadet at RAAF Station Point Cook, Victoria. After graduating from No. 1 Flying Training School (No. 1 FTS), he obtained his commission as a pilot officer in July 1936.[2] His first posting was to No. 22 Squadron at RAAF Station Richmond, New South Wales. Promoted to flying officer, he was appointed adjutant with the newly formed No. 23 Squadron at RAAF Station Laverton, Victoria, in May 1937. Hannah accompanied the squadron, which operated Hawker Demons and Avro Ansons, to its new location at the recently opened RAAF Station Pearce, Western Australia, in March 1938. On 5 January 1939, he married Patricia Gordon at Claremont; the couple had a daughter.[1][3] Having specialised as an instructor, he then served on the staff of No. 1 FTS, Point Cook.[4][5]

World War II[edit]

Twin-engined military aircraft on runway
Beauforts of Nos. 6 and 8 Squadron at Goodenough Island, November 1943

Promoted to flight lieutenant, Hannah was posted to Britain in July 1939 to undertake a Royal Air Force armaments training course, which he had barely begun when war was declared on 3 September. He completed the course, and returned to Australia in March 1940. After brief postings to No. 1 Armament School, Point Cook, and Station Headquarters Laverton, he was assigned to Air Force Headquarters, Melbourne, in May. He was made an acting squadron leader in September 1940 and became Deputy Director of Armament the next year. In April 1942, Hannah was promoted to temporary wing commander.[1] He undertook a general reconnaissance course the following May.[4]

In November 1943, Hannah was appointed commanding officer of No. 6 Squadron at Milne Bay, Papua, flying Bristol Beaufort light bombers.[2][6] While on a familiarisation flight he came under friendly fire from anti-aircraft guns on Kiriwina Island, but managed to avoid serious injury. He was raised to temporary group captain in December, and assumed command of No. 71 Wing the following month.[1] The Beauforts of No. 6 Squadron and No. 71 Wing took part in a series of major attacks on Rabaul, bombing and strafing airfields, infrastructure and shipping; this continued until February 1944, when the Japanese withdrew their aircraft from Rabaul.[7][8] The same month, however, Hannah fell ill and had to be repatriated to Australia. After six weeks recuperation at Laverton, he returned to No. 6 Squadron, based on Goodenough Island.[1] From March to August, the squadron was mainly involved in convoy escort and anti-submarine duties.[9] In September 1944, Hannah was appointed senior air staff officer (SASO) at Headquarters Western Area Command, Perth.[2] He took over control of the formation from Air Commodore Brownell in July 1945, following Brownell's departure to command No. 11 Group in the Dutch East Indies.[10][11]

Post-war RAAF career[edit]

Rise to Chief of the Air Staff[edit]

Informal portrait of three men in dark military uniforms with peaked caps
Group Captain Hannah (right) with Air Vice Marshal Val Hancock (left) and Group Captain A.G. Carr, commanding No. 91 Wing RAAF, in Japan, October 1952

Hannah handed over command of Western Area in October 1946, and was posted to Britain.[12] Over the next two years, he undertook study at RAF Staff College, Andover, and served as SASO at RAAF Overseas Headquarters in London. Returning to Australia, in May 1949 he assumed command of RAAF Station Amberley, Queensland. From August 1950, he also held temporary command of the base's Avro Lincoln heavy bomber formation, No. 82 Wing.[1][5][13] Promoted to substantive group captain in October 1950,[14] Hannah was appointed an Officer of the Order of the British Empire (OBE) in the 1951 New Year Honours, in particular for his "exceptional ability" as SASO at RAAF Overseas Headquarters.[15][16] In September that year, he was made Director of Personnel Services; his position became Director-General of Personnel in July 1952. As aide-de-camp to Queen Elizabeth II, Hannah was heavily involved in planning the RAAF's part in the 1954 Royal Tour of Australia.[1] He was raised to Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) in the Queen's Birthday Honours that June.[17]

In 1955, Hannah attended the Imperial Defence College in London, and was promoted to air commodore.[1] He was posted to Singapore as SASO, RAF Far East Air Force Headquarters, in January 1956, handling counter-insurgency operations during the Malayan Emergency.[2] Hannah's "distinguished service" during the conflict was recognised with his appointment as a Companion of the Order of the Bath (CB) in June 1959.[18] As Director-General of Plans and Policy from March 1959, he was responsible for commencing the Department of Air's relocation from Melbourne to Canberra. In December 1961, Hannah was appointed Deputy Chief of the Air Staff, gaining promotion to acting air vice marshal in May 1962; the rank was made substantive in January 1963.[1] He was later described by his staff officer in this role as "brusque" and "impersonal" though not unsympathetic, his "uncommunicative" manner stemming from a preference to "do his own research, think out the substance of his project submissions, dictate to his stenographer, then amend to his own satisfaction", rather than delegate.[19] Hannah served as Air Officer Commanding (AOC) Operational Command (now Air Command) from February 1965 to December 1967, during which time the RAAF's fighter squadrons completed their conversion from the CAC Sabre to the supersonic Dassault Mirage III.[1][20] His tenure also saw the deployment of the first Australian helicopters to Vietnam, eight UH-1 Iroquois of No. 9 Squadron that departed Sydney in May 1966.[21][22] Hannah's next appointment was as AOC Support Command, responsible for training and maintenance in the Air Force. Throughout his career to this point he was noted for his energy and drive.[4][23]

Chief of the Air Staff[edit]

Hannah was promoted to air marshal on 1 January 1970, and succeeded Air Marshal Sir Alister Murdoch as Chief of the Air Staff.[1][2] Murdoch had earlier recommended Hannah, known to be a strong advocate for Australian participation in the Vietnam War, for the position of Commander Australian Forces Vietnam when it came up for rotation at the end of 1969. In the event, the post again went to an Army officer, and the Federal government ordered the withdrawal of the RAAF presence in Vietnam during Hannah's tour as CAS.[24] In March 1970, the Minister for Defence, Malcolm Fraser, commissioned a review of naval air power. Hannah fundamentally disagreed with any suggestion that the Royal Australian Navy should operate land-based aircraft, claiming that he was arguing not from a partisan perspective but to ensure that Australia's limited defence resources were not spread across three services. However, confidential RAAF papers from the time declared that its goal was always to "avoid giving the Navy the opportunity to establish a land-based air force".[25] Two years later, Hannah responded favourably to a recommendation from the Chairman of the Chiefs of Staff Committee, Admiral Sir Victor Smith, to use the soon-to-be-delivered F-111 bomber for maritime support, among other roles.[26]

Monument consisting of two upright dark stones in front of a dark stone wall, with trees in the background
RAAF Memorial in Canberra. Air Marshal Hannah was on the committee that approved the monument as unveiled in 1973; the dark panels at the rear date from 2002.[27][28]

In the 1971 New Year Honours, Hannah was raised to Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire (KBE).[29] His tour as CAS coincided with the RAAF's Golden Jubilee, celebrated in March and April that year. He personally organised a fly-past of two US Air Force F-111s at air shows marking the occasion, generating favourable coverage to counteract the poor publicity surrounding the type's long-delayed entry into Australian service.[30] However, he was also involved in two controversial decisions the same year. Firstly, he was a member of the committee to choose an Air Force memorial to be located on ANZAC Parade, Canberra. The selected design was an abstract sculpture that, according to official RAAF historian Alan Stephens, reflected "the selection panel's comprehensive failure to understand the nature of air force service".[27] Secondly, Hannah commissioned a replacement for the Air Force's winter uniform, traditionally a shade "somewhere between royal and navy blue" that had been personally chosen by the RAAF's first CAS, Wing Commander (later Air Marshal Sir) Richard Williams, to distinguish it from the lighter Royal Air Force colour.[27] Hannah publicly debuted the uniform that he approved, an all-purpose middle-blue suit, at a Point Cook graduation parade on 8 December 1971.[31][32] It was the object of much adverse comment in the ensuing years; personnel complained of being mistaken for bus, train and postal employees. One of Hannah's successors as CAS, Air Marshal Errol McCormack, ordered that the uniform revert to Williams' original colour and style commencing in 2000.[32]

Governor[edit]

Viceregal styles of
Sir Colin Hannah
Reference style His Excellency
Spoken style Your Excellency
Alternative style Sir

Hannah's planned three-year term as Chief of the Air Staff was cut short by some ten months when he accepted an offer to serve as Governor of Queensland, becoming the first officer in the RAAF to receive a vice-regal appointment. The announcement was made in January 1972, and he took office on 21 March.[1][33] He succeeded Sir Alan Mansfield.[34] Hannah did not have a strong connection with Queensland at the time of his appointment, and had only lived in the state during his period as commander of RAAF Station Amberley between 1949 and 1951.[35] While claiming not to have actively sought the governorship, he was criticised for failing to consult with senior colleagues before making his decision to retire early from his position as head of the Air Force. He was replaced as CAS by his deputy, Air Vice Marshal (later Air Marshal Sir) Charles Read.[36][37]

Described when he took office as "a man with the flexibility of mind and ability to mix with people, so necessary for a Governor",[1] Hannah was appointed Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George (KCMG) in September 1972.[38] The same year, he was made a Knight and Deputy Prior of the Venerable Order of Saint John. His term was relatively uneventful until 1975. In October that year, he created controversy at a Brisbane Chamber of Commerce luncheon by criticising the "fumbling ineptitude" of Prime Minister Gough Whitlam's Federal Labor government for placing Australia in "its present economic state".[1][37] Vice-regal appointees in Australia were expected to remain above politics, but Hannah declared that he would be "guilty of sheltering behind convention, of denying my heritage and failing in my regard for the people of Queensland" if he did not speak his mind.[39] The incident occurred in the midst of a constitutional crisis and, according to military historian Chris Coulthard-Clark, was "widely seen as a blatant intervention in the national political arena".[40] The Federal government responded by advising the Queen to revoke Hannah's dormant commission to serve in place of the Governor-General if required; at the time Hannah was the second in line to serve as Governor-General, after the Governor of New South Wales.[40] Following his succession in November 1975, Liberal Prime Minister Malcolm Fraser attempted to have the dormant commission reinstated, but the British government refused to recommend this to the Queen, citing lack of impartiality on Hannah's part. Queensland Premier Joh Bjelke-Petersen made it known that he planned to extend the Governor's term, but the British government also refused to agree to this. While Bjelke-Petersen was prepared to pursue the matter, Hannah declined to let his name be put forward again.[37][41]

On 9 October 1976, Hannah dedicated a memorial at Cairns to commemorate the crews of RAAF Catalina flying boats who lost their lives in the South West Pacific during World War II.[42] His vice-regal appointment lapsed on 20 March 1977, and he was succeeded the next month by Commodore Sir James Ramsay.[4][34]

Retirement and death[edit]

Hannah retired following completion of his term as Governor of Queensland.[4] He was appointed a Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order (KCVO) in August 1977 (backdated to March) as part of Queen Elizabeth II's Silver Jubilee visit to Australia.[43] Hannah died of a heart attack on 22 May 1978 at his home in Surfers Paradise, Queensland. He was given a state funeral and cremated; his wife and daughter survived him.[1] Hannah Community Park, straddling the suburbs of Fadden and Gowrie in Canberra, was established in his honour in 2002.[44]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Coulthard-Clark, Chris (1996). "Hannah, Colin Thomas (1914–1978)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Canberra: Australian National University. Retrieved 20 April 2012. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f Dennis et al., The Oxford Companion to Australian Military History, p. 286
  3. ^ Coulthard-Clark, The Third Brother, pp. 141–142
  4. ^ a b c d e Stephens; Isaacs, High Fliers, pp. 150–152
  5. ^ a b Air Marshals at Royal Australian Air Force. Retrieved on 1 May 2011.
  6. ^ Odgers, Air War Against Japan, pp. 99–103
  7. ^ Odgers, Air War Against Japan, pp. 93–96
  8. ^ Odgers, Air War Against Japan, pp. 125–133
  9. ^ Odgers, Air War Against Japan, p. 330
  10. ^ Ashworth, How Not to Run an Air Force!, p. 304
  11. ^ Edmonds, Leigh (1993). "Brownell, Raymond James (1894–1974)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Canberra: Australian National University. Retrieved 20 April 2012. 
  12. ^ "For staff school". The West Australian (Perth: National Library of Australia). 25 October 1946. p. 8. Retrieved 21 April 2012. 
  13. ^ "On-the-job training". The Courier-Mail (Brisbane: National Library of Australia). 28 August 1951. p. 3. Retrieved 1 May 2011. 
  14. ^ "Air promotion". The Courier-Mail (Brisbane: National Library of Australia). 20 October 1950. p. 1. Retrieved 1 May 2011. 
  15. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 39105. p. 36. 29 December 1950. Retrieved on 22 November 2008.
  16. ^ "All walks of life in New Year's Honours". The Sydney Morning Herald (Sydney: Google News). 1 January 1951. p. 3. Retrieved 16 May 2012. 
  17. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 40189. p. 3296. 1 June 1954. Retrieved on 22 November 2008.
  18. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 41739. p. 3905. 12 June 1959. Retrieved on 22 November 2008.
  19. ^ Jacobs, Up and Away, pp. 111–112
  20. ^ Dassault Mirage III at RAAF Museum. Retrieved on 30 November 2010.
  21. ^ Stephens, The Royal Australian Air Force, pp. 264–268
  22. ^ "Iroquois fly in farewell". RAAF News (Canberra: Royal Australian Air Force). June 1966. p. 1. Retrieved 16 May 2012. 
  23. ^ Stephens, Going Solo, pp. 76, 454
  24. ^ Coulthard-Clark, The RAAF in Vietnam, pp. 79–80
  25. ^ Stephens, Going Solo, pp. 312–313
  26. ^ Stephens, Going Solo, p. 392
  27. ^ a b c Stephens, Going Solo, pp. 452–453
  28. ^ "Dedication of the National Memorial to the Royal Australian Air Force, Anzac Parade, Canberra, ACT, Friday 1 November 2002". Canberra: National Capital Authority. Retrieved 22 May 2012. 
  29. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 45263. p. 34. 31 December 1970. Retrieved on 22 November 2008.
  30. ^ Stephens, Going Solo, p. 451
  31. ^ Parnell; Boughton, Flypast, p. 341
  32. ^ a b Stephens, The Royal Australian Air Force, p. 305
  33. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 45638. p. 4071. 6 April 1972. Retrieved 22 November 2008.
  34. ^ a b Governors of Queensland at The Office of the Governor, Queensland. Retrieved on 6 May 2011.
  35. ^ Coulthard-Clark, Soldiers in Politics, p. 35
  36. ^ Stephens, Going Solo, p. 454
  37. ^ a b c Stephens, Australia's Air Chiefs, pp. 31–32
  38. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 45776. p. 10843. 12 September 1972. Retrieved on 22 November 2008.
  39. ^ "Queensland Governor backs move for election". The Sydney Morning Herald (Google News). 16 October 1975. p. 1. Retrieved 22 April 2012. 
  40. ^ a b Coulthard-Clark, Soldiers in Politics, p. 62
  41. ^ "The hidden hand of her majesty". The Sydney Morning Herald (Fairfax Media). 10 February 2007. Retrieved 22 April 2012. 
  42. ^ Sandell, Dicing With Death, pp. 82–83
  43. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 47292. p. 10154. 5 August 1977. Retrieved 22 November 2008.
  44. ^ "Legislative Assembly for the ACT: 2002 Week 11". Hansard. ACT Legislative Assembly. 26 September 2002. p. 3326. Retrieved 23 November 2008. 

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Military offices
Preceded by
Air Vice Marshal Alister Murdoch
Air Officer Commanding Operational Command
1965–1967
Succeeded by
Air Vice Marshal Keith Hennock
Preceded by
Air Marshal Sir Alister Murdoch
Chief of the Air Staff
1970–1972
Succeeded by
Air Marshal Sir Charles Read
Government offices
Preceded by
Sir Alan Mansfield
Governor of Queensland
1972–1977
Succeeded by
Sir James Ramsay