Collegiate Gothic in North America
The beginnings of Collegiate Gothic architecture in North America date back to 1829 when 'Old Kenyon' was completed on the campus of Kenyon College in Gambier, Ohio. This was followed by 'Old Main,' erected in 1857 on the campus of Knox College in Galesburg, Illinois.
Later, in 1878, Seabury and Jarvis Halls were completed on the campus of Trinity College in Hartford, Connecticut. Together with Northam Towers there, these buildings make up what is known as the "Long Walk". Built to plans drawn up by William Burges, these buildings remain among the best examples of Collegiate Gothic architecture in the United States.
In 1894 Cope & Stewardson completed Pembroke Hall on the campus of Bryn Mawr College. At Bryn Mawr, Cope & Stewardson combined the original Gothic architecture of Oxford and Cambridge Universities with the American Early Gothic Revival style and the local New England landscape, to establish the Collegiate Gothic style. Commissions shortly followed for buildings on the campuses of the University of Pennsylvania, Princeton University, and Washington University in St. Louis, marking the nascent beginnings of a movement that transformed many college campuses across the country.
The Collegiate Gothic movement gained further momentum when Charles Donagh Maginnis designed Gasson Hall at Boston College in 1908. Publication of its design in 1909, and praise from influential American architect Ralph Adams Cram, helped establish Collegiate Gothic as the prevailing architectural style on American university campuses for decades. Maginnis & Walsh went on to design buildings at some twenty-five other campuses, including the main buildings at Emmanuel College (Massachusetts), and the law school at the University of Notre Dame.
Boston College's Gasson Hall is credited for establishing the typology of dominant Gothic towers in subsequent campus designs, including those at Princeton (Cleveland Tower, 1913–1917), Yale (Harkness Tower, 1917–1921), and Duke (Chapel Tower, 1930–1935).
Architect James Gamble Rogers' extensive work at Yale University, beginning in 1917, may be the prototypical example of the genre. His designs lent an air of instant heritage and gravitas to the campus. Rogers was criticized by other prominent American Gothic Revival architects, namely Cram, for his use of steel frames underneath stone cladding, and tricks such as splashing acid on stone walls to simulate age. Rogers was also criticized by the growing Modernist movement of the time. The 1927 Sterling Memorial Library came under especially vocal attack from Yale students for its historicist spirit and its lavish use of ornament.
Charles Klauder's steel-frame, limestone-clad, 42-story skyscraper, the Cathedral of Learning, serves as the centerpiece of the University of Pittsburgh's campus. The world's second tallest university building and second tallest gothic-styled building, it has been described as the literal culmination of late gothic revival architecture. Constructed between 1926 to 1937, the building also contains a half-acre gothic hall whose mass is supported only by its 52-foot (16 m) tall arches. The Cathedral of Learning is accompanied by other gothic structures by Klauder, including the university's Stephen Foster Memorial and the French gothic revival Heinz Memorial Chapel.
Other notable examples of Collegiate Gothic include the extensive and consistent collection of designs at the University of Chicago.
The style was also frequently used to design high schools and even elementary school buildings.
Architects of the Collegiate Gothic style
- Julian Abele
- Cope & Stewardson
- Ralph Adams Cram
- William Augustus Edwards
- Philip H. Frohman
- Guilbert and Betelle
- Charles Klauder
- Pond and Pond
- James Gamble Rogers
- Snowden Ashford
- Horace Trumbauer
- David Webster
- York and Sawyer
- Altgeld's castles — a set of buildings within five Illinois universities (1896–1899)
- Boston College — specifically Gasson Hall, Devlin Hall, St. Mary's Hall, and Bapst/Burns Library
- Bryn Mawr College — Pembroke Hall (1894)
- Carleton College
- Central Commerce Collegiate, Toronto
- Central Technical School, Toronto
- City College of New York
- Cornell University
- Danforth Collegiate and Technical Institute, Toronto
- Duke University — Duke Chapel (1930), and West Campus, arch. Julian Abele.
- Eastern Commerce Collegiate Institute, Toronto, Canada
- Eastern Senior High School (1923), Washington, D.C.
- Emma Willard School
- Florida A&M University
- Florida State University
- Fordham University, Rose Hill Campus
- Fordson High School, Dearborn, Michigan
- Grinnell College
- Indiana University-Bloomington
- Isaac E. Young Middle School, New Rochelle, New York
- John Carroll University
- John Marshall High School, Los Angeles, California
- Knox College — Old Main (1857)
- Lehigh University
- Loyola University Maryland
- Loyola University New Orleans — Marquette Hall (1910)
- The Mary Louis Academy, Jamaica Estates, New York (1937)
- McGill University, Montreal, Canada
- McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
- Michigan State University
- New Jersey Institute of Technology — Central King Building, the old Central High School of Newark (1911)
- Northwestern University
- Northwest Missouri State University — Administration Building
- Oglethorpe University, Atlanta, Georgia
- Princeton University — Blair Hall (1896)
- Reed College, Oregon
- Rhodes College, Memphis, Tennessee
- Purdue University
- Sewanee—The University of the South, Sewanee, Tennessee
- Trinity College, Connecticut
- University of Arkansas
- University of Chicago
- University of Denver
- University of Florida
- University of Idaho
- University of Michigan — U of M Law School (1924)
- University of Notre Dame
- University of Oklahoma
- University of Pennsylvania — Quadrangle Dormitories (1895)
- University of Pittsburgh (Cathedral of Learning, Heinz Chapel, Stephen Foster Memorial, Clapp Hall)
- University of Richmond, Virginia
- University of Saskatchewan, Canada
- University of Southern California — Wallis Annenberg Hall
- University of St. Thomas, Minnesota
- University of Toledo — University Hall and Memorial Field House, Ohio
- University of Toronto — St. George campus, Canada
- University of Washington in Seattle — Suzzallo Library (1926)
- Washington University in St. Louis — Brookings Hall (1900), and the Danforth Campus
- The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada
- Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
- West Chester University
- Yale University — Sterling Memorial Library, Harkness Tower, and the Memorial Quadrangle; arch. James Gamble Rogers.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Collegiate Gothic architecture in the United States.|
- Gothic architecture
- Gothic Revival architecture
- Hokie Stone — exclusive to Virginia Tech's Collegiate Gothic (and other styles) building façades.
- "Old Main".
- "Collegiate Gothic". Bryn Mawr Library.
- "Cathedral of Learning, Pittsburgh". SkyscraperPage.com. Retrieved 2012-12-07.
- Trump, James D. (1975-08-25). National Register of Historic Places Inventory - Nomination Form: Cathedral of Learning. Pennsylvania's Historic Architecture & Archaeology. Retrieved 2009-10-08. ""...in the literal sense of the word, Late Gothic Revival architecture culminated in the University of Pittsburgh's skyscraping Cathedral of Learning". Marcus Whiffen, architecture historian"
- Toker, Franklin (2009). Pittsburgh: A New Portrait. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press. p. 327. ISBN 0-8229-4371-9.
- Timeline 1900–1949, History, About, Northwestern University
- www.brynmawr.edu: gothic
- "Replace or Modernize? The Future of the District of Columbia's Endangered Old and Historic Public Schools: Eastern Senior High School". 21st Century School Fund. May 2001. Retrieved 2 January 2014.
- www.knox.edu: Old Main
- www.princeton.edu: Blair Hall
- www.upenn.edu - tour: Quadrangle Dormitories