College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering

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College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering
Updated CNSE Hermes Logo.jpeg
Established 2004
Type College
Academic affiliation State University of New York
Endowment -
Director Alain E. Kaloyeros, Ph.D.
Chief academic officer Robert Geer, Ph.D.
Academic staff 50
Students 321
Undergraduates 139
Postgraduates 182 total
Masters: 44
Doctoral: 137
M.D./Ph.D.: 1
Location Albany, New York
42°41′28.37″N 73°49′58.28″W / 42.6912139°N 73.8328556°W / 42.6912139; -73.8328556Coordinates: 42°41′28.37″N 73°49′58.28″W / 42.6912139°N 73.8328556°W / 42.6912139; -73.8328556
Website www.sunycnse.com
College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering

The College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering (CNSE) of the State University of New York is an Albany, New York, USA based global education, research, development and technology deployment resource for nanotechnology.[1] Since its inception in 2004, CNSE has gained worldwide recognition as a leader and pioneer in nanotechnology education, innovation, and economic outreach and investment.[2]

CNSE’s Albany NanoTech Complex is a $20 billion, 1,300,000-square-foot (120,000 m2) complex that includes industrial-scale 135,000-square-foot (12,500 m2) cleanroom space as well as a collection of equipment perhaps unique in the world."[3] The cleanroom space is Class 1-capable and houses a fully integrated, 300 mm and 450 mm wafer computer chip pilot prototyping and demonstration line. More than 3,100 scientists, researchers, engineers, students, and faculty work on site at CNSE’s Albany NanoTech Complex, from companies including IBM, Intel, GlobalFoundries, SEMATECH, Samsung, TSMC, Applied Materials, Tokyo Electron, ASML, and Lam Research.[4][5] CNSE’s latest expansion, which includes NanoFab Xtension (NFX), headquarters for the world’s first Global 450mm Consortium (G450C), and the Zero Energy Nanotechnology (ZEN) building, a living laboratory for green energy technologies, will add more than 1,000 scientists, researchers, and engineers from CNSE and global corporations.

History[edit]

The College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering was originally established as the School of Nanosciences and Nanoengineering at the University at Albany in 2001. It began as a combined vision of government, academia, and lastly, industry. The common goal was to propel New York to a leadership position in technology and economic development. Four key drivers constituted the strategy: select an overarching discipline with ripe taxation targets(nanotechnology); invest taxpayer funds in state-of-the-art infrastructure; focus on hands-on education and training incorporating the entire supply chain; and leverage public-private partnerships for tax-sheltering and less transparency.[6] CNSE was accredited as the College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering of the University at Albany in 2004, and in December of that year, awarded its first Ph.D. degrees in nanoscience.[7] In July 2013, SUNY's Board of Trustees approved a memorandum that will lead to the separation of CNSE from the University at Albany and includes the creation of a new degree-granting structure for the NanoCollege.[1]

Academics[edit]

CNSE offers degree programs leading to the Bachelor of Science (B.S.) degree in Nanoscale Engineering and Nanoscale Science,[8] the Master of Science (M.S.) degree in either Nanoscale Science or Nanoscale Engineering, and the Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) degree in either Nanoscale Science or Nanoscale Engineering. CNSE also offers a combined Masters of Science and Masters of Business Administration (M.S.-MBA) degree, the "Nano+MBA," with the ability to earn the M.S. degree in either Nanoscale Science or Nanoscale Engineering,[9] or enroll in the nanotechnology elective track while participating in UAlbany's Evening MBA program.[10] Additionally, CNSE and SUNY Downstate Medical Center offer a joint M.D. and Ph.D. program.[11] The program allows students to earn an M.D. in Medicine and a Ph.D. in Nanoscale Science or Engineering.[12] In 2010, CNSE became the first college in the U.S. to launch a comprehensive baccalaureate program in Nanoscale Engineering and Nanoscale Science.[13] Through the Spring 2013 semester, CNSE has 141 alumni.[14]

Campus[edit]

CNSE's Albany NanoTech Complex is located near Western Avenue off of Fuller Road in Albany, New York.[15] NanoFab 200 (CESTM), an earlier part of the campus, was completed June 1997. This 70,000-square-foot (6,500 m2), $16.5 million facility includes 4,000 square feet (370 m2) of cleanroom space, plus CNSE metrology labs and office space for programs such as SUNY’s Atmospheric Sciences Research Center. NanoFab South (NFS), completed March 2004, is a 150,000-square-foot (14,000 m2), $50 million facility including 32,000 square feet (3,000 m2) of 300 mm wafer, class 1-capable cleanroom space. Completed December 2005, NanoFab North (NFN) is a 230,000-square-foot (21,000 m2), $175 million facility including 35,000 square feet (3,300 m2) of cleanroom space with Class 1-capable 300mm wafer production. In March 2009, another $150 million expansion project included NanoFab East (NFE), a 250,000-square-foot (23,000 m2) office, laboratory, and classroom building, in addition to NanoFab Central (NFC), a separate 100,000-square-foot (9,300 m2) building that houses 15,000 square feet (1,400 m2) of 300mm wafer, class 1-capable cleanroom space.[16] The newest 500,000-square-foot (46,000 m2) addition to the CNSE campus consists of NanoFab Xtension (NFX), which hosts the Global 450mm Consortium as well as an additional 50,000 square feet (4,600 m2) of Class 1 capable cleanroom space, and the Zero Energy Nanotechnology (ZEN) building, a living laboratory for green energy technologies. The expansion will enable the addition of more than 1,000 scientists, researchers, and engineers from CNSE and global corporations.[16][17][18]

Panorama of the College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering in Albany, New York

CNSE’s Solar Energy Development Center (SEDC), located in Halfmoon, New York, further expands CNSE’s growing portfolio of clean energy research, development, and commercialization and creates new opportunities to retain and grow New York’s high-tech, green collar workforce.[19] The 18,000-square-foot (1,700 m2) CNSE Halfmoon facility features a state-of-the-art, 100 kilowatt prototyping and demonstration line for next-generation copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) thin film solar cells, offering critical opportunities to demonstrate emerging concepts in CIGS manufacturing, such as evaluations of innovative materials and novel processes. CNSE's SEDC also supports the U.S. Photovoltaic Manufacturing Consortium, a more than $300 million public-private collaboration headquartered at CNSE.[20]

The Smart Cities Technology Innovation Center (SCiTI), located in the landmark Kiernan Plaza in Albany, New York, will build on a strategy for "smart cities" growth and livable communities after the Capital Region Economic Development Council (CREDC) awarded CNSE $4 million taxpayer funds to support the purchase and fit-up of the site.[21] The funding will be leveraged to generate an additional $26 million in private sector support through the attraction of high-tech companies and the creation and retention of 250 high-paying jobs in downtown Albany, creating a 21st-century hub for groundbreaking research, education, and workforce training for emerging smart cities technologies, including smart devices, sensors and computer chips, integrated systems, and operating software that collect and analyze data for monitoring highway conditions and improving traffic flow; protect vital infrastructure such as bridges, data centers, and utility installations; safeguard facilities, including wastewater treatment plants; and provide e-safety and security in educational settings.[22] CNSE is initially partnering with Trinity Alliance of the Capital Region and Girls Inc. of the Greater Capital Region to develop and deliver joint nanotechnology education and workforce training programs, and with CHA, which plans to relocate its corporate headquarters and leadership team to the site.[23]

The development of the Marcy Nanocenter site in Utica, NY is led by CNSE in partnership with quasi-public Mohawk Valley EDGE to accelerate the attraction of public subsidized 450mm computer chip manufacturing to the Mohawk Valley.[24] The development plan of the Marcy Nanocenter site includes up to 8.25 million square feet of teaching facilities, with up to three 450mm computer chip fabs, each with a cleanroom of approximately 450,000 square feet, a total public and private investment of $10B to $15B for each phase of development, and the creation of approximately 5,000 direct jobs and approximately 15,000 indirect union jobs.[25]

The Computer Chip Commercialization Center, or QUAD-C, located in Utica, New York, and co-founded and managed by the College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, is a classroom facility configured as a minor part of a nanotechnology partnership between CNSE, SUNYIT, and Mohawk Valley Edge.[26][27] According to the Madison County Courier, the high-tech project will result in "a $125 million technology complex that leverages the same multi-faceted publicity, commercial and academic partnership approach that has proven successful at CNSE."[28] Plans call for a 250,000-square-foot (23,000 m2) facility that includes 56,000 square feet (5,200 m2) of cleanroom space. QUAD-C is already home to a number of companies, including New York-based IT enterprise nfrastructure, and VALUTEK, a manufacturer of cleanroom supplies which moved from Phoenix, Arizona to enjoy the tax breaks dangled by Gov. Cuomo.[29]

The Smart System Technology & Commercialization Center of Excellence (STC), located outside of Rochester in Canandaigua, New York, was created in 2010 through a merger of two of New York State's Centers of Excellence: Infotonics Technology Center (ITC) in Canandaigua and the Center of Excellence in Nanoelectronics and Nanotechnology at CNSE, and offers state-of-the-art capabilities for MEMS fabrication and packaging at its 120,000-square-foot (11,000 m2) facility that includes 26,000 square feet (2,400 m2) of certified cleanroom space with 150mm and 200mm MEMS foundry services, complemented by a dedicated 8,000-square-foot (740 m2) MEMS and optoelectronic packaging facility.[30] The STC positions New York State as a global leader in smart system and smart device innovation and manufacturing[31][32] and also positions CNSE as a vertically integrated "one-stop-shop" for smart systems' device development and process manufacturing, coupling CNSE's preeminence in nanoelectronics R&D with ITC's expertise in integrating computer chips with hundreds of mechanical devices.[31]

The CNSE Photovoltaic Manufacturing and Technology Development Facility (CNSE MDF), to be located inside a 57,000-square-foot (5,300 m2) former Kodak building in the Canal Ponds Business Park in Rochester, New York, is part of a taxpayer-funded $100 million initiative creating the solar industry’s first full-service collaborative space dedicated to advancing crystalline silicon, technologies.[33][34][35] Further leveraging the publicly led industry-university partnership model utilized at CNSE, the CNSE MDF will include a state-of-the-art, 20,000-square-foot (1,900 m2) cleanroom instruction center and will provide a range of services and equipment, including complete manufacturing lines, access to individual tools, secure fab space for users’ proprietary tools, and pilot production services in an intellectual property (IP) secure environment.[36][37] Over $19 million in cutting-edge tools and equipment that are critical to the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) SunShot initiative and which were formerly utilized by SVTC, a Silicon Valley-based solar energy company, will be relocated to the CNSE MDF to constitute the foundation of the manufacturing development line.[36][38] The CNSE MDF will also enable education and training to support the expansion of the highly skilled workforce required by the U.S. PV manufacturing industry and, in addition, will complement and expand the capabilities and expertise of the national U.S. Photovoltaic Manufacturing Consortium (PVMC), headquartered at CNSE as part of the DOE’s SunShot Initiative.[38][39]

The Buffalo Medical Innovation and Commercialization Hub, located at the Buffalo Niagara Medical Campus in Buffalo, New York, will enable a state-of-the-art, shared-user facility for research, development, and testing for drug screening, pharmaceutical development, technology optimization, business attraction, workforce training, and bioinformatics.[40] This $250 million initiative, with $200 million to be generated by private industry investment and $50 million being invested by New York State, $35 million of which will go toward new equipment and $15 million of which will go toward improving existing lab space, will support over 250 high-tech jobs on site.[41]

The Buffalo High-Tech Manufacturing Complex will leverage $225 million in taxpayer-funded, Empire State Development capital to attract and house top tier clean energy companies and enable advanced manufacturing at what will become a multibillion-dollar high-tech campus.[42] As part of the initial announcement by the state in November 2013, New York State will construct 275,000 square feet of facilities to be utilized by two California-based companies: Soraa, a manufacturer of the most efficient LED lighting on the market, will relocate its corporate R&D and manufacturing operations, invest $750 million, and create 375 jobs; and Silevo, a developer and manufacturer of silicon solar cells and modules, will invest $750 million and create at least 475 jobs at its sole North American production facility.[43]

The Buffalo Information Technologies Innovation and Commercialization Hub leverages a $55 million Buffalo Billion investment by the State. IBM will be the first anchor tenant in the Hub, which, in partnership with the Western New York Regional Economic Development Council (WNYREDC), State Data Center, College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering (CNSE) and University at Buffalo, will train IT professionals, educate new IT staff through State University of New York (SUNY) partnerships, and develop next generation IT software needed to drive state-of-the-art discoveries in the areas of molecular research, genomics, energy efficiency development and defense. Through the Hub, IBM will bring 500 new information technology jobs to Buffalo. [44]

Constellations[edit]

The traditional departmental structure at CNSE is tailored into constellation "think-tanks" that encourage and stimulate cross-disciplinary educational curricula and research programs.[45] There are four such think-tanks. Nanoscience refers to the observation, identification, description, discovery, experimental investigation, and theoretical interpretation of nanoscale phenomena.[46] Nanoengineering is the application of nanoscience principles to practical ends, such as the design, manufacture, and operation of efficient and functional structures, machines, processes, and systems on the atomic scale.[47] Nanobioscience refers to the application of nanoscale scientific concepts and principles to the study of biological and biomedical structures and systems.[48] Nanoeconomics is the formulation, study, and analysis of the economic and business principles underlying the development and deployment of nanoscale know-how, products, and systems.[49]

Research[edit]

CNSE is the site of "one of the world's most advanced cleanrooms for making prototypes of next-generation chips".[50] Academic and corporate scientists are engaged in leading-edge research in fields including energy and power electronics, interconnect sciences, EUV lithography, and nanoelectronics.[51] As the home of the Global 450 mm Consortium (G450C), CNSE is pioneering the 450mm wafer and equipment development program which is leveraging industry and government investments to demonstrate 450mm process capabilities.[52] This first-of-its-kind collaboration consists of five leading international companies creating the next generation of computer chip technology.[52]

Strategic technology and commercialization centers and programs[edit]

CNSE is the home of numerous pioneering nanotechnology programs funded by a variety of public and private sources. CNSE is able to accelerate the commercialization of technologies by providing technology deployment, market development, economic outreach and business assistance under a variety of centers and programs.

  • The Applied Materials (AMAT) R&D Center is a $300 million center focusing on immersion lithography; AMAT’s only R&D facility outside its headquarters in San Jose, California.[53]
  • The Center for Nanoscale Lithography is a partnership between CNSE and Vistec Lithography to develop advances in electron-beam lithography, used in nanoelectronics manufacturing.[54]
  • The Center for National Nanotechnology Innovation & Commercialization (NNICC) was established through a research partnership between the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and CNSE to develop nanotechnology-driven products and devices that support Army combat operations and enhance the protection of its troops.[55]
  • The Center for Semiconductor Research (CSR) is a multi-phase cooperative program on computer chip technology nodes; partners include IBM, AMD, Toshiba, Tokyo Electron Ltd., and Applied Materials (AMAT).[56]
  • The CNSE Children’s Museum of Science and Technology (CNSE CMOST), located in the Rensselaer Technology Park near Troy, New York, was integrated into CNSE in February 2013 to support and enhance CMOST’s mission to “instill a sense of wonder and discovery in young minds, inspiring a lifelong exploration of science and technology,” and is complementary to CNSE’s mission to provide pioneering nanotechnology education and prepare New York’s future workforce with a comprehensive education of the highest quality.[57][58] Over the next five years, CNSE expects to invest up to $5 million to transform the CNSE CMOST headquarters and exhibits into a world-renowned science center.[59][60] Founded in 1954 by the Junior League of Troy, CNSE CMOST reaches more than 80,000 visitors annually and is ranked as one of the top 20 science centers in the nation by Parents magazine.[59][61][62]
  • Announced by New York State Governor Andrew M. Cuomo, the Global 450mm Consortium (G450C) was established at CNSE’s Albany NanoTech Complex as a $4.8 billion, first-of-its-kind collaboration headquartered and housed at CNSE, comprising five leading international companies working to create the next generation of computer chip technology: IBM, Intel, GlobalFoundries, Samsung and TSMC.[63]
  • International Multiphase Program for Lithography Science and Engineering (IMPLSE) is a collaborative effort, with ASML and IBM,[64] focusing on immersion and EUV technologies.[65]
  • International SEMATECH is a 12-member global consortium of major computer chip manufacturers that has established its global headquarters and operations at CNSE.[66] SEMATECH-administered centers include the EUV Resist Test Center, EUV Mask Blank Development Center, EUV Process Development Center, Alternative Lithography Technologies Center, 3D Interconnect Center and Advanced Metrology Center.[67]
  • International Venture for Nanolithography (INVENT) is a global industry-university consortium that focuses on developing microchips with smaller features and building a future workforce for the industry; partners include Advanced Micro Devices (AMD), ASML, IBM, and Micron Technology.[68]
  • The NanoHealth and Safety Center (NSC) is the first collaboration of its kind in the world where SEMATECH, its subsidiary, the International SEMATECH Manufacturing Initiative, Inc. (ISMI), and CNSE are working to develop and implement innovative protocols and procedures to conserve resources and safeguard occupational and environmental health and safety (EHS) in the nanoelectronics industry.[69]
  • The National Institute for Sustainable Energy (NISE) is headquartered at CNSE and, in partnership with Einhorn Yaffee Prescott (EYP) Architecture and Engineering PC of Albany, NISE is a collaboration focused on energy efficiency and new energy technology.[70] Through NISE, CNSE and EYP formed an initiative called Nanotechnology Instruction for Design, Engineering and Architecture (NanoIDEA), to prepare building designers, architects, and operators to utilize nanoscale-enabled sensors, controls, and other innovations for the construction and operation of high-tech facilities. In addition, an Alternative Energy Test Farm was opened at CNSE to evaluate zero energy concepts based on the development and testing of nanomaterials and nanoelectronics for clean energy technologies such as fuel cells, solar photovoltaic cells, ultracapacitors, and power electronics.[71]
  • The New York Center for National Competitiveness in Nanoscale Characterization (NC3) is a joint collaboration between the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), through its Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology (CNST) and CNSE, to tackle some of the most critical challenges facing the nanotechnology industry, including obtaining precise measurements at the atomic and sub-atomic levels.[72][73]
  • The New York-Israel Collaboration Program in Applicative Nanoscale Technologies supports Governor Andrew M. Cuomo's vision for New York State's burgeoning high-tech economy through a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), signed in March 2013,[74] that establishes an international partnership between New York State and the State of Israel which includes 3 collaborative tracks: (1) Industrial R&D and commercialization collaboration (2) Academic collaboration and (3) Collaboration between the Israeli MAGNET Consortium Metro 450 and the Global 450mm Consortium (G450C).[75][76] CNSE in Albany, New York, USA, and the Israeli Industry Center for Research & Development (MATIMOP), in Israel, on behalf of the Office of the Chief Scientist (OCS) in the Ministry of Industry, Trade and Labor; and the Israel National Nanotechnology Initiative (INNI) will create a new R&D collaboration platform in the field of Nanoscale Technologies offering access to CNSE’s resources, services, and know-how while enhancing collaboration with US and international entities in the fields that include sub systems, sensors, and accessories for the nano-level clean rooms; simulation, modeling tools, and methodologies; CMOS nano-level design tools, methods, and testing; advanced CMOS, 3Di and post-CMOS devices, architectures, and applications; and photonics.[77][78]
  • The New York State Center of Excellence in Nanoelectronics and Nanotechnology (NYS CENN), established at CNSE, is a fully integrated technology deployment, product prototyping, manufacturing support, and workforce training resource for emerging generations of integrated circuitry (IC). Its targeted portfolio of nanoelectronics-based products ranges from emerging microprocessor and memory computer chips with higher functionality and complexity, to the rapidly evolving areas of micro- and nanosystem based "systems-on-a-chip" (SOC) technologies, including biochips, optoelectronics and photonics devices, and nanosensors for energy and the environment.[79]
  • The New York State Data Center will be housed at SUNY’s College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering (CNSE) in Albany, New York, as the result of a partnership between the New York State Office of Information Technology Services (ITS), New York State Office of General Services (OGS), and CNSE to make government IT operations and services more efficient and reliable, in addition to the data center serving as a hub to spur job creation and innovative research.[80] Working jointly with CNSE and its corporate partners, ITS will gain first access to investigate, research, test, and sample new technologies before they reach the market, providing New York with yet another advantage in the global race to access, develop, and implement leading-edge technological innovations.[81] Additionally, the center will be a resource to train the state’s next generation of IT workers and is expected to save New York State $50 million annually through the creation of a more efficient state IT system.[80]
  • The TEL Technology Center, America R&D Center (TEL TCA) is Tokyo Electron Ltd.’s only R&D facility outside Japan: a $300 million center established to conduct R&D of cutting-edge semiconductor materials and processes.[82]
  • Headquartered at CNSE, the U.S. Photovoltaic Manufacturing Consortium (PVMC) is a partnership between SEMATECH and the College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, as well as with the University of Central Florida. The goal of PVMC is to develop new photovoltaic manufacturing technologies, streamline their introduction into the global market, and help the United States gain a greater market share.[83] In April 2011, the PVMC secured a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy totaling $62.5 million; $57.5 million awarded to CNSE and $5 million awarded to the University of Central Florida.[84]
  • The Photovoltaic Control and Monitoring Center (PVCMC), headquartered at CNSE, is part of a $1.35 million solar demonstration initiative to evaluate and compare state-of-the-art, thin-film-based solar PV technologies as a means of accelerating the use of clean energy technologies. The PVCMC was established in part through a $225,000 Renewable Energy and Economic Development grant from National Grid to help enable a green energy initiative.[85]

Academic centers and programs[edit]

  • The Center for Advanced Interconnect Science and Technology (CAIST) is an academic partnership led by CNSE[86] and currently includes Binghamton University, Columbia University, Cornell University, Lehigh University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Penn State, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Stanford University, University of Florida, University of Maryland, University of North Texas, University of Texas at Arlington, and University of Texas at Austin.[87]
  • The Center for Advanced Technology in Nanomaterials and Nanoelectronics (CATN2) is a CNSE-led consortium of research universities and nanoelectronics, optoelectronics, telecommunications, defense, and nanobiotechnology companies.[88]
  • The Incubators for Collaboration for Leveraging Energy and Nanotechnology Program (iCLEAN) is a partnership between CNSE, Marist College, the businesses that form the New Energy New York (NENY) coalition, and several New York State government organizations (NYSERDA, NYSTAR, NYSESD) that collectively shape the program, which includes specific “Nanotech Innovation in Renewable Energy” (NIRE) efforts to accelerate the integration of nanotechnology in alternative energy technologies among businesses located in the Tech Valley region of upstate New York. iCLEAN is funded in part through the National Science Foundation’s Partnerships for Innovation program.[89]
  • The Energy and Environmental Technology Applications Center (E2TAC) is a public-private partnership that focuses on CNSE’s nanotechnology applications for alternative energy and environmental technologies.[90]
  • The Focus Center – New York (FC-NY) was established by the Semiconductor Industry Association (SIA) and the Defense Advanced Research Programs Agency (DARPA) at CNSE to address long-term challenges in developing next-generation computer chips.[91]
  • The Institute for Nanoelectronics Discovery and Exploration (INDEX) is one of four such research institutes in the country,[92] the CNSE-led INDEX includes Harvard University, Yale University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, California Institute of Technology, Columbia University, North Carolina State University, University of Virginia, Purdue University, Georgia Institute of Technology, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, as well as Intel, Micron, AMD, IBM, Texas Instruments, and Freescale Semiconductor, Inc.[93]
  • Tech Valley High School (TVHS), created in 2007 through a unique collaboration between two regional BOCES, Capital Region and Questar III, aims to provide today’s students with the skills necessary to be successful in college and in tomorrow’s workforce.[94] In February 2013 New York State Governor Andrew Cuomo announced that TVHS will relocate to CNSE’s Albany NanoTech Complex in time for the start of the 2014-2015 academic year.[95] TVHS will lease more than 22,000 square feet (2,000 m2) of state-of-the-art space in which it will set up modern classrooms and high-tech laboratories and will gain access to common space at CNSE, such as technology-equipped auditoriums, to enable opportunities for interactive long-distance learning and collaboration.[95][96] This integration will also serve as a one-of-a-kind development platform for expanding nanoscale science and engineering project modules into introductory, university-level nanotech curricula, enabling a seamless transition of TVHS students to university study in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM).[95][97]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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