List of colonial governors of Mozambique

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Prelude

In 1498 Portuguese ships under Vasco da Gama visited Mozambique Island and several other towns on the East African coast. In 1500, Sancho de Tovar was the first Portuguese captain to sight (but not land) in Sofala. On a return voyage in 1502, Vasco da Gama established a Portuguese factory on Mozambique Island and finally visited Sofala, signing a commercial treaty with the ruling sheikh Isuf of Sofala.

In September 1505 Pêro de Anaia signed a new treaty with sheikh Isuf allowing the establishment of a Portuguese factory and fortress (Fort São Caetano) in Sofala. Pêro de Anaia assumed the title of capitão-mor (captain-major) of the fort in Sofala, thus inaugurating the first colonial government in Portuguese East Africa. In 1507, Sofala captain Vasco Gomes de Abreu established a second Portuguese fort on Mozambique Island, and the colonial title was better known by the expanded 'Captain-Major of Sofala and Mozambique'.

Until 1752 the Capitaincy of Sofala-Mozambique was under the oversight of the Viceroy of Portuguese India.

List of Colonial Heads of Mozambique

(Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office)

Term Incumbent Notes


Captaincy of Sofala under Viceroy of India Portuguese Administration
September, 1505 to March 1506 Pêro de Anaia, Captain-Major Died in office.
March 1506 to December 1506 Manuel Fernandes de Meireles, acting Captain-Major Factor. Elected to temporarily replace Anaia.
December 1506 to 8 September 1507 Nuno Vaz Pereira, Captain-Major Appointed by D. Francisco de Almeida, viceroy of India.
Captaincy of Sofala and Moçambique under Viceroy of India
8 September 1507 to February 1508 Vasco Gomes de Abreu, Captain-Major Died in office.
February 1508 to August 1509 Rui de Brito Patalim, acting Captain-Major
August 1509 to 24 June 1512 António de Saldanha, Captain-Major
24 June 1512 to June 1515 Simão de Miranda de Azevedo, Captain-Major
June 1512 to July 1515 Sancho de Tovar, acting Captain-Major 1st Term
July 1515 to June 1518 Cristóvão de Távora, Captain-Major
June 1518 to July 1521 Sancho de Tovar, Captain-Major 2nd Term
July 1521 to 1525 Diogo de Sepúlveda, Captain-Major
1525 to 1528 Lopo de Almeida, Captain-Major
1528 to 1531 António da Silveira de Meneses, Captain-Major
1531 to 1538 Vicente Pegado, Captain-Major
1538 to 1541 Alexio Chicorro, Captain-Major
1541 to 1548 João de Sepúlveda, Captain-Major
1548 to 1551 Fernão de Sousa de Távora, Captain-Major
1551 to 1553 Diogo de Mesquita, Captain-Major
1553 to 1557 Diogo de Sousa, Captain-Major
1557 to 1560 Sebastião de Sá, Captain-Major
1560 to 1564 Pantaleão de Sá, Captain-Major
1564 to 1567 Jerónimo Barreto, Captain-Major
1567 to 1569 Pedro Barreto Rolim, Captain-Major
Captaincy-general of Moçambique
1569 to June 1573 Francisco Barreto, Captain-General
June 1573 to 1577 Vasco Fernandes Homem, acting Captain-General
1577 to 1577 Fernando Monroi, acting Captain-General
1577 to 1577 Simão de Silveira, acting Captain-General
1577 to 1582 Pedro de Castro, Captain-General
1582 to 1586 Nuno Pereira, Captain-General
1586 to 1589 Jorge Telo de Meneses, Captain-General
1589 to 1590 Lourenço de Brito, Captain-General
1590 to 1595 Pedro de Sousa, Captain-General
1595 to 1598 Nuno da Cunha Ataíde, Captain-General
1598 to 1601 Álvaro Abranches, Captain-General
1601 to 1604 Vasco de Mascarenhas, Captain-General
1604 to 1607 Sebastião de Macedo, Captain-General
1607 to 1609 Estêvão de Ataíde, Captain-General
Colony of Moçambique, Sofala, Ríos de Cuama, and Monomatapa under Goa
1609 to 1611 Nuno Álvares Pereira, Governor 1st Term
1611 to 1612 Estévão de Ataíde, Governor
1612 to 1612 Diogo Simões de Madeira, acting Governor
1612 to 1614 João de Azevedo, Governor
1614 to 1618 Rui de Melo Sampaio, Governor
1618 to 1623 Nuno Álvares Pereira, Governor 2nd Term
1623 to 1624 Lopo de Almeida, Governor
1624 to 1627 Diogo de Sousa de Meneses, Governor 1st Term
1627 to 1631 Nuno Álvares Pereira, Governor 3rd Term
1631 to 1632 Cristóvão de Brito e Vasconcelos, acting Governor
1632 to 1633 Diogo de Sousa de Meneses, Governor 2nd Term
1633 to 1634 Filipe de Mascarenhas, Governor
1634 to 1639 Lourenço de Souto-Maior, Governor
1639 to 1640 Diogo de Vasconcelos, Governor
1640 to 1641 António de Brito Pacheco, Governor
1641 to 1642 Francisco da Silveira, Governor
1642 to 1646 Júlio Moniz da Silva, Governor
1646 to 1648 Fernão Dias Baião, Governor
1648 to 1651 Álvaro de Sousa de Távora, Governor
1651 to 1652 Francisco de Mascarenhas, Governor
1652 to 1657 Francisco de Lima, Governor
1657 to 1661 Manuel Corte-Real de Sampaio, Governor
1661 to 1664 Manuel de Mascarenhas, Governor
1664 to 1667 António de Melo e Castro, Governor
1667 to 1670 Inácio Sarmento de Carvalho, Governor
1670 to 1673 João de Sousa Freire, Governor 1st Term
1673 to 1674 Simão Gomes da Silva, Governor
1674 to 1674 André Pinto da Fonseca, Governor
1674 to 1676 Manuel da Silva, acting Governor
1676 to 1682 João de Sousa Freire, Governor 2nd Term
1682 to 1686 Caetano de Melo e Castro, Governor
1686 to 1689 Miguel de Almeida, Governor
1689 to 1692 Manuel dos Santos Pinto, Governor
1692 to 1693 Tomé de Sousa Correia, Governor
1693 to 1694 Francisco Correia de Mesquita, acting Governor
1694 to 1695 Estêvão José da Costa, Governor
1695 to 1696 Francisco da Costa, Governor
1696 to 1699 Luís de Melo Sampaio, Governor
1699 to 1703 Jácome de Morais Sarmento, Governor
1703 to 1706 João Fernandes de Almeida, Governor 1st Term
1706 to 1708 Luís de Brito Freire, Governor
1708 to 1712 Luís Gonçalves da Câmara, Governor
1712 to 1714 João Fernandes de Almeida, Governor 2nd Term
1714 to 1716 Francisco de Mascarenhas, Governor
1716 to 1719 Francisco de Souto-Maior, Governor
1719 to 1722 Francisco de Alarcão e Souto-Maior, Governor
1722 to 1723 Álvaro Caetano de Melo e Castro, Governor
1723 to 1726 António João Sequeira e Faria, Governor
1726 to 1730 António Cardim Fróis, Governor
1730 to 1733 António Casco de Melo, Governor
1733 to 1736 José Barbosa Leal, Governor
1736 to 1740 Nicolau Tolentino de Almeida, Governor
1740 to 1743 Lourenço de Noronha, Governor
1743 to 1746 Pedro do Rêgo Barreto da Gama e Castro, Governor
1746 to 1750 Caetano Correia da Sá, Governor
1750 to 1752 Francisco de Melo e Castro, Governor
Colony of Moçambique, the Zambezi and Sofala
1752 to March 1758 Francisco de Melo e Castro, Governor
March 1758 to April 1758 João Manuel de Melo, Governor
April 1758 to 28 May 1759 David Marques Pereira, Governor
28 May 1759 to January 1763 Pedro de Saldanha e Albuquerque, Governor 1st Term
6 January 1763 to 1765 João Pereira da Silva Barba, Governor
1765 to June 1779 Baltasar Manuel Pereira do Lago, Governor
June 1779 to 1780 Provisional Administration, Governor
1780 to 1781 José de Vasconcelos e Almeida, Governor
1781 to 4 January 1782 Vicente Caetano da Maria e Vasconcelos, acting Governor
4 January 1782 to 21 August 1782 Pedro de Saldanha e Albuquerque, Governor 2nd Term
21 August 1782 to 1786 Provisional Administration
1786 to 1793 António de Melo e Castro, Governor
1793 to 1797 Diogo de Sousa Coutinho, Governor
1797 to September 1801 Francisco Guedes de Carvalho Meneses da Costa, Governor
September 1801 to August 1805 Isidro de Sousa e Sá, Governor
August 1805 to December 1807 Francisco de Paula de Albuquerque do Amaral Cardoso, Governor
December 1807 to 14 August 1809 Provisional Administration
14 August 1809 to August 1812 António Manuel de Melo e Castro de Mendonça, Governor
August 1812 to February 1817 Marcos Caetano de Abreu e Meneses, Governor
February 1817 to September 1818 José Francisco de Paula Cavalcanti de Albuquerque, Governor
September 1818 to November 1819 Provisional Administration
November 1819 to June 1821 João da Costa M. Brito-Sanches, Governor
June 1821 to June 1824 Provisional Administration
June 1824 to January 1825 João Manuel da Silva, Governor
January 1825 to August 1829 Sebastião Xavier Botelho, Governor
August 1829 to January 1832 Paulo José Miguel de Brito, Governor
January 1832 to March 1834 Provisional Administration
March 1834 to March 1836 José Gregório Pegado, Governor
Moçambique Colony/(Portuguese East Africa)
March 1836 to March 1837 Provisional Administration
March 1837 to October 1837 António José de Melo, Governor-General
October 1837 to March 1838 João Carlos Augusto de Oeynhausen e Gravenburg, marquês de Aracaty, Governor-General
March 1838 to 25 March 1840 Juiz A. de Ramalho de Sá, President of the Governing Council
25 March 1840 to May 1841 Joaquim Pereira Marinho, Governor-General
May 1841 to 15 February 1843 João da Costa Xavier, Governor-General
15 February 1843 to May 1847 Rodrigo Luciano de Abreu e Lima, Governor-General
May 1847 to October 1851 Domingos Fortunato de Vale, Governor-General
October 1851 to April 1854 Joaquim Pinto de Magalhães, Governor-General
April 1854 to September 1857 Vasco Guedes de Carvalho e Meneses, acting Governor-General
September 1857 to February 1864 João Tavares d'Almeida, Governor-General
February 1864 to April 1864 Cândido M. Montes, President of Governing Council
April 1864 to October 1867 M. António do Canto e Castro, Governor-General
October 1867 to September 1868 António Augusto de Almeida Portugal Correia de Lacerda, Governor-General
September 1868 to February 1869 M.N.P. de Ataíde e Azevedo, President of Governing Council
February 1869 to April 1869 António Tavares de Almeida, Governor-General
April 1869 to December 1869 Fernão da Costa Leal, Governor-General
December 1869 to June 1870 Juiz E. K. da Fonseca e Gouveia, President of Governing Council
June 1870 to August 1870 Inácio A. Alves, acting Governor-General
August 1870 to December 1873 José Rodrigues Coelho do Amaral, Governor-General
December 1873 to August 1874 Juiz J. M. Crispiniano da Fonseca, President of Governing Council
August 1874 to December 1877 José Guedes de Carvalho e Meneses, Governor-General
December 1877 to January 1880 Francisco Maria da Cunha, Governor-General
January 1880 to August 1881 Augusto César Rodrigues Sarmento, acting Governor-General
August 1881 to February 1882 Carlos Eugénio Correia da Silva, visconde de Paço d'Arcos, Governor-General
February 1882 to April 1882 J. d'Almeida d'Avila, acting Governor-General
April 1882 to April 1885 Agostinho Coelho, Governor-General
April 1885 to July 1885 D. Henrique Real da Silva, President of Governing Council
July 1885 to March 1889 Augusto Vidal de Castilho Barreto e Noronha, Governor-General
March 1889 to July 1889 José Joaquim d'Almeida, acting Governor-General
July 1889 to July 1890 José António de Brissac das Neves Ferreira, Governor-General
July 1890 to 2 July 1891 Joaquim José Machado, Governor-General 1st Term
2 July 1891 to May 1893 Raphael Jácome Lopes de Andrade, Governor-General
May 1893 to 13 January 1894 Francisco Teixeira da Silva, Governor-General
January 1894 to July 1894 J. Correia e Lança, acting Governor-General 1st Term
July 1894 to January 1895 Fernão de Magalhães e Meneses, Governor-General
January 1895 to December 1895 António José Enes -Commissioner, Governor-General
January 1896 to March 1896 J. Correia e Lança, acting Governor-General 2nd Term
March 1896 to November 1897 Joaquim Mousinho de Albuquerque, Governor-General
November 1897 to August 1898 Baltasar Freire Cabral, acting Governor-General
August 1898 to December 1898 Carlos Alberto Schultz Xavier, Governor-General
December 1898 to March 1900 Álvaro António Ferreira, Governor-General
March 1900 to May 1900 Júlio José, marqués da Costa, Governor-General
May 1900 to October 1900 Joaquim José Machado, Governor-General 2nd Term
October 1900 to December 1902 Manuel Rafael Gorjão, Governor-General
December 1902 to February 1905 Tomás António Garcia Rosado, Governor-General
February 1905 to October 1906 João António de Azevedo Coutinho Fragoso de Sequeira, Governor-General
October 1906 to November 1910 Alfredo Augusto Freire de Andrade, Governor-General
November 1910 to May 1911 José de Freitas Ribeiro, acting Governor-General
May 1911 to February 1912 José Francisco de Azevedo e Silva, Governor-General
February 1912 to March 1913 Alfredo Afonso Meneses de Magalhães, Governor-General
March 1913 to April 1914 Augusto Ferreira dos Santos, Governor-General
April 1914 to May 1915 Joaquim José Machado, Governor-General 3rd Term
May 1915 to October 1915 Alfredo Baptista Coelho, Governor-General
October 1915 to April 1918 Álvaro Xavier de Castro, Governor-General
April 1918 to April 1919 Pedro Francisco Massano do Amorim, Governor-General
April 1919 to March 1921 Manuel Juiz Moreira da Fonseca, acting Governor-General 1st Term
March 1921 to September 1923 Manuel de Brito Camacho, High Commissioner and Governor-General
September 1923 to November 1924 Manuel Juiz Moreira da Fonseca, acting High Commissioner and Governor-General 2nd Term
November 1924 to May 1926 Víctor Hugo de Azevedo Coutinho, High Commissioner and Governor-General
May 1926 to November 1926 Artur Ivens Ferraz, acting High Commissioner and Governor-General
November 1926 to April 1938 José Ricardo Pereira Cabral, High Commissioner and Governor-General
April 1938 to 1941 José Nicolau Nunes de Oliveira, High Commissioner and Governor-General
1941 to 1946 João Tristão de Bettencourt, High Commissioner and Governor-General
May 1947 to December 1948 Luís de Sousa e Vasconcelos e Funchal, High Commissioner and Governor-General
December 1948 to 11 June 1951 Gabriel Mauricio Teixeira, High Commissioner and Governor-General
Overseas Province of Portugal
11 June 1951 to 1958 Gabriel Maurício Teixeira, High Commissioner and Governor-General
1958 to 1961 Pedro Correia de Barros, High Commissioner and Governor-General
1961 to 1964 Manuel Maria Sarmento Rodrigues, High Commissioner and Governor-General
1964 to 1968 José Augusto da Costa Almeida, High Commissioner and Governor-General
12 July 1968 to 1970 Baltazar Rebelo de Sousa, High Commissioner and Governor-General
1970 to 1972 Eduardo Arantes e Oliveira, High Commissioner and Governor-General
1972 to 27 April 1974 Manuel Pimentel Pereira dos Santos, High Commissioner and Governor-General
27 April 1974 to 11 June 1974 David Teixeira Ferreira, acting High Commissioner and Governor-General
11 June 1974 to 17 August 1974 Henrique Soares de Melo, High Commissioner and Governor-General
19 August 1974 to 12 September 1974 Jorge Ferro Ribeiro, acting High Commissioner and Governor-General
12 September 1974 to 20 September 1974 Vítor Crespo, High Commissioner and Governor-General
local administration
20 September 1974 to 25 June 1975 Vítor Crespo, High Commissioner and Governor-General
25 June 1975 Independence as Republic of Mozambique

For continuation after independence, see: Presidents of Mozambique