|c. 50 million|
|Regions with significant populations|
|Spanish and other native languages. English also official in San Andres and Santa Catalina islands.|
|Predominantly Roman Catholic, minorities of Protestant and other religions. Native people are mainly animist, some from Middle East who are nationalized Colombian citizens are Muslims especially of Druze.|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Latin Americans, South Americans, Spaniards, Italians, Arabs, Africans and Muiscas.|
Colombian people are from a multiethnic Spanish speaking nation in America called Colombia. Colombians are predominantly Roman Catholic and are a mixture of Europeans, Amerindians, Africans and Middle Easterners.
Originally, the land encompassing the country's territory was inhabitant in its entirety by numerous Ameridians. Colombia's indigenous culture evolved from three main groups—the Quimbayas, who inhabited the western slopes of the Cordillera Central; the Chibchas; and the Caribs. The Muisca culture, a subset of the larger Chibcha ethnic group, famous for their use of gold, were responsible for the legend of El Dorado. Today they encompass a roughly 3.4% minority. The European immigrants were primarily Spanish colonists, and a small number of other Europeans who arrived during the 19th and 20th centuries (i.e. Portuguese, Dutch, German, Italian, French, Swiss, Belgians, English and a small colony of Irish when the country was under British rule) and also many North Americans migrated to the Caribbean region in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and in smaller numbers Germans, Polish, Lithuanian, Hungarian and Croatian communities immigrated during the Second World War and the Cold War.
Recently, there has been an influx of other immigrant populations, such as Asians and Middle Easterners, particularly Lebanese, Jordanians, Palestinians, Syrians, Chinese, Japanese and Koreans.
49% of the population is mestizo, or of mixed European and the earliest Amerindian ancestry, while 37% are white of full European ancestry. Another 10.6% is black African and mulatto (of mixed black African and European ancestry), while 3.4% have Amerindian ancestry. Black Africans were brought as slaves, mostly to the coastal lowlands, beginning early in the 16th century, and continuing into the 19th century. Pure indigenous Amerindians comprise about 1.5 percent of the population. There are 101 languages listed for Colombia in the Ethnologue database, of which 80 are spoken today as living languages. There are about 500,000 speakers of indigenous languages in Colombia today.
Before the Spanish colonization of the region that would become the country of Colombia, the territory was the home to many different indigenous peoples. Today more than fifty different indigenous ethnic groups inhabit Colombia. Most of them speak languages belonging to the Chibchan and Cariban language families.
Historically there are established 567 reserves (resguardos) for indigenous peoples and they are inhabited by more than 800,000 people; the 1991 constitution established their native languages as official in their territories, most of them have bilingual education (Native and Spanish). Some of the largest indigenous groups are the Wayuu, the Arhuacos, the Muisca, the Kuna people, the Witoto, the Páez, the Tucano and the Guahibo. The departamentos with the biggest Indian population are Cauca, Guajira and Guainia.
Because of its strategic location Colombia has received several immigration waves during its history. Most of these immigrants have settled in the Caribbean Coast; Barranquilla (the largest city in the Colombian Caribbean Coast) and other Caribbean cities have the largest population of Lebanese, Italian, German, French, Portuguese and Gypsy descendants. There are also important communities of U.S. American and Chinese descendants in the Caribbean Coast. Most immigrants are Venezuelans, mostly based in Bogotá, Colombia's capital.
The educational experience of many Colombian children begins with attendance at a preschool academy until age five (Educación preescolar). Basic education (Educación básica) is compulsory by law. It has two stages: Primary basic education (Educación básica primaria) which goes from first to fifth grade – children from six to ten years old, and Secondary basic education (Educación básica secundaria), which goes from sixth to ninth grade. Basic education is followed by Middle vocational education (Educación media vocacional) that comprises the tenth and eleventh grades. It may have different vocational training modalities or specialties (academic, technical, business, and so on.) according to the curriculum adopted by each school.
After the successful completion of all the basic and middle education years, a high-school diploma is awarded. The high-school graduate is known as a bachiller, because secondary basic school and middle education are traditionally considered together as a unit called bachillerato (sixth to eleventh grade). Students in their final year of middle education take the ICFES test (now renamed Saber 11) in order to gain access to higher education (Educación superior). This higher education includes undergraduate professional studies, technical, technological and intermediate professional education, and post-graduate studies.
Bachilleres (high-school graduates) may enter into a professional undergraduate career program offered by a university; these programs last up to five years (or less for technical, technological and intermediate professional education, and post-graduate studies), even as much to six to seven years for some careers, such as medicine. In Colombia, there is not an institution such as college; students go directly into a career program at a university or any other educational institution to obtain a professional, technical or technological title. Once graduated from the university, people are granted a (professional, technical or technological) diploma and licensed (if required) to practice the career they have chosen. For some professional career programs, students are required to take the Saber-Pro test, formerly known as ECAES, in their final year of undergraduate academic education.
Public spending on education as a proportion of gross domestic product in 2006 was 4.7% – one of the highest rates in Latin America – as compared with 2.4% in 1991. This represented 14.2% of total government expenditure. In 2006, the primary and secondary net enrollment rates stood at 88% and 65% respectively. School-life expectancy was 12.4 years. A total of 92.3% of the population aged 15 and older were recorded as literate, including 97.9% of those aged 15–24, both figures slightly higher than the regional average.
The National Administrative Department of Statistics (DANE) does not collect religious statistics, and accurate reports are difficult to obtain. However, based on various studies, more than 95% of the population adheres to Christianity, the vast majority of which (between 81% and 90%) are Roman Catholic. About 1% of Colombians adhere to indigenous religions and under 1% to Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, and Buddhism. However, around 60% of respondents to a poll by El Tiempo reported that they did not practice their faith actively. 
Like the rest of Latin America, Colombia is seeing a continuous increase of Protestant adherents, most of them being converts from Catholicism to Protestantism. Now Protestants constitute between 10 to 13% of the Colombian population (Compared to 3.5% in 1965).  The Colombian constitution guarantees religious freedom, but also states that the State "is not atheist or agnostic, nor indifferent to Colombians' religious sentiment.  Today there is more openness to a great diversity of beliefs, including the activity of atheists.
- "Departmental Administrativo National de Estadística". Dane.gov.co. Retrieved 2012-01-20.
- The Hispanic Population: 2010 U.S. Census Bureau
- Población nacida en el exterior, por año llegada a Venezuela, según pais de nacimiento, censo 2001 at the Wayback Machine
- Avance del Padrón municipal a 1 de enero de 2010 Instituto Nacional de Estadística
- "Ethnic Origin (264), Single and Multiple Ethnic Origin Responses (3), Generation Status (4), Age Groups (10) and Sex (3) for the Population in Private Households of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2011 National Household Survey".
- Foreigner Citizens. Resident Population by sex and citizenship on 31 December 2006 istat.it
- Fuente:  — statistics section. INDEC 2010 census).
- Inmigrantes residentes en México por país de nacimiento[dead link] CONAPO
- Country of Birth Database OECD
- Inmigrantes residentes en Costa Rica por país de nacimiento
- United States Census Bureau. "Australia demographic census". Retrieved 2007-04-15.[dead link]
- IMILA: Investigación de la Migración Internacional en Latinoamérica[dead link] Centro Latinoamericano y Caribeño de Demografía
- IMMIGRANTS(1), BY PERIOD OF IMMIGRATION, COUNTRY OF BIRTH AND LAST COUNTRY OF RESIDENCE Statistical Abstract of Israel 2008
- "Intute – World Guide – Colombia". Retrieved 2007-03-08.[dead link]
- The Languages of Colombia[dead link]
- EPM (2005). "La etnia Wayuu". Empresas Publicas de Medellin (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2008-02-19. Retrieved 2008-02-29.
- Aumenta el número de inmigrantes venezolanos en Colombia | NTN24
- Artículo 67, Constitución Política de Colombia
- "Ministerio de Educación de Colombia, Estructura del sistema educativo". Archived from the original on 2007-06-29. Retrieved 16 May 2010.
- "UNESCO Institute for Statistics Colombia Profile". Retrieved 16 May 2010.
- "QUÉ TAN CATÓLICOS SOMOS?". eltiempo.com. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
- Constitution of Colombia, 1991 (Article 19)
|Ethnic Mixing in Spanish Colonial America|