College baseball is baseball that is played on the intercollegiate level at institutions of higher education. In comparison to football and basketball, college competition in the United States plays a smaller role in developing professional players, as baseball's professional minor leagues are more extensive. Moving directly from high school to the professional level is more common in baseball than in football or basketball. However, if players enroll at a four-year college, they must complete three years to regain eligibility, unless they reach age 21 before starting their third year of attendance. Players who enroll at junior colleges (i.e., two-year institutions) regain eligibility after one year at that level, Bryce Harper being a notable example. In 2013, there are 298 NCAA Division I teams in the United States.
As with other U.S. intercollegiate sports, most college baseball is played under the auspices of the NCAA or the NAIA. College and university baseball teams that are club teams are organized under the National Club Baseball Association. The NCAA writes the rules of play, while each sanctioning body supervises season-ending tournaments. The final rounds of the NCAA tournaments are known as the College World Series; one is held on each of the three levels of competition sanctioned by the NCAA. The College World Series for Division I takes place in Omaha, Nebraska in June, following the regular season. The playoff bracket for Division I consists of 64 teams, with four teams playing at each of 16 regional sites (in a double-elimination format). The 16 winners advance to the Super Regionals at eight sites, played head-to-head in a best-of-three series. The eight winners then advance to the College World Series, a double elimination tournament (actually two separate four-team brackets) to determine the two national finalists. The finalists play a best-of-three series to determine the Division I national champion. In 2012, the winner of the College World Series was the Arizona Wildcats.
The first known intercollegiate baseball game took place in Pittsfield, Massachusetts, on July 1, 1859, between squads representing Amherst College and Williams College. Amherst won, 73–32. This game was one of the last played under an earlier version of the game known as "Massachusetts rules", which prevailed in New England until the "Knickerbocker Rules" (or "New York Rules") developed in the 1840s gradually became accepted. The first ever nine-man team college baseball game under the Knickerbocker Rules still in use today was played in New York on November 3, 1859 between the Fordham Rose Hill Baseball Club of St. John's College (now Fordham University) against The College of St. Francis Xavier, now known as Xavier High School.
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College baseball has grown phenomenally in popularity since the 1980s. Traditionally, it has been played in the early part of the year, with a relatively short schedule and during a time when cold (and/or rainy) weather hinders the ability for games to be played, particularly in the northern and midwestern parts of the U.S. These and other factors have historically led colleges and universities across the nation to effectively consider baseball a minor sport, both in scholarships as well as money and other points of emphasis. During the 1980s, coaches and athletic directors in warm-weather regions of the nation began to recognize the unrealized potential appeal of the sport. These coaches went out and aggressively recruited the sport to potential athletes, as well as made various upgrades to their programs; such as bigger and better stadiums, more money for staff and support salaries, and promotions. As these efforts resulted in better players and overall programs, more television and print media coverage began to emerge. The ESPN family of networks greatly increased television coverage of the NCAA playoffs and the College World Series. After losing its license for Major League Baseball, EA Sports released MVP 06 NCAA Baseball, the first college baseball video game. A second game, MVP 07: NCAA Baseball, was also released before the series was discontinued due to low sales.
Soon, in many warm-weather regions, baseball came to be considered a major sport, approaching the level of football and basketball. And even non-warm weather schools started to recognize baseball's potential and began to put considerably more emphasis on it. Nebraska, Notre Dame, and Oregon State are three notable examples of cold (or rainy) weather schools with very successful programs. The first two made the College World Series when warm-weather schools placed major emphasis on baseball as well as had the advantage of playing earlier and more games because of favorable climates. Oregon State won back-to-back national championships in 2006 & 2007; at that time, archrival Oregon had been without baseball for a quarter-century, having dropped its program in 1981. Many credit the Beavers' success as being a primary factor in UO's later decision to revive baseball in 2009. Minnesota has taken advantage of the use of the Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome to play the majority of their games, including hosting a prestigious preseason tournament, and with the 2010 departure of the MLB Minnesota Twins for the new Target Field, hope to use the Metrodome for future Big Ten tournaments and bids on the NCAA tournament. Along with that, many smaller conferences (not in Division I) will play games at the Metrodome during February in order to keep up with schools in warm-weather locations. For 2008 and succeeding seasons, the NCAA has mandated the first ever start date for Division I baseball. This day is exactly thirteen weeks before the selection of the NCAA tournament field, which takes place on Memorial Day. For 2010, this date was March 1. Many feel this date will give schools outside of warm-weather areas more parity in college baseball and help continue to make the sport a major one nationally.
The rules of college baseball are similar to the Official Baseball Rules. Exceptions include the following:
- The bat may be made of wood, or a composite material that meets NCAA standards. Starting with the 2011 season, composite bats must pass the "Bat-Ball Coefficient of Restitution" (BBCOR) test.
- The designated hitter rule is used. In addition, a player may serve as both pitcher and DH at the same time and may remain in one position when removed in the other.
- One or both ends of a doubleheader are sometimes seven innings in length. However, the NCAA has recently tightened the interpretation of what constitutes a regulation game, encouraging schools to play as many nine-inning games as possible. Seven-inning games may be played on the final day of a conference series, or if the two teams in a non-conference match will play two games in one day, often to make up a game that cannot be played earlier in the year because of inclement weather.
- A mercy rule may be in use, which terminates play when one team is ahead by 10 or more runs after seven innings (6½ innings if the home team is winning). In games that are scheduled for seven innings the rule takes effect in the fifth. This rule is not used in NCAA tournament games. Several conferences institute this rule only on Sundays or the final day of a conference series so that the visiting team can travel on time. In some conferences, the mercy rule may also be used to end such games in order to start the next tournament game on time as possible.
- There is an automatic ejection for maliciously running into a defender who is trying to tag a runner or a force out. An automatic double play may also be called if a player slides into a base in an attempt to take out the defensive player who is trying to throw the ball to continue a double play.
- In televised games and in tournament games, instant replay may be used to determine if a slide was malicious.
Metal versus wood bat
Though a wood bat is legal in NCAA competition, players overwhelmingly prefer and use a metal bat. The metal bat was implemented into college baseball in 1975. Use of a metal bat is somewhat controversial amongst baseball aficionados. Supporters of an aluminum or composite bat note how it can increase offensive performance, as the speed of a ball off a metal bat is generally faster than off a wood bat. Those against metal, and for wood, would argue how a metal bat is not safe to use, and that a metal bat doesn't prepare players for the next level, as pro baseball uses a wood bat exclusively. In the 2011 season the NCAA changed the requirements for a metal bat, reducing the maximum allowed exit speed in a way that is said to produce a feeling more like a wood bat. As a result in 2011 there were fewer overall "long" drives or home runs than in the past.
All players resident in the U.S. and its territories are eligible to be selected in Major League Baseball's Rule 4 Draft upon graduating from high school. However, once a player enrolls in a four-year college or university, he is not allowed to be drafted (or re-drafted) until completing three years of school or reaching age 21, whichever comes first. By contrast, players who enroll in junior colleges (i.e., two-year institutions) are eligible for selection at any time. The Rule 4 Draft of eligible college and high school players consists of 40 rounds. Despite MLB's draft being considerably longer than that of the NFL or NBA, only about 9.1% of all NCAA senior baseball players are drafted by an MLB team.
One of the biggest controversies with the draft and these amateur athletes is the use of agents. There have been many cases of college athletes consulting or hiring an agent prematurely in direct violation of NCAA rules. The NCAA came up with the “no agent rule” as a result of this for what they say was to benefit their amateur athletes. This law stated that a college player is unable to hire an agent or even a lawyer in order to assist them in negotiating a contract with a professional team. The rule states that “[a]n individual shall be ineligible for participation in an intercollegiate sport if he or she has agreed (orally or in writing) to be represented by an agent for the purpose of marketing his or her athletics ability or reputation in that sport”. Representation of an agent is considered to be any direct contact with the professional team during the contract negotiations. This contact can be made many different ways, whether through direct conversation, via mail or through the telephone. This rule is strongly enforced by the NCAA and has harsh consequences if broken.
The recruitment process is similar to that of the Major League Draft in that a high school athlete is taking the next step in his career. The NCAA places restrictions on the coaches that are trying to convince athletes to come play for them and attend their university. College Baseball programs are only allowed to offer a limited number of scholarships each year, so the process of earning a scholarship is quite competitive. Baseball is classified by the NCAA as an "equivalency" sport, meaning that limits on athletic financial aid are set to the equivalent of a fixed number of full scholarships. Division I schools are allowed the equivalent of 11.7 full scholarships; Division II schools, only 9.0. Schools generally choose to award multiple partial scholarships rather than exclusively full scholarships. In Division I, the NCAA also limits the total number of players receiving baseball-related financial aid to 27, and also requires that each of these players receive athletic aid equal to at least 25% of a full scholarship.
Before September 1 of a potential college player’s 11th grade year, it is illegal for a college program to give any kind of recruiting materials to the prospect. A phone call is not even permitted to the prospect until July 1 of his 11th grade year. Once the player is committed to the school of his choice, he must sign his letter of intent during one of several signing periods. The early signing period for a Division I baseball player is between November 8 and 15; the late signing period dates for these players are April 11 to August 1.
The substance policies for college baseball are very strict and set by the NCAA. There is a set list of the forbidden substances a college baseball player is allowed to put in their body, and there is a very strict punishment for those that defy it, whether it be intentional or unintentional. There is a very long list of these substances, including alcohol, marijuana, anabolic steroids, heroin to name a few of many. These substances fit into categories such as stimulants, anabolic steroids, diuretics, street drugs, hormones, anti-estrogens, and more. Failure to pass scheduled or random drug tests can result in ineligibility.
Top college baseball crowds of all-time
|Attendance||Schools||Ballpark and Location||Date|
|40,106||Houston at San Diego State||Petco Park, San Diego, CA||March 11, 2004|
|36,056||Louisiana Tech at Minnesota||Target Field, Minneapolis, MN||March 27, 2010|
|28,836||Georgia Tech at Georgia||Turner Field, Atlanta, GA||May 11, 2004|
|27,673||LSU at Tulane||Superdome, New Orleans, LA||April 10, 2002|
Top 25 on-campus college baseball crowds of all-time
|1||14,991||Florida at Mississippi State, Starkville||April 22, 1989|
|2||14,562||Auburn at Mississippi State, Starkville||April 20, 2013|
|3||14,556||LSU at Mississippi State, Starkville||April 16, 1988|
|4||13,761||Arkansas at Mississippi State, Starkville||April 25, 1992|
|5||13,715||Clemson at Mississippi State, Starkville||June 9, 2007|
|6||13,617||Georgia at Mississippi State, Starkville||April 8, 2006|
|7||13,123||Ole Miss at Mississippi State, Starkville||April 15, 2000|
|8||12,708||Auburn at Mississippi State, Starkville||April 24, 1993|
|9||12,620||Clemson at Mississippi State, Starkville||June 8, 2007|
|10||12,360||Georgia at Mississippi State, Starkville||April 6, 2002|
|11||12,313||Alabama at LSU, Baton Rouge||April 17, 2010|
|12||12,076||Florida at LSU, Baton Rouge||March 18, 2011|
|13||11,763||Auburn at Mississippi State, Starkville||April 12, 2003|
|14||11,729||Alabama at Ole Miss, Oxford||April 13, 2013|
|15||11,588||Centenary at LSU, Baton Rouge||February 19, 2010|
|16||11,496||Florida State at Mississippi State, Starkville||May 27, 1990|
|17||11,225||Arkansas at LSU, Baton Rouge||March 19, 2010|
|18||11,220||Pepperdine at LSU, Baton Rouge||March 6, 2010|
|19||11,201||Florida at Mississippi State, Starkville||April 9, 2011|
|20||11,174||Florida at Mississippi State, Starkville||April 13, 1991|
|21||11,157||Kansas at LSU, Baton Rouge||March 12, 2010|
|22||11,127||South Alabama at Mississippi State, Starkville||May 26, 2000|
|23||11,126||Centenary at LSU, Baton Rouge||February 20, 2010|
|24||11,124||South Alabama at Mississippi State, Starkville||June 1, 2013|
|25||11,102||Central Arkansas at Mississippi State, Starkville||May 31, 2013|
Longest game in college baseball history
The longest college baseball game was played between Texas and Boston College on May 30, 2009, during the NCAA Division I Baseball Championship regional tournament at Austin, Texas. Texas – which was designated the visiting team despite playing on its home field – won the game, 3–2, in 25 innings. The game lasted seven hours three minutes.
- 2012 NCAA Division I baseball season
- NCAA Division I Baseball Championship
- College World Series championship (NCAA Division I)
- NCAA Division II championship
- NCAA Division III championship
- NAIA Baseball World Series championship
- NCBA World Series division D1 championship
- NCBA World Series division D2 championship
- USA Baseball (national team is made up of the top freshmen and sophomore players in U.S. college baseball)
- Amateur baseball in the United States
- NCAA Division I college baseball team statistics
- National College Baseball Hall of Fame
- Baseball awards#U.S. college baseball
- List of college baseball awards
- List of college baseball career home run leaders
- List of collegiate summer baseball leagues
- List of Division I colleges that do not sponsor baseball
- World University Baseball Championship
- College athletics
- College rivalries
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- “College Baseball Teams.” The Baseball Cube. n.p. n.d. Web. July 20, 2010.
- Green, Gary A., Frank D. Uryasz, Todd A. Petr, Corey D. Bray. “NCAA Study of Substance Use and Abuse Habits of College Student-Athletes” Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine 11.1 (January 2001): P.51-56. Web. July 21, 2010.
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- Karcher, Richard T. “The NCAA’s Regulations Related to the Use of Agents in the Sport of Baseball: Are the Rules Detrimental to the Best Interest of the Amateur Athlete?” 7 Vand. J. Ent. L. & Prac. (2004–2005): 215–232. Web. July 21, 2010.
- Newlin, Clint. “Estimated Probability of Competing in Athletics Beyond the High School Interscholastic Level.” National Interscholastic Athletic Association. n.p. April 20, 2010. Web. July 22, 2010.
- Schlegel, John. "Texas wins NCAA record 25-inning game", MLB.com (MLB Advanced Media, L.P.), May 31, 2009.
- Traub, James. “Take Me Out to the Picket Line.” WALL ST. J., A12. July 21, 2010.
- "2009 NCAA Div. I Baseball College World Series Bracket" (in column 1 (Regionals), click on Austin box; then click on Texas–BC box), NCAA.com (NCAA).
- A night to remember San Diego Union-Tribune (March 12, 2008)
- BaseballAmerica.com: College
- Minnesota-Louisiana Tech Boxscore Minnesota Athletic Communications (March 27, 2010)
- NCAA Baseball History. Historical Facts And Information Relating To College Baseball
- Record Crowd Watches No. 15 Georgia Tech Top No. 12 Georgia, 12–5 Georgia Tech Sports Information (May 11, 2004)
- Acevedo, Jay. "EA Sports Drops MVP NCAA Baseball Series". GameFocus.com. Retrieved January 7, 2013.
- “The History of the Baseball Bat.” Articleclick. n.p. n.d. Web. July 27, 2010.
- "NCAA Baseball Bat Certification". Retrieved March 16, 2011.
- “Official Rules.” Mlb.com. n.p. n.d. Web. July 21, 2010.
- Karcher p. 215-216
- Arkell p. 149
- "Bylaw 15.5.4 Baseball Limitations" (PDF). 2011–12 NCAA Division I Manual. NCAA. p. 207. Retrieved September 19, 2011.
- "Bylaw 188.8.131.52 Maximum Equivalency Limits" (PDF). 2011–12 NCAA Division II Manual. NCAA. p. 154. Retrieved September 19, 2011.
- “Baseball Scholarships What You Need to Know About College Baseball Scouting and Recruiting.” College Sports Scholarships. n.p. n.d. Web. July 21, 2010.
- "Bylaw 184.108.40.206 Minimum Equivalency Value" (PDF). 2011–12 NCAA Division I Manual. NCAA. p. 207. Retrieved September 19, 2011.
- “Athletic Recruiting Regulations.” College recruiting.com. n.p. n.d. Web. July 21, 2010.
- “NCAA Banned-Drug Classes 2008–2009.” Netitor.com. n.p. n.d. Web. July 21, 2010.
- “NCAA Drug Testing Program.” Athletics.wsu.edu. P. 110-115. Web. July 21, 2010.
- http://www.signonsandiego.com/uniontrib/20040312/news_1s12azbase.html A night to remember, San Diego Union-Tribune (March 12, 2008)
- http://www.gophersports.com/ViewArticle.dbml?SPSID=38639&SPID=3298&DB_OEM_ID=8400&ATCLID=204917146 Minnesota-Louisiana Tech Boxscore, Minnesota Athletic Communications (March 27, 2010)
- http://ramblinwreck.cstv.com/sports/m-basebl/spec-rel/051104aaa.html Record Crowd Watches No. 15 Georgia Tech Top No. 12 Georgia, 12–5, Georgia Tech Sports Information (May 11, 2004)
- *Schlegel, John. "Texas wins NCAA record 25-inning game", MLB.com (MLB Advanced Media, L.P.), May 31, 2009.
- "2009 NCAA Div. I Baseball College World Series Bracket" (in column 1 (Regionals), click on Austin box; then click on Texas–BC box), NCAA.com (NCAA).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: College baseball|
- NCAA Sports.com – Baseball
- NCAA.org – home page
- National (Collegiate) Club Baseball Association
- College Baseball Daily
- CSTV.com – College baseball polls