Loma Linda University
|Loma Linda University|
|Motto||To make man whole|
|Religious affiliation||Seventh-day Adventist Church|
|Endowment||U.S. $436.7 million|
|President||Richard H. Hart, MD, DrPH|
|Provost||Ronald Carter, PhD|
|Location||Loma Linda, California, United States
Loma Linda University (LLU) is a Seventh-day Adventist coeducational health sciences university located in Loma Linda, California, United States. The University comprises eight schools and the Faculty of Graduate Studies. More than 100 certificate and degree programs are offered by the schools of allied health professions, dentistry, medicine, nursing, pharmacy, public health, religion, and science and technology. Curricula offered range from certificates of completion and associate in science degrees to doctor of philosophy and professional doctoral degrees. LLU also offers distance education. The university is accredited by the Western Association of Schools and Colleges (WASC). Its on-campus church has around 7,000 members. Loma Linda Academy, a Seventh-day Adventist K-12 school, is located nearby.
The university also hosts a branch office of the Ellen G. White Estate. Affiliated with Canadian University College and operating on the same campus, is Loma Linda University's Marital and Family Therapy Master's Degree program. Loma Linda is closing its program in Alberta and is no longer admitting students.
According to a New York Times blog, "Loma Linda University has the highest median starting salary (defined as salaries within five years of graduation), a function of their strong programs in nursing, dental and allied health." This position does drop off by mid-career.
Loma Linda University had its beginning in 1905 when Seventh-day Adventists John Burden and Ellen G. White worked together to purchase the property and develop what became known as the Loma Linda Sanitarium.
In 1906, Ellen White recalled:
In February 1906, a council of church workers met at Loma Linda. It consisted of the faculty of Fernando Academy, the faculty of the Loma Linda school, and the executive committee of the Southern California Conference. John Burden reported their ideas to Ellen White in a letter dated February 14:
In 1906, The Loma Linda College of Evangelists was established. Courses included:
The 1910 Seventh-day Adventist Yearbook enters the school as 'Loma Linda College'. It adds the legal title, 'College of Medical Evangelists of Loma Linda' (CME) and notes that the school was chartered as a Medical College in 1909. At the General Conference Committee Council held at Takoma Park, April 5–15, 1910,
"Whereas, It is advised that a medical school be equipped and conducted at Loma Linda, Cal.; and,—
Whereas, The Pacific Union Conference of Seventh-day Adventists has petitioned that the General Conference join it in this undertaking; therefore,—
"Resolved, I. That the General Conference unite with the Pacific Union Conference [and other union conferences] in establishing a medical school at Loma Linda, Cal.
2. That we authorize the officers of the General Conference to appropriate one thousand dollars, or any fraction thereof, for the above purpose, during the year 1910.
3. That A. G. Daniells, W. A. Ruble, and H. R. Salisbury be the General Conference members on the board of control of said school."
Later that same year, the minutes for the 187th Meeting of the General Conference Committee, December 2, recorded:
1910 to 1919
In 1911, Church worker Sarah Turner, of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, visited Loma Linda and sent the following letter to the Canadian Union Messenger:
"Judging from appearances and the testimonies given by the students, a good class of young people are in training who seem possessed with the true missionary spirit, desiring to lay all on the altar of service. The training is thorough in all lines; nothing is regarded as menial. The spiritual interest of all is carefully guarded; the word of God and the Testimonies being held up as the only standard.
"One is impressed with the quickness and quietness with which all work is done. Perfect harmony seems to prevail in all lines. We were reminded of the words of Holy Writ,--"Let all things be done decently and in order." "Young people desiring an education to prepare themselves for the Lord's work, but through lack of finances are unable to attend our colleges, are at this place enabled to pay expenses by work. It is an extremely busy place, no need of any one being idle, and thereby a tool for the enemy. There are two hundred students here in training.
"It is not the aim to have many people settle at Loma Linda. Only those are wanted who are needed to carry on the work, or are in training. The Lord has set his seal to the work here. By his direction it was established, and by him it has been carried on and sustained. Those receiving training here certainly increase their responsibility.
"I read with interest the reports in the MESSENGER each week, and the work and workers are remembered at the throne of grace. May all be filled with determination to be faithful till Jesus comes is my prayer. Yours in the truth. SARAH E. TURNER. St. Helena, Cal."
Early Clinical Developments
Ellen White promoted rural settings for Adventist schools, but to train medical students, the school needed clinical experience. Loma Linda Sanitarium did not have such a clinic. The American Medical Association would not recognize the medical college if it did not provide adequate clinical experience for its students.
In 1905, the American Medical Association formed their Council on Medical Education. Dr. Nathan Porter Colwell (1870–1936) became its first secretary the next year.
Adventists leaders interested in developing the medical school met with Dr. Colwell. He visited the campus and gave counsel on how to proceed.
E. E. Andross, President of the Pacific Union Conference of Seventh-day Adventists and Chairman of the Board for the College of Medical Evangelists, reported on a special meeting of the constituency of the college convened at Loma Linda, January 27, 1913. A large number of General Conference men were in California at time. Andross called this meeting in order to benefit from their counsel. In his report, he wrote:
On September 29, 1913, the College of Medical Evangelists opened the First Street Dispensary in the heart of Los Angeles.
Los Angeles Hospital
The December 16, 1915 Review and Herald reported on the General Conference Committee's Biennial Council which met in November at Loma Linda:
World War I and a 'B' Rating
In the May 30, 1918 edition of the Review and Herald, E. E. Andross, still president of the Pacific Union Conference, reported:
The United States federal government exempted medical students from the military draft. But they would only recognize 'A' and 'B' rated medical schools. The College of Medical Evangelists only had a 'C' rating. The California state authorities supported a higher rating. After a nation-wide effort, Percy T. Magan and colleagues persuaded Dr. Colwell to visit the school and determine whether a 'B' rating could be given. After the AMA's visit, the rating was upgraded to 'B'. Medical students who had already left for their military duties returned to finish their medical training.
Margaret Rossiter White, Historical Records Librarian at Loma Linda, writes:
In Los Angeles, November 3, 1922, Dr. Colwell met Dr. Evans, of Loma Linda, and Dr. Magan, of Los Angeles. They gave him a tour of the Boyle Avenue hospital block. At a luncheon held at the Athletic Club of Los Angeles attended by fifteen of the leading physicians of Los Angeles and the Pacific Coast, Dr. Colwell shared his thoughts on the medical college:
On November 16, 1922, Dr. Colwell reported that the Council on Medical Education had granted an 'A' rating to the College of Medical Evangelists.
Accreditation of Pre-Medical Programs in Adventist Colleges
The medical world, under the leadership of men like Dr. Colwell and W.E. Musgrave, was quickly developing standards for medical education and for the quality of hospitals. The requirements for accreditation developed as well. The July 12, 1923 Review and Herald presented the addresses given at the Educational Convention held at Colorado Springs, Colo., June 5–19, 1923. In an article entitled 'Separation from the World in Education', W.E. Howell, former President of the Loma Linda College of Evangelists (1906) and at the time of the article, the Secretary, or director, of the SDA General Conference Education Department expressed concern for where dependence on accreditation would lead Adventist schools. Under the subtitle 'Medical Standardization,' he said:
"From that day to this, the idea has been kept before our educators of registering our colleges in a secular standardizing association, thus tying them by much more than a thread to the educational policies of those who do not discern the voice of God and, who will not hearken to His commandments. Only two colleges have taken such a step, on the most moderate scale that could be discovered,— that of registering only the junior college department. Where this step will lead these schools and any others that may take it, only He who reads the future as well as the past, can predict. It would almost seem like tying ourselves to the' tail of a kite, to be carried whither the holder of the string may list — seemingly in the direction of less efficiency to serve the cause of God."
The 47th General Hospital
During World War II, the CME sponsored the 47th General Hospital. The college's Alumni Journal, August 1946, reports:
University Status and Name Change
On July 9, 1967, the university opened the Loma Linda University Medical Center with more than 125 patients from the old community hospital. The university also operated the Seventh-day Adventist liberal arts college in Riverside from 1967 to 1990, which is now known as La Sierra University.
In 1980, the state designated LLU the only Level I trauma center in San Bernardino, Riverside, Inyo and Mono counties, which comprise more than a fourth of the state's land mass. About 1,600 emergency helicopters land there each year.
In October 1984, at Loma Linda University Medical Center, Baby Fae became the first human to receive a heart of a baboon. The transplant appeared to be successful, but Baby Fae died 21 days later from a kidney infection.
In 1991, B. Lyn Behrens became the first female president of LLU. Serving until March 2008, she was succeeded by Richard Hart, who had previously served as LLU's chancellor.
Loma Linda University celebrated the Grand Opening of its new 150,000-square-foot (14,000 m2) Centennial Complex on October 28, 2009. The complex includes new classrooms, two 100-seat amphitheaters and more than 100 workstations with labs for dental, medical, physical therapy and graduate students. Updated technology allows the university to link to several areas around the globe. Additionally, the complex houses simulation labs where students can practice medical skills on live actors and sophisticated robotic mannequins. The complex was expected to bump up the university's growth by 25 percent from its current enrollment of 4,000 students to 5,000 students by 2010.
Loma Linda Mayor Bob Christman said, "The city wouldn't even be here if the university and medical center weren't here. It's had a significant, beneficial impact on the city. In fact, in my opinion, it's had a significant, beneficial impact on the entire Inland Empire."
Grants and funding
The University applies for and receives grants from various organizations. Some of the research grants include:
- California Walnut Commission for walnut research
- Pfizer Public Health & Government Group for public health television and Internet programming
- NSF Partnership for Innovation Grant in partnership with the Larta Institute
Federal government support
The special relationship between Loma Linda University and Representative Jerry Lewis, R – San Bernardino, first came to light in a Pulitzer Award winning expose written by Jerry Kammer. Lewis has lent significant help in funding important school operations. From 1998-2003, Loma Linda has received $167.2 million in federal funds, the number one academic recipient in the country receiving nearly $60 million more than the runner up, the University of South Florida. In 2000, it was the single largest recipient of higher education grants at $36 million Several grants were from the Department of Defense, plus $5 million from NASA for space radiation research. Critics point out that the brother of Lewis is employed by Loma Linda University. In 2008, Loma Linda University received nearly $9.5 million of which $5 million came from the Department of Defense. This special relationship with the school has led Lewis staffers to privately refer to it as "Loma Lewis University."
Loma Linda University offers more than 100 degrees and certificate programs in the following Schools:
- School of Allied Health Professions
- School of Dentistry
- School of Medicine
- School of Nursing
- School of Pharmacy
- School of Public Health
- School of Religion
- School of Science and Technology
- Faculty of Graduate Studies
School of Public Health
The Loma Linda University School of Public Health was founded in 1967. The school is an accredited member of the Association of Schools of Public Health (ASPH). The Master of Public Health (MPH) degree is offered with the following concentrations:
- Distance Learning
- Environmental & Occupational Health
- Global Health
- Health Policy and Leadership (Also offered as MBA program in Health Policy and Management)
- Health Education
- Health Geoinformatics
- Maternal and Child Health
- Peace Corps program
- Preventive care
- Public Health Practice
Additional degrees offered
School of Behavioral Health
The Loma Linda University School of Behavioral Health was created in 2012 to unite LLU's behavioral health disciplines. The school's departments and the degrees they offer are listed below:
- Counseling and Family Sciences- Child Life Specialist (Certificate, MS), Clinical Mediation (Certificate), Counseling (MS), Drug and Alcohol Counseling (Certificate), Family Counseling (Certificate), Family Life Education (Certificate), Family Studies (MA, PhD), Marital and Family Therapy (MS, DMFT, PhD), Medical Family Therapy (Certificate), School Counseling (Certificate)
- Psychology- Psychology (PsyD, PhD)
- Social Work and Social Ecology- Case Management (Certificate), Criminal Justice (MS), Gerontology (MS), Social Policy and Social Research (PhD), Social Work (MSW)
- Division of Interdisciplinary Studies- Play Therapy (Certificate)
- Dual Degrees- Bioethics/Social Policy and Social Research (MA/PhD), Clinical Ministry/Marital and Family Therapy (MA/MS), Social Work/Criminal Justice (MSW/MS), Social Work/Gerontology (MSW/MS), Social Work/Social Policy and Social Research (MSW/PhD)
The Loma Linda University Medical Center, in Loma Linda, California, admits more than 30,000 patients per year. LLUMC, as it is commonly known, also houses the Loma Linda University Children's Hospital, Proton Treatment Center, Transplantation Institute & Liver Center, and Loma Linda International Heart Institute.
School of Medicine
|T.R.M. Howard, M.D.||1935||Nationally known civil rights leader, entrepreneur, mentor to Medgar Evers, key figure in the investigation of the lynching of Emmett Till, President of the National Medical Association and Chief Surgeon of the Taborian Hospital of Mound Bayou, Mississippi||City Hospital, Number Two, in St. Louis, Missouri|
|Frank Jobe, M.D.||1956||A world renowned Orthopedic Surgeon and Professor of Orothopedics at the Keck School of Medicine of USC. Orthopaedic Consultant for the Los Angeles Dodgers baseball team, PGA Tour & Senior PGA Tour,||Orthopaedic Surgery, Los Angeles County Hospital in Los Angeles, California|
|Melvin Paul Judkins, M.D.||1947||A pioneer in Coronary angiography||Urology, Loma Linda University Medical Center|||
|Leo P. Krall, M.D.||1943||A world renowned leader in the field of diabetes, one of the original founders of Joslin Diabetes Center, Joslin International Fellows and director of Joslin's Education Division. Chaired annual Harvard-Joslin course and lectured at Harvard Medical School. In 1985, elected president of the International Diabetes Federation.||U.S. Marine Hospital in Staten Island, NY and San Francisco, CA; as well as the New England Deaconess Hospital in Boston, MA.||
|William J Sandborn, M.D.||1987||Head of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Research and Professor of Medicine at the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine||Internal Medicine, Loma Linda University Medical Center||Gastroenterology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn.||
|Bernd W. Scheithauer, M.D.||1973||A world renowned Neuropathologist and Professor of Pathology at the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine||Neuropathology and Anatomic Pathology Stanford University Medical Center||Surgical Pathology Stanford University Medical Center|||
|Cynara L. Coomer, M.D.||2002||Chief of Breast Surgery and Director of the Comprehensive Breast Center at Staten Island University Hospital and a Fox News medical contributor.||SUNY Downstate Health Sciences Medical Center|||
School of Public Health
|Floyd Petersen, M.P.H.||1976||Assistant Professor of Biostatistics at Loma Linda University Schools of Public Health, Medicine and Nursing. City Council (1990), Mayor pro tempore (1992–1996) and Mayor (1996–2004) for the City of Loma Linda, California.|||
|David Williams, Ph.D., M.Div., M.P.H.||19??||Norman and Laura Smart Norman Professor of Public Health in the Department of Society, Human Development, and Health at Harvard University School of Public Health. Prior HSPH, Williams was the Harold W. Cruse Collegiate Professor of Sociology, a senior research scientist at the Institute for Social Research, and an associate professor of sociology at the School of Public Health at the University of Michigan.|||
|Lars D. Houmann, M.H.A.||1981||President and Chief Executive Officer of Florida Hospital and Adventist Health System's Florida Division which includes 17 hospitals.|||
|Paul Wangai Jr., Ph.D., MD, MPH, MRSH, FICA, FACPM||1985||Medical Director of New Life Home Trust, Director of Medicare Wellness Centre, Consultant Physician of Aga Khan Hospital, Chairman/Consultant Physician of Nairobi Women's Hospital, Medical Advisor to the Shell Group of Companies of East Africa, and Consultant Advisor to the World Health Organization & the UICC (International Union Against Cancer).|||
|Lee Berk, DrPH||1981||Dr. Berk is a faculty member whose noteworthy research includes laughter and its positive health effects.|||
|Joan Sabaté, MD,DrPH||1988||Dr. Sabaté is the Chair of the Loma Linda University School of Public Health, Department of Nutrition. Dr. Sabaté served as principal investigator in a nutritional study that directly linked the consumption of walnuts to significant reductions in serum cholesterol. His findings were published in the New England Journal of Medicine in 1993. He also gave evidence for the health and nutrition property of nuts before an FDA commission resulting in the qualified health claim.|||
|Heather Knight||1984||President of Pacific Union College|
|Jerry Yang||19??||Poker player and winner of the 2007 World Series of Poker Main Event.|||
|Edmund C. Jaeger||191x||Renowned naturalist and author. (Attended Loma Linda College of Medical Evangelists years 1911-12 and 1912-13.)|||
- Loma Linda University Church
- Loma Linda Broadcasting Network
- Loma Linda, California
- Loma Linda Academy
- Loma Linda University Medical Center
- Loma Linda University Center for Biodiversity and Conservation Studies
- La Sierra University
- Loma Linda University School of Medicine
- List of Seventh-day Adventist hospitals
- List of Seventh-day Adventist medical schools
- List of Seventh-day Adventist secondary schools
- List of Seventh-day Adventist colleges and universities
- American Student Dental Association
- As of June 30, 2009. "U.S. and Canadian Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year 2009 Endowment Market Value and Percentage Change in Endowment Market Value from FY 2008 to FY 2009" (PDF). 2009 NACUBO-Commonfund Study of Endowments. National Association of College and University Business Officers. Retrieved March 15, 2010.
- "Directory of Universities, Colleges and Schools in Canada". Canadian Information Centre for International Credentials. Retrieved 22 March 2011.
- "Do Elite Colleges Produce the Best-Paid Graduates?" by Catherine Rampell, July 20, 2009
- http://www.payscale.com/best-colleges/top-us-colleges-graduate-salary-statistics.asp. The figures are based on self-reporting as collected by PayScale
- Review and Herald, September 20, 1906, p. 24. Online access may be found at the SDA General Conference Online Document Archives linked here.
- Review and Herald, June 21, 1906, p. 8
- Loma Linda Messages, unabridged pp. 6 and 7. These can be found online at The White Estate database linked here.
- The 1907 Yearbook for the Seventh-day Adventist Denomination, p. 107
- The 1910 Yearbook of the Seventh-day Adventist Denomination, p. 150
- Review and Herald, April 28, 1910, p. 14
- General Conference Committee Minutes for 1910, p. 181
- The Canadian Union Messenger, January 24, 1912, p. 1 The 1911 SDA Yearbook includes S.E. Turner as a Missionary Licentiate residing in Hamilton, On. The September 13, 1911, North Pacific Union Gleaner reports that Miss Bertha Orchard, matron at Loma Linda Sanitarium, and Miss Sarah E. Turner, on her way to St. Helena, Cal., to take a position in the home of Sister E. G. White, made a short call recently to Portland Sanitarium. Then the September 19, 1912, Pacific Union Recorder reports that she was on her way to Shanghai, China, with a group of missionaries, to visit her sister and brother-in-law, Mr. and Mrs. Horn.
- In the early 1900s these walk-in clinics were called dispensaries or treatment rooms.
- Obituary for Nathan Porter Colwell, Journal of the American Medical Association, January 18, 1936, p. 231
- Pacific Union Recorder, February 6, 1913, p. 1
- 'Obtaining the B Rating' by Margaret Rossiter White, Historical Records Librarian, Vernier Radcliffe Memorial Library, Loma Linda, California. Ministry Magazine, August, 1960, p. 23
- Review and Herald, December 16, 1915, p. 8
- Review and Herald, May 30, 1918, p.12
- Obtaining the 'B' Rating by Margaret Rossiter White, Ministry Magazine, September 1960, p. 46
- Letter of Percy T. Magan to Mae Covington, Dec. 12, 1922, as cited by M.R. White in Ministry Magazine, November, 1960, p.32
- The 1907 Year Book of the Seventh-day Adventist Denomination, p. 109
- The 1924 Year Book of the Seventh-day Adventist Denomination, p. 12
- Review and Herald, July 12, 1923, p. 15
- The Alumni Journal, Volume 17, Issue 1, August 1946 as quoted in Loma Linda University History website linked here. A picture of the CME's 47th General Hospital stationed at Milne Bay is available at the U.S. Army Medical Department Office of Medical History linked here.
- Glenn, Stacia (October 31, 2007). "Loma Linda University: From humble beginnings to world renown". San Bernardino Sun. Retrieved 2007-11-15.
- Kennedy-Ross, Selicia (October 17, 2007). "What's in the future for I. E. universities?". San Bernardino Sun. Retrieved 2007-10-20.
- "Walnuts & Weight". walnuts.org. Retrieved 2008-12-09.[dead link]
- "Designs for Health". llu.edu. Retrieved 2008-12-09.
- "A Steady Flow of Influence". pbs.org. Retrieved 2008-09-17.
- "Pork? Funds for Collages Raise Objections". pe.com. July 9, 2006. Retrieved 2008-06-29.[dead link]
- "New Democrats Leaders Love Pork Barrel Spending". conservative.org. Archived from the original on 2008-03-04. Retrieved 2008-06-29.
- "Congressional Earmarks for Higher Education, 2008". chronicle.com. Retrieved 2008-06-29.
- "Association of Schools of Public Health Accreditation".
- "LLU School of Public Health Departments".
- "School of Public Health Degrees".
- "Loma Linda University Medical Center".
- "LLUMC Departments".
- Melvin Paul Judkins, A Pioneer in Coronary Angiography
- "Leo P. Krall, a founder of Joslin Diabetes Center, dies at 87". Harvard Gazette. Retrieved 2007-04-11.
- "University Alumni of the Year". Loma Linda University Adventist Health Sciences Center. Archived from the original on 2007-09-30. Retrieved 2007-04-11.
- "Mayo Clinic Research". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 2007-04-11.
- "Cutting Edge Medical Report". Information Television Network. Retrieved 2007-04-11.
- "Mayo Clinic Research". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 2007-04-11.
- "Wikipedia page".
- "Board Member Profiles". San Bernardino International Airport. Retrieved 2007-04-11.
- "Williams joins Department of Society, Human Development, and Health". Harvard Gazette. Retrieved 2007-04-11.
- "AHS Executive Team". Adventist Health System. Retrieved 2007-04-11.
- "Lars Houmann tapped for Florida Hospital's top job". Orlando Biz Journal. 2006-02-28. Retrieved 2007-04-11.
- "Achieving excellence in AIDS programs in Africa". Center for International Development at Harvard University. Retrieved 2007-04-11.[dead link]
- "Berk on NBC: the healing power of laughter". Loma Linda University. Retrieved 2008-10-10.
- "Effects of Walnuts on Serum Lipid Levels and Blood Pressure in Normal Men". Loma Linda University. Retrieved 2011-02-24.
- "Qualified Health Claims: Letter of Enforcement Discretion - Nuts and Coronary Heart Disease (Docket No 02P-0505)". Loma Linda University. Retrieved 2011-02-24.
- Ryckman, Raymond E.; Zackrison, James L. (1998). Son of the Living Desert - Edmund C. Jaeger, 1887-1983: Ecologist, Educator, Environmentalist, Biologist, and Philanthropist. Loma Linda, California: R.E. Ryckman. pp. 167–169. ISBN 978-0-9663563-0-4. OCLC 39497413. LCC QH31.J33 R97 1998 University of California, Riverside, Science Library
- Legacy: Daring to Care (2005 online edition) By Richard A. Schaefer
- Loma Linda University Website
- Loma Linda University Heritage Room
- Loma Linda Broadcasting Network live streaming broadcast
- Tai Chi Chuan At the LLU Drayson Center
- Loma Linda University SPH Department of Nutrition Website