National Army of Colombia
||This article needs attention from an expert in Colombia. (September 2008)|
|Colombian National Army
Ejército Nacional de Colombia
Colombian Army Emblem
|Active||August 19, 1819 – present|
|Role||Foreign and Domestic Defense|
|Garrison/HQ||Colombian Ministry of Defense|
|Colors||Red with Army Crest|
|March||"Himno del Ejército"|
|Engagements||Independence War against Spain
Thousand Days War (Civil war)
War Against Peru
Colombian Armed Conflict
|Gen. Oscar González|
Francisco de Paula Santander,
Gustavo Rojas Pinilla,
Harold Bedoya Pizarro,
Manuel José Bonett
Rafael Reyes Prieto
The National Army of Colombia (Spanish: Ejército Nacional de Colombia) is the land military force of the government of Colombia and the largest service of the Colombian Armed Forces. It has the responsibility for land-based military operations along with the Infanteria de Marina (Naval Infantry) to protect the Colombian state against domestic or foreign threats.
The modern Colombian Army has its roots in the Ejército de los Comuneros or Army of the Commoners which was formed on August 7, 1819, before the establishment of the present day Colombia to meet the demands of the Revolutionary War against the Spanish Empire.
That same day, the Congress of Angostura created the Greater Colombian Army after the triumph over the Spanish, to replace the disbanded Commoners Army. However, the Colombian Army considers itself to be an evolution of the Commoners Army, and thus dates its inception from its origins.
- 1 History
- 2 Organization
- 3 Schools and courses
- 4 Equipment
- 5 Uniforms
- 6 Personnel
- 7 See also
- 8 Notes
- 9 References
- 10 External links
The Colombian Army trace its history back to the 1770s and 1780s, when the comuneros (Commoners) (mostly descendants of Spanish and Amerindians) decided to separate from the Spanish Empire to create their own country and initiated a revolutionary war.
By 1810, as the nation declared independence, a Volunteer National Guard was raised composed of infantry and cavalry units. Nationwide civil war prevented a full establishment of a regular army, and it would take only 9 years before a truly national army would be formed.
The Greater Colombian Army is consolidated on August 7, 1819 by defeating the Spaniards at Boyacá in the Battle of Boyacá under the command of Simon Bolivar. Since then the Colombian Army has been the biggest organization in Colombia.
The military reform carried out by General Rafael Reyes Prieto in the year 1907, right in the aftermath of the Thousand Days War, marked the professionalization of the Colombian Armed Forces, partly resulting in the opening of the Colombian Military Academy. The Army was dramaticaly changed by the modernization efforts including two military missions in the 1920s by the Chilean and Swiss armies.
The Colombian Army is present at war with leftist rebels of the FARC, ELN and EPL, as well as other minor groups. Throughout the war, military personnel have usually maintained a level of professionalism.
Members of the military have been accused or condemned for collaborating with the activities of right wing paramilitaries, such as the AUC and others. The BBC and other sources have reported on cases of corruption in the military, as well as other scandals.
The United States government approved the Plan Colombia initiative. Part of the resources provided by this initiative would be directed to the support of the Colombian Army by strengthening its combat and logistics capabilities.
The Colombian Army is led by the President of Colombia (a civilian) and directed as well by a (four sun) General.
The training of Colombian soldiers is world recognized due to its demanding features. The promotional courses (courses that the candidate has to take in order to be promoted to a higher rank) are usually tough and physically demanding.
A "Lancero" training course in counterinsurgency warfare is held in Tolemaida, 150 miles (240 km) from Bogotá, where temperatures range between 85 and 100 degrees F. (29.5–38 degrees C.) throughout the year. The course, which has been called the toughest in the world, is run by the Colombian army with U.S. military instructors also playing a role. According to Paris Match (no. 2964, March 9–15, 2006) the course lasts 73 days and trains Bolivian, Ecuadorean, and Panamanian troops as well as Colombian soldiers; some French and American soldiers are also trained there. The course, founded in 1955, derives from the Ranger program of the US Army. Reportedly, severe techniques and live ammunition are used. Because of its exceptional nature, the course has gained international prestige.
Overseas military operations
During the Korean War, some 4,314 troops of the Colombian Army (21% of the total force) served with the Colombia Battalion in the United Nations Command. The initial contingent of troops transported to Korea aboard the USNS Aiken Victory. Once in-country, the Colombia Battalion received training and then joined the American 21st Infantry Regiment on 1 August 1951. It was engaged in battle during Operation Nomadic, for which the battalion received a Presidential Unit Citation. In 1952, as the 21st Infantry Regiment redeployed, the Colombia Battalion was transferred to the 31st Infantry Regiment. The battalion was greatly involved in the Battle of Old Baldy. Colombian soldiers killed in action were sometimes cremated at the United Nations Cemetery in Tanggok and repatriated in 1954. Overall, the Colombian Army lost 141 soldiers by death and suffered 556 battle injuries.
The Colombian National Army deployed soldiers in the Sinai as part of the United Nations Emergency Force between 1956 and 1967. Since 1980 it has supplied one battalion ('COLBATT') to the Multinational Force and Observers there.
Colombian Army Divisions are static Regional Commands
- 1st Division (Santa Marta) – Its jurisdiction covers the Northern Region of Colombia in which there are the departments of Cesar, La Guajira, Magdalena, Sucre, Bolívar and Atlántico. 2nd Mechanized and 10th Armored brigades.
- 2nd Division (Bucaramanga) – Its jurisdiction covers the north eastern Colombia in which there are the departments of Norte de Santander, Santander and Arauca. 5th Infantry, 30th Infantry and 23rd Mobile brigades.
- 3rd Division (Cali) – Its jurisdiction covers the South West of Colombia in which there are the Departments of Nariño, Valle del Cauca, Cauca, Caldas, Quindio, Risaralda and the southern part of the Chocó. 3rd, 8th, 23rd and 29th Infantry brigades.
- 4th Division (Villavicencio) – Its jurisdiction covers the eastern region of Colombia in which there are the departments of Meta, Guaviare, and part of Vaupés. 7th Infantry, 22nd Infantry and 31st Jungle Infantry brigades.
- 5th Division (Bogota) – Its jurisdiction covers the Central Region of Colombia in which there are the departments of Cundinamarca, Boyaca, Huila and Tolima. 1st Infantry, 6th Infantry, 8th Mobile, 9th Infantry and 13th Infantry brigades.
- 6th Division (Florencia) – Its jurisdiction covers the southern region of Colombia in which there are the departments of Amazonas, Caquetá, Putumayo and southern Vaupés. 12th Infantry, 13th Mobile, 26th Jungle and 27th Jungle brigades.
- 7th Division (Medellin) – Its jurisdiction covers the western region of Colombia in which there are the departments of Cordoba, Antioquia, and part of the Chocó. 4th, 11th, 14th, 15th and 17th Infantry and 11th Mobile Brigades
- 8th Division (Yopal) – Its jurisdiction covers the northeastern region of Colombia: the Departments of Casanare, Arauca, Vichada, Guainía, and the municipalities of Boyaca of Cubará, Pisba, Paya, Labranzagrande and Pajarito. 16th, 18th, 28th, and the 5th Mobile Brigade.
- Mobile Medical Command with 3 Battalions
- Military and Institutes Brigade
- 19th Cadet Brigade with 3 battalions
- Army Aviation with 135 helicopters and aircraft.
- Army Commando Battalion
- Infantería (Infantry)
- Caballería (Cavalry)
- Artillería (Artillery)
- Ingenieros (Engineers)
- Inteligencía (Intelligence)
- Comunicaciones (Communications)
- Cuerpo Logístico y Administrativo (Logistics and Administrative Corps)
- Aviación (Army Aviation)
The Colombian Army has created new programs in order to fight terrorist guerrillas that during the last 40 years have fought a war to overthrow the Colombian government. They are highly trained, specially selected Colombian Army soldiers. They do special recon operations to find and expel Colombian terrorists hideouts.
Rapid Deployment Force
- The Rapid Deployment Force or Fuerza de Despliegue Rápido abr. FUDRA, was created as a modern quick reaction force to deploy to different regions and to all types of weather. Currently, its function is to solely carry out offensive operations against insurgents or outlaws.
- Anti-Narcotics Brigade (Brigada Anti-Narcoticos). This unit was specifically activated for operations against the trafficking of narcotics. It was created on December 8, 2000 and has its main headquarters in the Guaviare Department.
Air Assault Aviation Division
- The Colombian National Army Aviation or División de Aviación Asalto Aéreo del Ejército, is an aviation branch that works autonomously from the Colombian Air Force. It is part of the Colombian Army and its main mission is to support the army's ground operations. The unit has recently focused in the security of the Colombian border and Colombia's sovereignty.
This Unit was created on September 7 of 1916 and it is managed by the Colombian.
The Agrupación de Fuerzas Especiales Antiterroristas Urbanas (Urban Counter-Terrorism Special Forces Group, AFEUR) is an elite unit of the Colombian Army, whose primary mission is to perform counter-terrorist operations and hostage rescues based on stealth, surprise and team work.
VIP protection is another task of the unit. For example, they protect the Colombian President when he travels, and provided protection for President Bill Clinton's (Army group) and President George W. Bush's visits to Cartagena, in 2000 and 2004 respectively. They also provided the second security ring to Bush's visit to Bogotá in 2007.
This unit answers directly to the Commando General de las Fuerzas Armadas (Armed Forces Joint Staff), and they are allowed to use any military air transportation to guarantee mobility, and to use any weapon or additional equipment as required to accomplish their missions.
AFEUR won the "Fuerzas Comando 2005" (Commando Forces 2005) contest, that took place in Chile in June 2005 lasting two weeks.
This yearly contest sponsored by the US South Command and the US Special Operations Command with similar teams from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, U.S., Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Dominican Republic, Peru and Uruguay.
AFEUR also won the 2006 and 2007 versions of this contest.
Special Forces Brigade
GAULA is an acronym for Grupos de Acción Unificada por la Libertad Personal, i.e. Unified Action Groups for Personal Liberty, specialising in solving hostage-taking. These are elite units established in 1996 exclusively dedicated to the combating of kidnapping and extortion. They are composed of highly qualified personnel who conduct hostage rescues and dismantling of criminal gangs at the root of crimes which compromise the personal freedom of Colombians. There is an inter-institutional element in GAULA guaranteeing self-checking procedures, trained by staff of the Administrative Security Department, the Technical Investigation Corps (CTI) of the Criminal Investigation Bureau (Fiscalía) and military forces. Currently, the country has 16 GAULA of the Colombian National Army and 2 of the Navy.
Schools and courses
- Cursos de Capacitación y Especialización de las Armas y Servicios (Arms and Services Capacitation and Specialization Courses)
- Especialidades de Combate (Combat Specialities)
- Paracaidista (airborne)
- Fuerzas Especiales (Special Forces)
- Desempeño Meritorio en Unidades Especiales (Meritorious Conduct in Special Units)
- Others combat specialities:
- Profesorado Militar (Military Professorate)
- Por Acción Contra el Enemigo (For Actions against the Enemy)
- Desempeño Profesional y Deportivo (Sports and Professional Achievements)
Military educational institutions
- Colombian Military Academy "General José María Córdova"
- Colombian Army NCO School "Sergeant Inocencio Chinca"
- Army Arms and Services School
- Army Infantry School
- Army Cavalry School
- Army Artillery School
- Military Engineering School
- Army Communications School
- Army Logistics School
- Colombian Army Military Police School
- School of Civil-Military Relations
- Army Equestrian School
- Army Aviation School
- Army International Missions Support School
- Army Human Rights and International Rights School
- Army School of Languages
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (November 2012)|
|Vehicle/System||Firm Number in Service||Status||Origin||Photo|
|EE-9 Cascavel||180||In Service||Brazil|
|Infantry Transport Vehicles|
|Plasan Sand Cat||14||In service||Israel|
|Humvee||800||In Service||United States|
|M-1117||67||In Service||United States|
|M-113||130||In Service||United States|
|EE-11 Urutu||100||In Service||Brazil|
|RG-31 Nyala||6||In Service||South Africa|
|Hunter TR-12||2||In production||Colombia|
|LAV III||24||Iin Service||Canada|
|M35 2-1/2 ton cargo truck||In Service||United States|
|AIL Abir||In Service||Israel|
|Willys MB||In Service||United States|
|Kaiser Jeep M715||In Service||United States|
|M151||In Service||United States|
|Ford Super Duty||In Service||United States|
- IMI Galil – Standard assault rifle. Produced under license by Indumil Israel Colombia
- IMI Tavor – 30,000 in use. Israel
- Galil ACE – Produced by Indumil Colombia
- M16A2 rifle United States
- M4 Carbine – 1328 M4s and M4A1s (Value $1,534,058.02.) Used by the AFEUR unit and the Special Forces Brigade. United States
- IMI Negev Israel
- Daewoo K3 South Korea
- FN Minimi – M249 Belgium United States
- M60 machine gun United States
- FN MAG Belgium
- M1919 Browning machine gun United States
- M240 machine gun United States
- Vektor SS-77 South Africa
- M2 Browning machine gun United States
- 60mm Mortar
- M-4 Commando Mortar – 350 in service
- 81mm Mortar Produced for Indumil
- M30 mortar – 148, of which 80 in service.
- 120mm Mortar – 210, of which 120 in service.
- Mortier 120mm Rayé Tracté Modèle F1
- M116 howitzer – 80, of which 70 in service.
- M101 howitzer – 100, of which 50 in service.
- GIAT LG1 – 20 in service, Modern lightweight 105 mm howitzer.
- Obus GDSB 155/52mm – 15.
- Nimrod Missile Israel
- BGM-71 TOW – 18, mounted on HMMWVs. United States
- Spike (missile) Israel
- RPG-22 Russia
- M72 LAW United States
- APILAS France
- AT4 Sweden
- M40 recoilless rifle – 80, of which 63 are in service. United States
- Batteries IMI Nimrod (on vehicle) Israel
Air defense systems and anti-aircraft artillery
|Fixed Wing||Origin||Type||Version(s)||In service||Notes|
|Gulfstream Turbo Commander||United States||Transport||Commander 1000||2|
|Beechcraft King Air||United States||Transport||90
|Beechcraft Super King Air||United States||Electronic warfare||200
|Convair 580||United States||Airliner||1|
|Cessna 208 Caravan||United States||Utility||5|
|Aero Commander 500||United States||Utility||Rockwell 685 Commander||2|
|CASA C-212 Aviocar||Spain||Transport||2|
UH-1N Twin Huey
|United States||Utility helicopter||UH-1H
|Mil Mi-17||Russia||Transport helicopter||Mi-17 MD||21||One lost on 25 February 2013.|
|Sikorsky UH-60 Black Hawk||United States||Transport/ Combat helicopter||UH-60L
|Including the 15 from Plan Colombia. One UH-60 lost on 22 February 2013. All S-70i helicopters used by the Special Operations Aviation Battalion.|
|Unmanned Aerial Vehicles||Origin||Type||Version(s)||In service||Notes|
|RQ-11 Raven||United States||Reconnaissance||RQ-11B||Special Forces|
Colombian military personnel wore a number of different uniforms for both cold and hot weather. Army officer uniforms included a full-dress uniform of blue coat and white trousers for a cold climate; a white full-dress uniform for a hot climate; several different dress uniforms for both hot and cold climates that consisted of some combination of blue and white coat and trousers with piping or fringe on the trousers to indicate branch of service; an olive-drab barracks uniform for a cold climate; a tan gabardine barracks uniform for a hot climate; and tan gabardine service and field uniforms for all climates. Army enlisted uniforms consisted of an olive-drab dress uniform for a cold climate, a tan flannel dress uniform for a hot climate, and tan barracks and field uniforms for all climates.
Since 2006 the National Army of Colombia changed its uniform type forest (woodland) by a modern design featuring a new digital camouflage pattern is called a pixel.
There are 2 types of camouflage, jungle camouflage that is used by most of the army and the desert camouflage that is used by troops in the department of La Guajira and the Colombia Battalion in the Sinai peninsula in the Multinational Force and Observers.
The changes provide greater comfort to the troops, while the material used allows even for the application of mosquito repellent to prevent mosquito bites and a high percentage of the concentration of bacteria and odors.
The design of camouflage texture, color and design is unique to the Colombian army. It is locally made and its distribution is controlled so that only Colombia's military forces can use it.
Rank and insignia
The rank structure for closely parallels that of the United States military. There are nine officer ranks, ranging from the equivalent of second lieutenant to general. The army has nine enlisted grades, ranging from the equivalent of basic private to command sergeant major
|Ranks and Insignias - Colombian National Army|
|NATO code[n 1]||OF-10||OF-9||OF-8||OF-7||OF-6||OF-5||OF-4||OF-3||OF-2||OF-1|
|Spanish||-||General||Teniente General||Mayor General||Brigadier General||Coronel||Teniente Coronel||Mayor||Capitán||Teniente||Subteniente|
|English||-||General||Lieutenant General||Major General||Brigadier General||Colonel||Lieutenant Colonel||Major||Captain||Lieutenant||Second Lieutenant|
|NATO code[n 1]||OR-9||OR-8||OR-7||OR-6||OR-5||OR-4||OR-3||OR-2||OR-1|
|Spanish||Sargento Mayor de Comando Conjunto||Sargento Mayor de Comando||Sargento Mayor||Sargento Primero||Sargento Vice Primero||Sargento Segundo||Cabo Primero||Cabo Segundo||Cabo Tercero||Dragoneante||Soldado Profesional||recluta|
|English||Joint Command Sergeant Major||Command Sergeant Major||Sergeant Major||First Sergeant||Sergeant First Class||Second Sergeant||First Corporal||Second Corporal||Third Corporal||Private First Class||Private (Professional)||Private Basic|
- Colombia is not a member of NATO, so there is not an official equivalence between the Colombian military ranks and those defined by NATO. The displayed parallel is approximate and for illustration purposes only.
- LOGROS DE LA POLÍTICA DE CONSOLIDACIÓN DE LA SEGURIDAD DEMOCRÁTICA –PCSD Febrero 2009 page 81
- Coleman, Bradley Lynn (October 2005). "The Colombian Army in Korea, 1950–1954". The Journal of Military History (Project Muse (Society for Military History)) 69 (4): 1137–1177. doi:10.1353/jmh.2005.0215. ISSN 0899-3718.
- Ruíz Novoa, Alberto (1956). El Batallón Colombia en Corea, 1951–1954. Bogotá: Imprenta Nacional. pp. 149–160. OCLC 1862975.
- Colombia selects the Oshkosh Sandcat – Armyrecognition.com, December 20, 2012
- Colombian Army Acquires 28 Additional ASV Armored Personnel Carriers – Deagel.com, 22 August 2013
- El Ejército de Colombia adquiere un nuevo Hunter TR-12 para el Departamento de Huila – Infodefensa.com, 17 July 2013
- Colombia; Armored vehicles procurement programs summary – Dmilt.com, 3 January 2014
- "Army of Colombia has take delivery of three new Nexter System LG1 Mk III 105mm light guns". July 5, 2014.
- World Air Forces 2013 - Flightglobal.com, pg 13, December 11, 2012
- Air Forces Monthly. Stamford, Lincolnshire, England: Key Publishing Ltd. April 2013. p. 31.
- Colombian Army receives two new S-70i helicopters - Janes.com, 4 September 2013
- Air Forces Monthly. Stamford, Lincolnshire, England: Key Publishing Ltd. April 2013. p. 30.
- Colombia; US donates ScanEagle UAV's to FAC – Dmilt.com, March 19, 2013
- Congreso de la República de Colombia (28 July 2010). "Ley 1405 de 2010 Nuevos Grados Militares" (in Spanish). Retrieved 26 April 2011.
- Ejército de Colombia (15 March 2011). "Grados y distintivos del Ejército" (in Spanish). Retrieved 26 April 2011.
- Colombian Armed forces official website (available in spanish, english and german)
- Colombian Army official website (available in spanish and english)
- Extense information about Colombian Armed Forces. Colombia Seguridad y Defensa, Pagina no oficial
- UNFFMM página no oficial de las Fuerzas Militares de Colombia