Ent AFB Defense Area

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Ent AFB Defense Area[1]
1975–77: Ent Annex
1949–75: Ent Air Force Base
1943–49: Colorado Springs Tent Camp
military installation
1962 Ent Air Force Base.png
Ent AFB at E Boulder St (center to upper left) and N Union Blvd (center to upper right). Striped building is Ent's "Federal Building" (top center). Building P4's annex[where?] housed the initial Space Defense Center, and the air defense command post building of 1951 and blockhouse of 1954 are tbd. By 1968 a new base exchange had been built north of the radio tower,[2]
Name origin: MGen Uzal Girard Ent[3]
Part of 1968–1976: USAF - Aerospace Defense Command.png Aerospace Defense Command
1951–1968: Airdefensecommand-logo.jpg Air Defense Command
1946–1951: Fifteenth Air Force
City Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA
Location Former main military gate (1750 E Boulder St)

38°50′20″N 104°47′45″W / 38.838947°N 104.795945°W / 38.838947; -104.795945[4]Coordinates: 38°50′20″N 104°47′45″W / 38.838947°N 104.795945°W / 38.838947; -104.795945[4]
Federal Building (1554 E. Willamette)[5] 38°50′24″N 104°47′45″W / 38.84000°N 104.79583°W / 38.84000; -104.79583[5]

Used 1943–1976
>47 acres (19 ha)
Namesakes

Ent Federal Credit Union (1957)
Ent Gun Club (c. 1955)

Ent AFB (Blue) was 1 of several early Cold War military sites in the Colorado Springs area.

The "Ent AFB Defense Area" is a Knob Hill, Colorado, area of Formerly Used Defense Sites in Colorado Springs designated after the Ent Annex (former Ent Air Force Base) closed in the 1970s. In addition to structures of the Air Force Base such as the Federal Building, separate military facilities of the Defense Area include the Chidlaw Building and nearby, 3 preceding prefabricated office buildings along Bijou Street. Initiated as a tent camp in an open area at an early 1900s medical complex with the "Beth-El Hospital", the military facilities such as the leased USAAF 2nd Air Force headquarters building were within the portion of the city that had been annexed by 1906.[6] Until named Ent AFB, the area was designated in unit addresses as at "Colorado Springs", e.g., the "Headquarters Area, Colorado Springs" was being used by 1947 and included 2 squadrons (the 201[7] AAFBU was the headquarters squadron for the 15th Air Force HQ.)[8] In the 1970s most of Ent AFB became the United States Olympic Training Center in Colorado Springs.

Early 1900s hospitals[edit]

William Jackson Palmer c. 1874 donated a tract of Knob Hill land for a medical school,[9] and subsequently built were St. Francis Hospital[when?] and the 1890–1902 Bellevue/National Deaconess Sanitarium. Bethel Hospital opened in 1911 along East Boulder Street (Beth-El Hospital in 1913) on land donated[dubious ] by General William Palmer[10] (cf. the earlier "Bethel Chapel" at Wahsatch & Las Animas[6]). In 1918 on the east side of Beth-El Hospital, a 1918 Contagion Hospital opened—later renamed: "Daniels Hall or Nurses Home".)[10] In 1926 on the east side of Beth-El Hospital and Daniels Hall, the National Methodist Sanitorium (Streamline Moderne architecture) opened on 29 acres (12 ha) (Beth-El Hospital was renamed "Memorial Hospital" after the city purchased it in 1943.)[10] (sold to University of Colorado in the 21st Century). The sanitorium building became the Air Defense Command/NORAD headquarters during the Cold War.[11]

Colorado Springs Tent Camp[edit]

For the May 1942 USAAF base to the east adjacent to the Colorado Springs Municipal Airport, see Army Air Base, Colorado Springs.

The Colorado Springs Tent Camp was established in 1943,[12] and by 15 July 1944,[13] the "2nd Air Force"at "Colorado Springs" was under the command of "Brig. Gen. U. G. Ent". Post-war the Tent Camp gained the 1946 Fifteenth Air Force headquarters[14] for bomber operations, and "Colorado Springs" had the 206th Army Air Force Base Unit organized on 6 June 1945 and initially[dubious ] controlled RBS detachments at Kansas City[where?] and Dallas Love Field (transferred in August to Mitchel Field as the 63rd AAFBU).[15] A November 1946 US defense plan[specify] "recommended moving ADC Headquarters from Mitchel Field to a more central location...in a protected command center ... designed to withstand attack by all foreseeable weapons"[16] (e.g., "German A-4 type" missiles).[17]

Air Force Base[edit]

In 1949[specify] the installation was renamed Ent Air Force Base[14] and the 15AF moved to March AFB[18] (the "HQ Sq, Fifteenth AF" arrived on 7 November 1949.)[19]:372 On 10 November 1950, Generals Vandenberg and Twining notified General Whitehead that "the Air Force had approved activation of a separate Air Defense Command [from CONAC] with headquarters on Ent".[20]:140

Air Defense Command[edit]

The ADC Major Command was re-established on 1 January 1951,[21] the date the nearby Peterson Field was reactivated as a sub-base of Ent AFB.[19] The former ADC headquarters at Mitchel Field began operations "in its new location, Ent Air Force Base," by 8 January 1951.[22] Mitchel's Army Anti-Aircraft Artillery Command headquarters moved to one room at Ent in January 1951 and in February,[23] the ARAACOM commander's staff began using the downtown Antlers Hotel until August 1953[24]:60 (eventually moving to tbd street across from the site used for the 1963 Chidlaw Building.)

Ent's building used for the 1951 air defense command post was replaced in May 1954 with a "much improved 15,000-square-foot concrete block" Combat Operations Center (COC).[20]:261 By 1961, an image of the COC's "Plexiglas plotting board"[20]:151 was being transmitted to SAC's underground command post at Offutt AFB.[25] The Ent AFB location was within city limits when Colorado Springs annexed an eastern area in tbd.

Continental Air Defense Command (CONAD) was "activated in Colorado Springs" after the Joint Chiefs of Staff agreed to establish a "joint service command for air defense".[20]:283 CONAD had "control of Air Force Air Defense Command forces, Army Anti-Aircraft Command forces, and Naval air defense forces" on 1 September 1954[26] (CONAD and ADC formally separated in 1956).[20]:283 Ent AFB had a golf course by 1954,[27] and the Ent Rod & Gun Club had sanctioned trapshoots by 1958.[28]

NORAD[edit]

In 1957 "on 6 September, CONAD advised all appropriate agencies that NORAD was to be established at Ent Air Force Base effective 0001 Zulu 12 September" with "integrated headquarters" of NORAD/CONAD/ADC and RCAF ADC.[29] Colorado Springs had 1957 "monitor machines on the four DEW Line main circuits",[29] and Ent became a "master station" of the 1958 Alert Network Number 1[30] (effective 10 June 1958, Colorado was the only state completely in the 34th NORAD Region.)[31] Despite a 1958 JCS study group's recommendation that a new COC be in an Ent basement/sub-basement,[30] the JCS on 18 March 1959 selected Cheyenne Mountain.[32] After deployment of the Semi-Automatic Ground Environment computer network, Ent's command center received data from the AN/FSQ-8 centrals at Combat Centers. Adjacent to Ent's NORAD center[33] was the SPADATS Operation Center with 496L Space Detection and Tracking System [34]:262 that began operations July 1961 in building P4's annex, a former[clarification needed] hospital building.[33]

Some of Ent's operations/units moved to the partially underground 1963 Chidlaw Building ½ mi (¾ km) south-southeast of Ent.[35] (e.g., the COC moved to the 1963 NORAD[36] Combined Operations Center.)[37] A cable between the Cheyenne Mountain nuclear bunker was connected with Ent AFB in April 1965,[38] and the SPADATS mission remaining at Ent began the move to the Cheyenne Mountain "Group III Space Defense Center"[39] in April 1966 (fully operational at 0001Z, 6 February 1967).[33] ADCOM's Interceptor safety magazine was being published at Ent in 1968,[40] and "12.28 acres"[clarification needed] had been planned for closure in fiscal year 1974[41] (Ent Gun Club hosted[where?] the 1974 Armed Forces Skeet Championship.)[42]

Ent Annex[edit]

Renamed the "Ent Annex" on 1 April 1975,[citation needed] the annex was assigned to the custody of Peterson AFB on 18 July 1975,[19]:472 and the installation was to be vacated by 30 June 1976.[41] Fourteenth Aerospace Force inactivated at Ent on 1 October 1976[citation needed]--Fourteenth Air Force (Reserve) activated at Dobbins Air Force Base on 8 October 1976.[19]:110 Ent's off-base barracks (38°51′07″N 104°45′17″W / 38.8520°N 104.7546°W / 38.8520; -104.7546 (Barracks, Ent AFB)) at 3920 Marion St (now E San Miguel St) were modified in the late 1970s for a retirement community[43] and Ent Gun Club moved to Peterson Air Force Base.

Ent land totalling 35 acres (14 ha) was transferred in 1977 for the United States Olympic Training Center,[44] and the golf course was sold c. 1977 to the city.[45] For the 1979 ADCOM breakup, on 1 October Colorado Springs' 425th Munitions Support and 4614th Contracting squadrons were respectively reassigned to TAC and SAC (the 4603rd Management Engineering Flight was inactivated)[21]:47—the ADCOM headquarters in the Chidlaw Building was "inactivated at Colorado Springs" on 31 March 1980.[21]:47

Ent's Federal Building remained a military computer facility[46] and was shared with the United States Census Bureau for the 1990 United States Census—military units of the United States Army and other services later moved from the Federal Building to Peterson AFB building 2 which had recently opened.[46] The Ent AFB Defense Area was designated[when?] a Formerly Used Defense Site.[1]

Units[edit]

Continental Air Defense Command[edit]

External video
Hospital/sanitorium complex c. 1930
Aerial views
HQ building
12 Pikes Peak Library images of Ent AFB
NORAD building (minute 12:30)

References[edit]

* The 4608 Support Squadron had detachments at numerous USAF bases, e.g., Tyndall AFB[85] and Detachment 20 at Oxnard Air Force Base (1 July 1965).[86]

  1. ^ a b "Section VI: Location Factors". Historical Air Force Construction (cost handbook). Directorate of Engineering Support, AFCE Support Agency. February 2007. http://www.wbdg.org/ccb/AF/AFH/histbook.pdf. Retrieved 12 May 2013.
  2. ^ http://cdm15981.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/singleitem/collection/p15981coll57/id/128/rec/4
  3. ^ Ent.com: Uzal Ent Short biography
  4. ^ Google maps. 1750 E Boulder St, Colorado Springs, CO (Map). https://maps.google.com/maps?q=1750+E+Boulder+St,+Colorado+Springs,+CO&hl=en&ll=38.838947,-104.795945&spn=0.006493,0.01398&sll=38.839265,-104.796342&sspn=0.006493,0.01398&oq=1750+E+Boulder+St&t=h&hnear=1750+E+Boulder+St,+Colorado+Springs,+El+Paso,+Colorado+80909&z=17. Retrieved 8 October 2013.
  5. ^ a b "Google Street image for 1554 E. Willamette". Retrieved 13 May 2013. 
  6. ^ a b "Geo. S. Clason, Denver, Colo." (1906). Tourists guide to Colorado Springs, Manitou, Colorado City and the Pike's Peak Region (Map). http://cdm15981.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/singleitem/collection/p15981coll23/id/27/rec/46. Retrieved 3 November 2013.
  7. ^ "201 Army Air Forces Base Unit" (Air Force History Index.org abstract about document on microfilm reel). December 1944. 00170996. Retrieved 22 October 2013. UNIT WAS STATIONED AT COLORADO SPRINGS CO. CONTAINS NARRATIVE HISTORY AND SUPPORTING DOCUMENTS. 200 ARMY AIR FORCES BASE UNIT WAS ATTACHED TO 201 ARMY AIR FORCES BASE UNIT FOR ADMINISTRATION, QUARTERS, AND RATIONS. 
  8. ^ History of Headquarters Area, Colorado Springs CO (base history). 15th Air Force. 12-01-47. http://airforcehistoryindex.org/data/000/247/171.xml. Retrieved 12 October 2013. "Includes monthly histories for Squadron A, 201 Army Air Forces Base Unit (Headquarters and Headquarters Squadron, 15 Air Force), 33 Communications Squadron Command, and Staff Sections. Includes supporting documents"
  9. ^ GET QUOTATION http://books.google.com/books?id=T46bBnZIX6sC&pg=PA191&dq=%22Knob+Hill%22+%22Colorado+Springs%22&hl=en&sa=X&ei=hcdvUuOgE4abygHFgIHACQ&ved=0CE4Q6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q=%22Knob%20Hill%22%20%22Colorado%20Springs%22&f=false
  10. ^ a b c "The Origin of Memorial Hospital, Colorado Springs" (web chronology). Colorado's Healthcare Heritage. ColoradoHealthcareHistory.com. Retrieved 20 October 2013. 
  11. ^ Headquarters, North American [sic] Defense Command (photograph), Ent Air Force Base ... Headquarters ... North American Air Defense Command ... U.S. Army Air Defense Command ... Naval Forces ... Air Defense Command  (image on p. 4 of A Brief History of NORAD.)
  12. ^ "Chapter 13: Regional Setting". Retrieved 1 October 2012. 
  13. ^ Army Air Forces Installations: 15 July 1944 (Map). (included at 7 unnumbered Futrell pages between pages 156 and 157) NOTE: The map shows the "COLORADO SPRINGS HQS 2AF" south-southwest of "PETERSON FLD", but perhaps is not-to-scale. The June 1944 AAF: The Official Guide to the Army Air Forces also identifies the "2nd Air Force"at "Colorado Springs" under "Brig. Gen. U. G. Ent", so perhaps the general's headquarters were at the tent camp that later was named for him.
  14. ^ a b McCusker, Joe. "...Air Force Base List". AirForceBase.net. Retrieved 18 September 2013. 
  15. ^ author tbd (9 November 1983). Hellickson, Gene—2007 transcription using Microsoft Word. ed. Historical Summary: Radar Bomb Scoring, 1945–1983 (Report). Office of History, 1st Combat Evaluation Group. http://www.mobileradar.org/Documents/hist_sum_rad_bom_scrg.pdf. Retrieved 1 October 2012. "On 6 June 1945, the 206th Army Air Force Base Unit (RBS) ( 206th AAFBU), was activated at Colorado Springs, Colorado under the command of Colonel Robert W. Burns. He assumed operational control of the two SCR-584 radar detachments located at Kansas City and Fort Worth [Det B], Texas. ... On 24 July 1945, the 206th was redesignated the 63rd AAFBU (RBS) and three weeks later was moved to Mitchell [sic] Field, New York, and placed under the command of the Continental Air Force. [sic] On 5 March 1946, the organization moved back to Colorado Springs[dubious ] and on 8 March of the same year was redesignated the 263rd AAFBU." (html transcription available at http://www.1stcombatevaluationgroup.com/aboutus.html )
  16. ^ 1945 U.S. Air Defense Plan (Short Term): 1946–1947, & November 1946 Radar Fence Plan (Plan SUPREMACY)--both cited by Schaffel p. 72
  17. ^ subj: Development of Radar Equipment for Detecting and Countering Missiles of the German A-4 type, 27 December 1946, USAFHRC microfilm (cited by Schaffel, p. 314)
  18. ^ Toro, MSgt. Radames; Barrios, MSgt. Ramon A. (1 August 1993—Third Edition). "Chapter 1: Command Overview". Space Operations Orientation Course. Peterson AFB, Colorado: 21st Crew Training Squadron. p. 3. In 1948...the 15th Air Force, then headquartered at Ent AFB... One year later, the 15th Air Force relocated to March AFB California ... 8 January 1951...the Air Force established the Air Defense Command (ADC) at Ent AFB.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  19. ^ a b c d e Mueller, Robert (1989). Air Force Bases (Report). Volume I: Active Air Force Bases Within the United States of America on 17 September 1982. Office of Air Force History. p. 600. ISBN 0-912799-53-6. http://www.afhso.af.mil/shared/media/document/AFD-100921-026.pdf. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
  20. ^ a b c d e Schaffel, Kenneth (1991). "Emerging Shield: The Air Force and the Evolution of Continental Air Defense 1945–1960" (45MB pdf). General Histories (Office of Air Force History). ISBN 0-912799-60-9. http://www.worldcat.org/title/emerging-shield-the-air-force-and-the-evolution-of-continental-air-defense-1945-1960/oclc/55082092?title=&detail=&page=frame&url=http%3A%2F%2Fpurl.access.gpo.gov%2FGPO%2FLPS48543%26checksum%3D432fe82c17a73c88ef5516c191915970&linktype=digitalObject. Retrieved 26 September 2011. "General Irvine's Army Antiaircraft Artillery Command Headquarters also left Mitchel to join ADC in Colorado Springs.":147
  21. ^ a b c compiled by Johnson, Mildred W. (31 December 1980) [February 1973: Cornett, Lloyd H. Jr]. A Handbook of Aerospace Defense Organization 1946–1980. Peterson AFB: Office of History, Aerospace Defense Center. Retrieved 26 March 2012. 
  22. ^ ltr, Whitehead to Twining, 10 January 1951, in KCRC Hq ADC File 312, Commanding General 1 January 15 October 1951 (cited by Grant's USAF Historical Studies: No. 126, p. 36/pdf p. 45)
  23. ^ Osato, Lt Col Timothy (1968). Militia Missilemen: The Army National Guard in Air Defense, 1951–1967 (Report). ARADCOM Historical Monograph. Office of the Chief of Military History, Department of the Army. http://ed-thelen.org/MilitiaMissilemenArNG-Part-I.pdf. Retrieved 30 September 2012. "CONAD is the unified command which constitute the U.S.contribution to the combined U.S.-Canadian North American Air Defense Command (NORAD), but because both have the same Commander in Chief (CINC), the better-known term CINCNORAD is often used herein. Strictly speaking, however, it is to the operational command of the CINCONAD that ARADCOM and its ARNG units are subordinated, and the frequent use of the terms CINCNORAD and NORAD in this study should be viewed with this important qualification in mind. ... When General Irvine moved his headquarters from Mitchel Air Force Base, Long Island, to Colorado Springs in January 1951, the entire staff and command group of ARAACOM occupied a single room at Ent Air Force Base. When the headquarters was moved to the Antlers Hotel in Colorado Springs at the end of February 1951, there were, in addition to General Irvine, only four other officers, two WACs, and three or four civilian employees. Interv with Mrs. Roy C. Howell (a member of the original group at Ent AFB) , 15 January 1968."
  24. ^ a b c d History of Strategic and Ballistic Missile Defense: Volume I: 1945–1955. To be closer to ConAC, ARAACOM moved to Mitchel AFB, New York on 1 November 1950. 
  25. ^ Popular Mechanics - Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved on 2013-09-18.
  26. ^ "Aerospace Defense Command: Home of the "SIX"". F-106DeltaDart.com. Retrieved 31 July 2012. 
  27. ^ "Fires 241 To Take Tourney". Yuma Daily Sun. 1 November 1956. p. 7. Retrieved 4 October 2012. 
  28. ^ Col Elbert Throckmorton "broke 98 from 26 at Ent R&GC at Colorado Springs to be moved back to the 27" yard line for handicap trapshooting.
  29. ^ a b Preface by Buss, L. H.—Director.  (Report). Directorate of Command History: Office of Information Services. pp. 3,53
  30. ^ a b Preface by Buss, L. H.—Director.  (Report). Directorate of Command History: Office of Information Services. "NORAD replied on 31 July that studies had shown that the NORAD Headquarters complex should be located in the Colorado Springs area with convenient access to its COC located in a self-supporting granite formation nearby. The two most attractive locations were Blodgett's Peak adjacent to the Air Force Academy and Cheuenne Mountain..."
  31. ^ NORAD General Order 6 (military document), 5 August 1958  (cited by 1958 Jan-Jun NORAD/CONAD Historical Summary)
  32. ^ Preface by Buss, L. H.—Director.  (Report). Directorate of Command History: Office of Information Services. "ARDC, in collaboration with NORAD, was to examine the projected NORAD Command Control System and to determine COC requirements."
  33. ^ a b c 1961–1969 Historical reports from the Squadron on file at the Air Force Historical Research Agency, Maxwell AFB AL, AFHRA Microfilm reel KO363
  34. ^ Leonard, Barry (pdf created 15 July 2008) [c. 1974[specify]]. History of Strategic and Ballistic Missile Defense: Volume II: 1956–1972 (Army.mil PDF – also available at Google Books). Retrieved 1 September 2012. In July of 1961, the National Space Surveillance and Control Center (NSSCC) was discontinued as the new SPADATS Center became operational at Ent AFB, Colorado.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  35. ^ "Google Map with route from Ent AFB to Chidlaw Bldg". Retrieved 17 July 2012. 
  36. ^ http://www.argonavisit.com/newsite/pdf/Whitepaper%20-%20Premiere%20Comprehensive%20Security%2014%20pgs.pdf
  37. ^ "NORAD Chronology". NORAD.mil. Retrieved 28 July 2012.  (see also FAS.org chronology)
  38. ^ Preface by Buss, L. H.—Director.  (Report). Directorate of Command History: Office of Information Services.
  39. ^ (abstract) 9th Aerospace Defense Division (Report). Ent Air Force Base. 1966. http://airforcehistoryindex.org/data/000/425/800.xml. Retrieved 2 September 2012. "DELTA I FIFTH STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT OF AND AUTOMATED COMPUTER PROGRAMMING SYSTEM TO PERFORM SDC (SPACE DEFENSE CENTER) FUNCTIONS IN NEW GROUP III SPACE DEFENSE CENTER LOCATED IN NORAD CHEYENNE MOUNTAIN COMPLEX CO."
  40. ^ " points" (Hathi Trust Digital Library image). The Interceptor (Air Defense Command): 26. January 1968. Retrieved 1 October 2012. The Editor, INTERCEPTOR, Box 46, Ent AFB, Colorado 80912 
  41. ^ a b "Aerospace Defense Command (Zone of Interior): Peterson Field, Colo.". Military Construction Authorization FY74 (annotated transcript of Senate hearing). publisher tbd--image at WHS.mil (Pentagon Digital Library). date "730806"[verification needed]. Retrieved 4 October 2010. fiscal year 1974 military construction program(MCP), plus those now planned for the fiscal year 1975 MCP, will allow Air Force to vacate Ent AFB by 30 June 1976.  Check date values in: |date= (help) (General Reilly) [Document identifies planned PAFB construction of NCO club, commissary, female dormitories, maintenance complex, and post office.]
  42. ^ Google. Retrieved on 2013-09-18.
  43. ^ Walsh, Mike (29 June 2007). "Retirement complex started as barracks" ("did you ever wonder" column). The Gazette (Colorado Springs). Retrieved 1 October 2012. 
  44. ^ "USOC-Colorado Springs History". The Sports Corp @ ColoradoSpringsSports.org. 11 February 2011. Retrieved 1 October 2012. 
  45. ^ http://newspaperarchive.com/colorado-springs-gazette/1977-11-04/ "partial pay ment to the municipal airport for airport land traded to the Air Force for Ent AFB for park land and for golf course". For the appropriations for the Peterson AFB golf course, see http://www.whs.mil/library/Legislative%20History/93-194_V2_730529_02.htm.
  46. ^ a b interview, former Federal Building employee
  47. ^ Biographies : Brigadier General Dennis C. Beasley. Archive.is. Retrieved on 2013-09-18.
  48. ^ William Black. LinkedIn (2013-07-01). Retrieved on 2013-09-18.
  49. ^ Full text of "Journal of the North Carolina Dental Society [serial]". Archive.org. Retrieved on 2013-09-18.
  50. ^ http://www.va.gov/vetapp03/Files/0329620.txt
  51. ^ a b http://newspaperarchive.com/colorado-springs-gazette/1967-04-23/page-33/ Three new teams have been added since last week to give a total of 13 fighting for the base The new teams are 1151st Special activities Squad 4th Weather and 4608th Support Other teams already fielded represent 4600th Transportation and CAM 47th Com 4604th Support 9th Aero Space Defense Headquarters and Defense Com Western A pre season ation tournament will kick off the season on May"
  52. ^ US Defense Communications Agency & Canadian Forces Headquarters (9 December 1970), "Appendix 1", Memorandum of Agreement, retrieved 28 September 2012 
  53. ^ Del Papa, Dr. E. Michael; Warner, Mary P (October 1987). A Historical Chronology of the Electronic Systems Division 1947–1986 (Report). http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a201708.pdf. Retrieved 19 July 2012.
  54. ^ Burright, Robert J., Captain 1961 History of the 4th Weather Wing, 1 January 1961 - 30 June 1961. Prepared by the United States Air Force, Military Air Transport Service, Air Weather Service, 4th Weather Wing, Colorado Springs, Colorado.
  55. ^ Defense Technical Information Center: 4th Weather Wing
  56. ^ http://www26.us.archive.org/stream/directoryo00unit/directoryo00unit_djvu.txt
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  59. ^ North America Air Defense Command, Office of Information, Direct of Command History, Historical Summary, NORAD and CONAD, Ent AFB, Colorado, December 1958
    North America Air Defense Command, Office of Information, The Aerospace Defense Story, lecture, Colorado Springs, Colorado, 1962.
  60. ^ Donaldson, E.M.. "Russian Satellite Seen to Change Orbit," Daily Telegraph. London: 28 November 1963
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  62. ^ 1957 U.S. Air Defense in the Northeast 1940–1957. Prepared by the United States Air Force, Continental Air Defense Command, Office of Information Services, Directorate of Command History, Colorado Springs, Colorado.
  63. ^ "On 21 March 1957, in recognition of its growing combat-ready surface-to-air guided missile force, ARAACOM was redesignated the U. S. Army Air Defense Command (ARADCOM)."
  64. ^ a b http://www.airdefenseartillery.com/online/2010/Antiaircraft%20Command%201946/Antiaircraft%20Journal/1952%20Screen/Jan-Feb%201952%20Screen.pdf
  65. ^ http://www.westpointaog.org/document.doc?id=3240
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  69. ^ Federal Electric Corporation, Paramus, New Jersey (1969), The DEW System (booklet), ADC DEW System Office  (cited by Schaffel p. 312) NOTE: The Annotated Bibliography: Distant Early Warning (DEW) System, Alaska also lists "Service Associate of the International Telephone and Telegraph Corporation" in its citation for this booklet (the bibliography also identifies Federal Electric Corporation (FEC) was "an associate of the International Telephone and Telegraph Corporation", with FEC being "its service association" and ITT writing "for the Federal Electric Corporation". The bibliography also states Ray (1965) identifies "Federal Electric Corporation was contracted for the operation and maintenance of the DEW Line"--in April 1956 per Donaldson 1962--except for the "Aleutian Extension…operated and maintained by the Air Force".) FEC had a "DEW Line Department which published the Polar Echoes magazine from December 1956-July 1959.)
  70. ^ Sturm, Thomas A., Volan, Denys, and McMullen, Richard F (1956). Buss, Lydus H., ed. History of Continental Air Defense Command and Air Defense Command July to December 1955. Ent AFB, CO: Directorate of Historical Services, Air Defense Command. 
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  83. ^ His next assignment was as Director of Command and Control of the 4608th Support Squadron at Ent AFB, from September 1970 to June 1972
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  86. ^ http://www.wbdg.org/ccb/AF/AFH/histbook.pdf

External links[edit]