Colorado Springs, Colorado

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City of Colorado Springs
City
Colorado Springs with the Front Range in background
Colorado Springs with the Front Range in background
Flag of City of Colorado Springs
Flag
Nickname(s): The Springs
Location in El Paso County and the state of Colorado
Location in El Paso County and the state of Colorado
City of Colorado Springs is located in USA
City of Colorado Springs
City of Colorado Springs
Location in the U.S.
Coordinates: 38°51′48″N 104°47′31″W / 38.86333°N 104.79194°W / 38.86333; -104.79194Coordinates: 38°51′48″N 104°47′31″W / 38.86333°N 104.79194°W / 38.86333; -104.79194
Country United States
State Colorado
County[1] El Paso
Incorporated June 19, 1886[2]
Government
 • Type Home Rule Municipality[1]
 • Mayor Steve Bach since June 7, 2011 (NP)
Area
 • City 194.7 sq mi (482.1 km2)
 • Land 194.1 sq mi (481.1 km2)
 • Water 0.6 sq mi (1.0 km2)
Elevation 6,035 ft (1,839 m)
Highest elevation 7,200 ft (2,200 m)
Lowest elevation 5,740 ft (1,750 m)
Population (2013)[3]
 • City 439,886 (US: 41st)
 • Density 2,242.5/sq mi (865.57/km2)
 • Metro 678,319
Time zone MST (UTC−7)
 • Summer (DST) MDT (UTC−6)
ZIP codes[4] 80901-80951, 80960, 80962, 80970, 80977, 80995, 80997
Area code(s) 719
FIPS code 08-16000
GNIS feature ID 0204797
Highways I-25, US 24, US 85, SH 21, SH 29, SH 83, SH 94, SH 115
Website www.springsgov.com

Colorado Springs is a Home Rule Municipality that is the county seat and most populous city of El Paso County, Colorado, United States. Colorado Springs is located in the east central portion of the state. It is situated on Fountain Creek and is located 60 miles (97 km) south of the Colorado State Capitol in Denver. At 6,035 feet (1,839 m) the city stands over one mile (1.6 km) above sea level, though some areas of the city are significantly higher and lower. Colorado Springs is situated near the base of one of the most famous American mountains, Pikes Peak, rising over 8,000 feet above the city on the eastern edge of the Southern Rocky Mountains. The United States Air Force Academy is located in Colorado Springs. The city is often referred to as "The Springs."

The city had an estimated population of 439,886 in 2013.,[5] making it the second most populous city in the state of Colorado, behind Denver, and the 41st most populous city in the United States,[6] while the Colorado Springs Metropolitan Statistical Area had an estimated population of 678,319 in 2013.[3] The city covers 194.7 square miles (504 km2), making it Colorado's largest city in area. Colorado Springs was selected as the No. 1 Best Big City in "Best Places to Live" by Money magazine in 2006,[7] and placed number one in Outside's 2009 list of America's Best Cities.[8]

History[edit]

Ute, Arapahoe and Cheyenne peoples were the first to use the area which would become Colorado Springs.[9] Part of the territory included in the United States' 1803 Louisiana Purchase, the current city area was designated part of the 1854 Kansas Territory. In 1859 after the first local settlement was established, it became part of the Jefferson Territory on October 24 and of El Paso County on November 28. Colorado City at the Front Range confluence of Fountain and Camp creeks was "formally organized on August 13, 1859"[10] during the Pikes Peak Gold Rush. It served as the capital of the Colorado Territory from November 5, 1861, until August 14, 1862 when it was moved to the Denver City.

Replacing the 1883 original which burned earlier in the year, the 1898 Antlers Hotel (above) was torn down in 1964.

In 1871 the Colorado Springs Company laid out the towns of La Font (later called Manitou Springs) and Fountain Colony, upstream and downstream respectively, of Colorado City.[11] Within a year, Fountain Colony would be renamed Colorado Springs, and was officially incorporated.[12] The El Paso County seat shifted from Colorado City in 1873 to the Town of Colorado Springs.[13] On December 1, 1880, Colorado Springs expanded northward with 2 annexations.[14] [15]

The 2nd period of annexations was during 1889-90, and included Seavey's Addition, West Colorado Springs, East End, and another North End addition.[14] In 1891 the Broadmoor Land Company built the Broadmoor suburb, which included the Broadmoor Casino, and by December 12, 1895, the city had "four Mining Exchanges and 275 mining brokers."[16] By 1898, the city was designated into quadrants by the north-south Cascade Avenue and the east-west Washington/Pike's Peak avenues.[15]:10

From 1899 to 1901 Tesla Experimental Station operated on Knob Hill,[17] and aircraft flights to the Broadmoor's neighboring fields began in 1919.[18] The Alexander Airport north of the city opened in 1925 and in 1927, the Original Colorado Springs Municipal Airport land was purchased east of the city.[18]

Space Command - Petersen AFB Building 1

In World War II the United States Army Air Forces leased land adjacent to the municipal airfield, naming it "Peterson Field" in December 1942. This was only one of several military presences in and around Colorado Springs during the war.[19][20]

In November 1950, the Headquarters Area, Colorado Springs, was selected as the Cold War headquarters for Air Defense Command (ADC)--later renamed Ent Air Force Base. The former WWII Army Air Base, Peterson Field, which had been inactivated at the end of the war, was re-opened in 1951 as a USAF base.[21] The 1950s through 1970s saw a continued expansion of the military presence in the area with the establishment of NORAD’s headquarters in the city, as well as the ADCOM Headquarters.

Between 1965 and 1968 the University of Colorado at Colorado Springs, Pikes Peak Community College and the Colorado Technical University were established in or near the city[22][23] In 1977, most of the former Ent AFB became a US Olympic Training Center.

On October 1, 1981, "the Broadmoor Addition",[14] Cheyenne Canon, Ivywild, Skyway, and Stratton Meadows were annexed after the Colorado Supreme Court "overturned a district court decision that voided the annexation". Further annexations expanding the city include the "Nielson Addition" and "Vineyard Commerce Park Annexation" in September 2008.[14]

Geography[edit]

View of Colorado Springs from Pikes Peak.

The city lies in a high desert with the Southern Rocky Mountains to the west, the Palmer Divide to the north, high plains further east, and high desert lands to the south when leaving Fountain and approaching Pueblo.[24]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 186.1 sq mi (482.1 km2), of which 185.8 sq mi (481.1 km2) is land and 0.39 sq mi (1.0 km2) (0.21%) is water.[citation needed]

Metropolitan area[edit]

Colorado Springs has many features of a modern urban area, such as parks, bike trails, and urban open-area spaces. However, it is not exempt from problems that typically plague cities that experience tremendous growth, such as overcrowded roads and highways, crime, sprawl, and government budget issues. Many of the problems are indirectly or directly caused by the city's difficulty in coping with the large population growth experienced in the last twenty years, and the annexation of the Banning Lewis Ranch area to accommodate further population growth of 175,000 future residents.[citation needed]

Climate[edit]

Pikes Peak, the easternmost 14er in the United States

Colorado Springs has a semi-arid climate (Köppen BSk), and its location just east of the Rocky Mountains affords it the rapid warming influence from chinook winds during winter but also subjects it to drastic day-to-day variability in weather conditions.[25] The city has abundant sunshine year-round, averaging over 300 sunny days per year, and receives approximately 16.5 inches (419 mm) of annual precipitation. Due to unusually low precipitation for several years after flooding in 1999, Colorado Springs enacted lawn water restrictions in 2002. These were lifted in 2005.[24]

Colorado Springs is also one of the most active lightning strike areas in the United States. This natural phenomenon led Nikola Tesla to select Colorado Springs as the preferred location to build his lab and study electricity.[26]

Seasonal climate[edit]

Winters range from mild to moderately cold, with December, the coldest month, averaging 30.8 °F (−0.7 °C); historically January has been the coldest month, but, in recent years, December has had both lower daily maxima and minima.[27] Typically, there are 5.2 nights with sub-0 °F (−18 °C) lows and 23.6 days where the high does not rise above freezing,[28] and extended sub-zero (°F) cold is rare. Snowfall is usually moderate and remains on the ground briefly because of direct sun, with the city receiving 38 inches (97 cm) per season, although the mountains to the west often receive in excess of triple that amount; March is the snowiest month in the region, both by total accumulation and number of days with measurable snowfall. In addition, 8 of the top 10 heaviest 24-hour snowfalls have occurred from March to May.[28] Summers are warm, with July, the warmest month, averaging 70.9 °F (21.6 °C), and 18 days of 90 °F (32 °C)+ highs annually. Due to the high elevation and aridity, nights are usually relatively cool and rarely does the low remain above 70 °F (21 °C).[28] Dry weather generally prevails, but brief afternoon thunderstorms are common, especially in July and August when the city receives the majority of its annual rainfall, due to the North American Monsoon.[citation needed]

The first autumn freeze and the last freeze in the spring on average occur on October 2 and May 6, respectively; the average window for measurable snowfall (≥0.1 in or 0.25 cm) is October 21 thru April 25. Extreme temperatures range from 101 °F (38 °C) on June 26, 2012 down to −27 °F (−33 °C) on February 1, 1951 and December 9, 1919.[citation needed]

Climate data[edit]

Climate data for Colorado Springs, Colorado (Airport), 1981–2010 normals
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 73
(23)
76
(24)
81
(27)
87
(31)
94
(34)
101
(38)
100
(38)
99
(37)
95
(35)
87
(31)
78
(26)
77
(25)
101
(38)
Average high °F (°C) 43.2
(6.2)
44.8
(7.1)
52.1
(11.2)
59.8
(15.4)
69.1
(20.6)
79.0
(26.1)
84.8
(29.3)
81.6
(27.6)
74.5
(23.6)
63.0
(17.2)
51.0
(10.6)
42.1
(5.6)
62.1
(16.7)
Average low °F (°C) 17.7
(−7.9)
19.5
(−6.9)
26.0
(−3.3)
33.3
(0.7)
42.7
(5.9)
51.3
(10.7)
56.9
(13.8)
55.7
(13.2)
47.3
(8.5)
35.8
(2.1)
25.2
(−3.8)
17.5
(−8.1)
35.7
(2.1)
Record low °F (°C) −26
(−32)
−27
(−33)
−16
(−27)
−3
(−19)
15
(−9)
27
(−3)
37
(3)
34
(1)
20
(−7)
−6
(−21)
−12
(−24)
−27
(−33)
−27
(−33)
Precipitation inches (mm) 0.31
(7.9)
0.34
(8.6)
1.00
(25.4)
1.41
(35.8)
2.02
(51.3)
2.50
(63.5)
2.83
(71.9)
3.34
(84.8)
1.19
(30.2)
0.82
(20.8)
0.40
(10.2)
0.34
(8.6)
16.51
(419.4)
Snowfall inches (cm) 5.5
(14)
4.8
(12.2)
7.9
(20.1)
4.9
(12.4)
0.7
(1.8)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0.3
(0.8)
3.1
(7.9)
4.6
(11.7)
5.9
(15)
37.8
(96)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 3.9 4.7 7.6 8.3 10.6 10.2 11.5 13.6 7.3 5.0 4.6 4.3 91.6
Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.1 in) 4.1 4.2 5.7 3.5 0.7 0 0 0 0.3 1.8 3.8 4.6 28.7
Source: NOAA (extremes 1894–present)[28]

Cityscape[edit]

Panoramic View of Downtown Colorado Springs

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1870 1,480
1880 4,226 185.5%
1890 11,140 163.6%
1900 21,085 89.3%
1910 29,078 37.9%
1920 30,105 3.5%
1930 33,237 10.4%
1940 36,789 10.7%
1950 45,472 23.6%
1960 70,194 54.4%
1970 135,060 92.4%
1980 214,914 59.1%
1990 281,140 30.8%
2000 360,890 28.4%
2010 416,427 15.4%
Est. 2013 439,886 5.6%
source:[29][30]

As of the 2010 census, the population of Colorado Springs was 416,427[31] (41st most populous U.S. city),[32] and the population of the Colorado Springs Metropolitan Statistical Area was 645,613 in 2010 (84th most populous MSA),[33] and the population of the Front Range Urban Corridor in Colorado was an estimated 4,166,855.

As of the April 2010 census:[34] 78.8% White, 16.1% Hispanic or Latino (of any race), 6.3% Black or African American, 3.0% Asian, 1.0% Native American, 0.3% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, 5.5% Some other race, 5.1% Two or more races. Mexican Americans made up 14.6% of the city's population.[35][nb 1] Non-Hispanic Whites were 70.7% of the population,[37] compared to 86.6% in 1970.[38]

City Hall.
City Hall in 2008

Economy[edit]

Colorado Springs' economy is driven primarily by the military, the high-tech industry, and tourism, in that order. The city is currently experiencing some growth mainly in the service sectors. The current unemployment rate, as of November 2013, in Colorado Springs is 7.3%[39] compared to 6.5% for the State and 7.0% for the Nation.[40]

Defense industry[edit]

The defense industry plays a major role in the Colorado Springs economy, with some of the city's largest employers coming from the sector.[41] A large segment of this industry is dedicated to the development and operation of various projects for missile defense. With its close ties to defense, the aerospace industry has also influenced the Colorado Springs economy. Although some defense corporations have left or downsized city campuses, a slight growth trend is still recorded. Significant defense corporations in the city include Boeing, General Dynamics, Harris Corporation, SAIC, ITT, L-3 Communications, Lockheed Martin, and Northrop Grumman.[citation needed] The Space Foundation is based in Colorado Springs.

High-tech industry[edit]

A large percentage of Colorado Springs' economy is still based on manufacturing high tech and complex electronic equipment. The high tech sector in the Colorado Springs area has decreased its overall presence from 2000 to 2006 (from around 21,000 down to around 8,000), with notable reductions in information technology and complex electronic equipment.[42] Due to a slowing in tourism, the high tech sector still remains second to the military in terms of total revenue generated and employment.[43] Current trends project the high tech employment ratio will continue to decrease in the near future.[43][44][45][46]

High tech corporations with connections to the city include:

Verizon Business, a telecommunications firm, had nearly 1300 employees in 2008.[47] Hewlett-Packard has a large sales, support, and SAN storage engineering center for the computer industry.[48][49][50]

Storage Networking Industry Association is the home of the SNIA Technology Center.[citation needed] Agilent, spun off from HP in 1999 as an independent, publicly traded company.[citation needed] Intel had 250 employees in 2009.[51] The facility is now used for the centralized unemployment and social services complex.[citation needed]

LSI Corporation designs semiconductors and software that accelerate storage and networking in datacenters and mobile networks.[citation needed] Atmel (formerly Honeywell), is a chip fabrication organization.[52] Cypress Semiconductor Colorado Design Center is a chip fabrication research and development site.[citation needed] The Apple Inc. facility was sold to Sanmina-SCI in 1996.[53]

Top employers[edit]

According to the City's 2011 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report,[54] the top employers in the city are:

# Employer Percentage of County Employment
1 Fort Carson 10.20%
2 Peterson Air Force Base 4.11%
3 Schriever Air Force Base 2.86%
4 United States Air Force Academy 2.29%
5 Memorial Health Services 1.65%
6 Colorado Springs School District 11 1.40%
7 Academy School District 20 0.97%
8 Penrose-St. Francis Health Services 0.93%
9 City of Colorado Springs 0.81%
10 El Paso County 0.70%

Military installations[edit]

Colorado Springs is home to both Army and Air Force bases. These military installations border the city, to the north, south and east, aside from Schriever Air Force Base, which is located farther east of the city, still in El Paso County.[citation needed]

Fort Carson[edit]

Main article: Fort Carson

Fort Carson is the city's largest military base, and until mid-2006 was home to the 3d Armored Cavalry Regiment, which relocated to Fort Hood, Texas. In 2009, Fort Carson became the home station of the 4th Infantry Division, which nearly doubled the base's population.[citation needed] Fort Carson is host to various training grounds for infantry, armor, and aviation units. Fort Carson is also the headquarters of the second and third battalions of the 10th Special Forces Group.[citation needed]

AFSPC Headquarters, Peterson AFB, Colorado Springs.

Peterson Air Force Base[edit]

The Air Force has critical aspects of their service based at Colorado Springs which carry on missile defense operations and development. The Air Force bases a large section of the national missile defense operations here, with Peterson Air Force Base set to operate large sections of the program. Peterson AFB is currently the headquarters of the majority of Air Force Space Command and the operations half of Army Space and Missile Defense Command/Army Strategic Command (SMDC/ARSTRAT).[citation needed]

Peterson is also headquarters for the United States Northern Command (USNORTHCOM), one of the Unified Combatant Commands. USNORTHCOM directs all branches of the U.S. military operations in their area of responsibility which includes the continental United States, Alaska, Canada, and Mexico. In the event of national emergencies the President or Secretary of Defense can call upon USNORTHCOM for any required military assistance. Service members from every branch of the US Military are stationed at the command.[citation needed]

Schriever Air Force Base (formerly Falcon AFB)[edit]

Schriever Air Force Base is home to the 50th Space Wing, which controls warning, navigational, communications and spy satellites. It is also the home of the Space Warfare Center and the home for the 576th Flight Test Squadron.[55] It is the location of the Global Positioning System (GPS) master control station and GPS Operations Center[56] and the US Naval Observatory Alternate Master Clock,[57] used to synchronize GPS satellite time. Schriever is also developing parts of national missile defense and runs parts of the annual wargames used by the nation's military.[citation needed]

Cadets in front of the Academy Chapel

United States Air Force Academy[edit]

Bordering the north-western side of the city lie the vast grounds of the United States Air Force Academy, where cadets train to become officers in the Air Force. The campus is famous for its unique chapel and draws visitors year round. Most of the Air Force Academy's sports programs belong to the Mountain West Conference.[citation needed]

NORAD and Cheyenne Mountain Air Station[edit]

The North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD), a component of America's missile defense system, is located in Cheyenne Mountain Air Station. When it was built at the height of the Cold War, NORAD caused some anxiety for the residents in and around Colorado Springs, who believed the installation would be a primary target during a nuclear attack. Although NORAD still operates today, it is primarily tasked with the tracking of ICBMs, and the military has recently decided to place Cheyenne Mountain's NORAD/NORTHCOM operations on warm standby and move operations to nearby Peterson Air Force Base.[58]

Culture[edit]

Tourism[edit]

The city's location at the base of Pikes Peak and the Rocky Mountains makes it a popular tourism destination. Tourism is the third largest employer in the Pikes Peak region, accounting for more than 13,000 jobs.[citation needed] Nearly 5 million visitors come to the area annually, contributing $1.35 billion in revenue.[59]

Colorado Springs has more than 55 attractions and activities in the area,[60] including Garden of the Gods, United States Air Force Academy, the ANA Money Museum, Cheyenne Mountain Zoo, Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center, Old Colorado City and the U.S. Olympic Training Center.[61]

The downtown Colorado Springs Visitor Information Center offers free area information to leisure and business travelers.[60] The Cultural Office of the Pikes Peak Region (COPPeR), also located downtown, supports and advocates for the arts throughout the Pikes Peak Region. It operates the PeakRadar website to communicate city events.[62]

Religious institutions[edit]

Focus on the Family Visitors Center

Although houses of worship of almost every major world religion can be found in the city, Colorado Springs has in particular attracted a large influx of Evangelical Christians and Christian organizations in recent years. At one time Colorado Springs was counted to be the national headquarters for 81 different religious organizations, earning the city the tongue-in-cheek nicknames "the Evangelical Vatican"[63] and "The Christian Mecca." Religious groups with regional or international headquarters in Colorado Springs include:

In popular culture[edit]

Colorado Springs has been the subject or setting for many books, movies and television shows, and is especially a frequent backdrop for political thrillers and military-themed stories because of its many military installations and vital importance to the United States' continental defense. Notable television series using the city as a setting include Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman and the Stargate series Stargate SG-1, as well as the films WarGames and The Prestige.[citation needed]

In a North Korean propaganda video released in April 2013, Colorado Springs was inexplicably singled out as one of four targets for a missile strike. The video failed to pinpoint Colorado Springs on the map, instead showing a spot somewhere in Louisiana.[85]

Sports[edit]

Olympic sports[edit]

The United States Olympic Committee headquarters and training facility.

Colorado Springs is home to the United States Olympic Training Center and the headquarters of the United States Olympic Committee. In addition, a number of United States national federations for individual Olympic sports have their headquarters in Colorado Springs, including: United States or USA bobsled, fencing, skating, basketball, boxing, cycling, judo, field hockey, hockey, swimming, shooting, table tennis, taekwondo, triathlon, volleyball, and wrestling associations and organizations and the United States Anti-Doping Agency.[citation needed]

The city has a particularly long association with the sport of figure skating, having hosted the U.S. Figure Skating Championships 6 times and the World Figure Skating Championships 5 times. It is home to the World Figure Skating Museum and Hall of Fame and the Broadmoor Skating Club, a notable training center for the sport. In recent years, the World Arena has hosted skating events such as Skate America and the Four Continents Figure Skating Championships.[citation needed]

Local teams[edit]

Professional teams[edit]

Name Sport Founded League Venue
Colorado Springs Sky Sox Baseball 1988 Minor league; Pacific Coast League Security Service Field [86]
Colorado Springs Switchbacks Soccer Begins play in 2015 United Soccer Leagues; USL Pro Sand Creek Stadium [87] near Security Service Field
Colorado Springs Blizzard Soccer 2004-Folded in 2006 United Soccer Leagues; USL Premier Development League Security Service Field
Colorado Rush Men's Premier Soccer 2007 Premier Arena Soccer League; National Premier Soccer League (National Division III) Security Service Field[citation needed]
Colorado Springs Rugby Football Club Rugby 1969 Eastern Rockies Rugby Football Union; USA Rugby; (National Division II) Bear Creek Regional Park[citation needed]
Colorado Springs Cricket Club Cricket 1999 Colorado Cricket League Rose Bowl, Memorial Park[citation needed]

College teams[edit]

The local colleges feature many sports teams. Notable among them are the following nationally competitive NCAA Division I teams: United States Air Force Academy (Fighting Falcons) Football, Basketball and Hockey, Colorado College (Tigers) Hockey, and Women's Soccer.[citation needed]

Colorado Springs and Denver hosted the 1962 International Ice Hockey Federation World Championships.[nb 2]

The Mountain West Conference is based in Colorado Springs.

Rodeo[edit]

Colorado Springs is home to the Pro Rodeo Hall of Fame and the headquarters of the Professional Rodeo Cowboys Association.

Colorado Springs was the original headquarters of the Professional Bull Riders (PBR) from its founding in 1992 until 2005, when the organization was moved to Pueblo; the PBR used to hold an annual Built Ford Tough Series event at the World Arena from 2001 until 2005 when the organization made the move to Pueblo.[citation needed]

Parks, trails and open space[edit]

There are 136 neighborhood, 8 community, 7 regional parks and 5 sports complexes totally 9,000 acres managed by the city's Parks, Recreation and Cultural Services. They also manage 500 acres of trails, which are 160 miles of park trails and 105 miles of urban trails. There are 5,000 acres of open spaces in 48 open space areas.[88]

Parks[edit]

One of the most popular areas in Colorado Springs is Garden of the Gods. It is a National Natural Landmark with 300 foot sandstone rock formations against a backdrop of the snow-capped mountains of Pikes Peak. The park offers a variety of annual events. One of the most popular events is the Starlight Spectacular. It is a recreational bike ride held every summer to benefit the Trails and Open Space Coalition of Colorado Springs.[citation needed]

Colorado Springs has several major parks, such as Palmer Park, America the Beautiful Park (Confluence Park), Memorial Park, and Monument Valley Park.[89] The Austin Bluffs Park also affords a place of recreation in eastern Colorado Springs.

Trails[edit]

Three trails, the New Santa Fe Regional Trail, Pikes Peak Greenway and Fountain Creek Regional Trail, form a continuous path from Palmer Lake, through Colorado Springs, to Fountain, Colorado. The Urban Trails system has more than 100 miles of multi-use trails for biking, jogging, roller blading and walking. The trails, except Monument Valley Park trails, may be used for equestrian traffic. Motorized vehicles are not allowed on the trails. Many of the trails are interconnected, having main "spine" trails, like the Pikes Peak Greenway, that lead to secondary trails.[91][92][93]

Government[edit]

On November 2, 2010 Colorado Springs voters adopted a council-strong mayor form of government. The City of Colorado Springs transitioned to the new system of government in 2011. Under the council-strong mayor system of government, the mayor is the chief executive and the city council is the legislative branch. The mayor is a full-time elected position and not a member of the city council. The city council has nine members total, four of which represent one of four equally populated districts each. Districts 5 and 6 do not have a direct representative. The remaining five members are elected "at-large".[94] The mayor has veto authority, with the city council having the ability to override a mayoral veto by a two-thirds majority vote (6 out of 9).

Colorado Springs City Hall was built from 1902 to 1904 on land donated by W. S. Stratton.[95]

Education[edit]

Elementary and middle schools[edit]

Higher education[edit]

Bachelors and graduate degree programs are offered at these colleges and universities in the city:

Doolittle Hall on the campus of the United States Air Force Academy

The United States Air Force Academy is a military school for officer candidates.[98]

IntelliTec College is a technical training school. Pikes Peak Community College offers a two year degree program.[citation needed]

Media[edit]

Transportation[edit]

A Metro bus drives past a parking garage in downtown Colorado Springs.

Colorado Springs is served by a bus system called Mountain Metro (short for Mountain Metropolitan Transit). Although the transit system serves much of the city and its nearest suburbs (Manitou Springs and Security/Widefield), it lacks service to many important areas (Powers Blvd, Northgate, the Airport) and has only limited hours of operation.[citation needed]

Colorado Springs is served by the Colorado Springs Municipal Airport. In the state of Colorado, only Denver International has more passenger traffic. The airport has experienced a higher recovery rate in the post-9/11 era than the rest of the country[99] and is in the process of expanding its maintenance facilities, taxiways, and runways to accommodate future growth. In 2005 it served approximately two million passengers.[99]

Colorado Springs is part of a consortium of cities trying to build the Front Range Commuter Rail.[citation needed]

Major highways and roads[edit]

Interstate highways[edit]

Colorado Springs is primarily served by two interstate highways. I-25 runs north and south through Colorado, and is in the city for nearly 18 miles, entering the city south of Circle Drive and exiting north of North Gate Blvd. In El Paso County it is known as Ronald Reagan Highway.[nb 3] US 24 runs across the central mountains, through the city, and onto the plains. From west to east in Colorado Springs, US 24 follows the western portion of Cimarron Street and the Midland Expressway, a 2-mile concurrent section with I-25/US 87 between exits 139 and 141, part of Fountain Blvd, an expressway called the Martin Luther King Bypass, part of South Powers Blvd (where it is concurrent with Colorado 21), and the easternmost portion of Platte Avenue out of the city.

State highways[edit]

A number of state highways serve the city. State Highway 21 is a major east side semi-expressway from Black Forest to Fountain. It is widely known as Powers Boulevard. State Highway 83 runs north-south from Denver to northern Colorado Springs. State Highway 94 runs east-west from western Cheyenne County to eastern Colorado Springs. State Highway 115 begins in Cañon City and runs up Nevada Avenue. US 85 and SH 115 are concurrent between Lake Avenue and I-25. US 85 enters the city at Fountain and was signed at Venetucci Blvd, Lake Avenue, and Nevada Avenue.[nb 4]

County and city roads[edit]

In 2004, the voters of Colorado Springs and El Paso County established the Pikes Peak Rural Transportation Authority[104] and adopted a 1% sales tax dedicated to improving the region's transportation infrastructure. Together with state funding for the Colorado Springs Metro Interstate Expansion (COSMIX) (2007 completion) and the I-25 interchange with Highway 16 (2008 completion), significant progress has been made since 2003 in addressing the transportation needs of the area. Currently the City is trying to overcome a $23.3 million budget gap created by falling sales taxes and rising expenses.[105]

Several suggestions have been made to create a loop around the city though none have been implemented.[106][nb 5] To manage congestion, the city implemented two graded separated intersections at Powers and Woodmen and at Austin Bluffs and Union. A third interchange was completed in 2011 at the Woodmen Road/Academy Boulevard intersection.[citation needed]

In early 2010, the city of Colorado Springs approved an expansion of the northernmost part of Powers Boulevard in order to create an Interstate 25 bypass commonly referred to as the Copper Ridge Expansion.[109][nb 6]

Walkability[edit]

A 2011 study by Walk Score ranked Colorado Springs 34th most walkable of fifty largest U.S. cities.[111]

Notable residents[edit]

Nikola Tesla sitting in the Colorado Springs experimental station with his "Magnifying transmitter" generating millions of volts.

Sister cities[edit]

Bishkek mayor Arstanbek Nogoev presents a gift for Colorado Springs mayor Lionel Rivera to a US airman at Manas Air Base, in a ceremony aimed at reviving ties between the two sister cities[112]

Sister cities of Colorado Springs include:

Colorado Springs' sister city organization began when Colorado Springs became partners with Fujiyoshida. The torii gate erected to commemorate the relationship stands at the corner of Bijou Street and Nevada Avenue, and is one of the city's most recognizable landmarks. The torii gate, crisscrossed bridge and shrine, located in the median between Platte and Bijou Streets in downtown Colorado Springs, were a gift to Colorado Springs, erected in 1966 by the Rotary Club of Colorado Springs to celebrate the friendship between the two communities. A plaque near the torii gate states that "the purpose of the sister city relationship is to promote understanding between the people of our two countries and cities". The Fujiyoshida Student exchange program has become an annual event.[citation needed]

To strengthen relations between the two cities, the Colorado Springs Youth Symphony regularly invites the Taiko drummers from the city to participate in a joint concert in the Pikes Peak Center. The orchestra played in Bankstown, Australia, in 2002 and again in June 2006 as part of their tours to Australia and New Zealand.[citation needed]

Also, in 2006 and 2010, the Bankstown TAP (Talent Advancement Program), performed with the Youth Symphony, and the Colorado Springs Children's Chorale, as a part of the annual "In Harmony" program.[citation needed]

A notable similarity between Colorado Springs and its sister cities are their geographic positions: three of the seven cities are also located near the base of a major mountain or mountain range.[114]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Explanatory notes

  1. ^ As of the census[36] of 2000 (limited only to the city limits and not including the very diverse Fort Carson area which many view as being a part of the Colorado Springs metropolitan area), there were 360,890 people, 141,516 households, and 93,117 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,942.9 people per square mile (750.2/km²). There were 148,690 housing units at an average density of 800.5 per square mile (309.1/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 80.66% White, 6.56% African American, 0.88% Native American, 2.82% Asian, 0.21% Pacific Islander, 5.01% from other races, and 3.85% from two or more races. 12.01% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 141,516 households out of which 34.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.5% were married couples living together, 10.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.2% were non-families. 27.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 3.06. In the city the population was spread out with 26.5% under the age of 18, 10.3% from 18 to 24, 32.8% from 25 to 44, 20.8% from 45 to 64, and 9.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 97.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.2 males. (Note: City statistics do not include the demographic influence of five local military bases). The median income for a household in the city was $45,081, and the median income for a family was $53,478. Males had a median income of $36,786 versus $26,427 for females. The per capita income for the city was $22,496. About 6.1% of families and 8.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.8% of those under age 18 and 7.2% of those age 65 or over.
  2. ^ This nullifies a popular Canadian claim that the 2008 IIHF World Championships in Quebec City and Halifax marked the first time this event was organized on the American continent. However, the 2008 event was the first World Championship on the American continent in which NHL players were eligible to compete.
  3. ^ In order to combat congestion the Colorado Department of Transportation widened the Interstate 25 corridor throughout the city from four lanes (two in each direction) to six lanes in a program called COSMIX. Ultimately, the plan is to make the interstate eight lanes through the city when funding becomes available.[100] This plan is similar in nature to Denver's T-Rex expansion plan.[citation needed] Work has started on expanding Interstate 25 from 4 to 6 lanes between Woodmen Road (exit 149, the northern terminus for the COSMIX project) and Monument (exit 161).[101][102]
  4. ^ In addition, there were plans to develop a "Front Range Toll Road", a privately owned turnpike, which would begin south of Pueblo and end around Fort Collins. This toll road would allow rail and truck traffic to avoid the more highly traveled parts of I-25 along the Front Range. Initially, the project had support but has since been highly contested because of the need to condemn the land of many private citizens, through the use of eminent domain, to make room for the corridor.[103]
  5. ^ The original plan to convert Powers Boulevard (now Colorado 21) into a bypass for I-25 was abandoned, although some of its interchanges are overpasses and roads further east are being looked at.[106] Easier access to the airport has recently been completed- in late 2011, the conversion of 2 lane Drennan Road to 4 lane expressway Milton Proby Parkway from the airport to S Academy Blvd.[107][108] Overall the new thoroughfares would include one (or two) loop freeways, a spur into the city connecting the main freeway and the loop, east-west expressway upgrades, and easier access to the Colorado Springs Airport.[citation needed]
  6. ^ The project developers also have hopes of increasing business at the future I-25 Powers Boulevard connection by building a 2.8 million sq. ft. shopping mall on the East side of the Powers exit.[109] Developers hope to have the project finished by 2013, but have a deadline of 2018.[110]

[13]

[14]

[15]

[20]

[18]

Citations

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  10. ^ "El Paso County". History Colorado. Archived from the original on 2013-11-22. "Platted by his Colorado Springs Company in 1876 [sic] Manitou Springs retains its winding roads, spa, and many of its grand hotels and residences. Of the approximately 1001 buildings, 752 are considered to be contributing… Miramount Castle…housed a sanitarium operated by the Sisters of Mercy."  (in 1916, the Sisters of Mercy operated the Montcalm Sanitorium.
  11. ^ Harrison, Deborah (2012). Manitou Springs. Arcadia Publishing. Retrieved 27 February 2014. 
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  14. ^ a b c d e "annexdata.xls" (spreadsheet). SpringsGov.com. Retrieved 2013-10-27{{inconsistent citations}} 
  15. ^ a b c Directory of Colorado Springs (almanac). The Out West Printing and Stationery Co. 1898. Retrieved 2013-11-05 (PPLD.org). "SANATARIUMS … St. Francis Hospital--On Institute Heights, east end of Pike's Peak avenue, near Knob Hill street car line … Pike's Peak Camp, No. 5 (Pacific jurisdiction)--Meets in K. of P. Hall every Tuesday evening" 
  16. ^ "Colorado's Mining Craze.". New York Times. December 2, 1895. Retrieved 2013-11-12. 
  17. ^ Report of the Commission on the Colorado Springs Union Depot (available at PPLD Special Collections and the Colorado College Tutt Library)
  18. ^ a b c Hartman, James Edward (June 28, 1996). Original Colorado Springs Municipal Airport (NRHP Inventory--Nomination Form). "Contributing 4…Non-contributing 1 … Nichols Field and the Pine Valley Air Strip were located on north Nevada Avenue. … In 1942 the hangar was purchased by the City of Colorado Springs. The Air Force began leasing the [Broadmoor] hangar as a storage area in 1958. … 1951 • Facility usage is re-leased to the Military (383 acres) for the 4600 Air Base Group (Jan.). … 1966…The City of Colorado Springs renegotiates with Air Force total of 992 acres (until 30 Jun 2066)."
  19. ^ Prinzo (Corporal, 2nd Grp payroll clerk) (c. 1945), [description of sites used by 2nd Photo Grp] (document with quotation) 
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  49. ^ Heilman, Wayne (June 25, 2008). "HP to 800 Springs workers: Move to New Mexico or lose jobs | center, springs, employees". Colorado Springs Gazette. Retrieved October 5, 2009. 
  50. ^ Heilman, Wayne (June 27, 2008). "HP to IT workers: Move to Fort Collins or lose job | move, workers, employees". Colorado Springs Gazette. Retrieved October 5, 2009. 
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  63. ^ Ridgeway, James (January 15, 2010). "Day eight Sunday morning in the 'evangelical Vatican'". The Guardian (London). Retrieved April 30, 2010. 
  64. ^ Contact Us - Andrew Wommack Ministries
  65. ^ Contact ASCI
  66. ^ Biblica
  67. ^ Contact us - Children's Hopechest
  68. ^ Christian and Missionary Alliance - Contact Us
  69. ^ Community Bible Study
  70. ^ Contact Compassion
  71. ^ About David C. Cook
  72. ^ Development Associates International
  73. ^ eMi - Contact Us
  74. ^ Dr. James Dobson's Family Talk
  75. ^ How do I contact Focus on the Family?
  76. ^ Global Action
  77. ^ HCJB Global - Contact
  78. ^ Hope & Home
  79. ^ The Navigators
  80. ^ One Child Matters - Contact Us
  81. ^ Diocese of Colorado Springs
  82. ^ VisionTrust - Key Contacts
  83. ^ WAY Media Network
  84. ^ Contact Young Life
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External links[edit]