Coltan

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A piece of columbite-tantalite, size 6.0 x 2.5 x 2.1 cm

Coltan (short for columbite–tantalite and known industrially as tantalite) is a dull black metallic ore from which the elements niobium and tantalum are extracted. The niobium-dominant mineral in coltan is columbite (after niobium's original American name, columbium), and the tantalum-dominant mineral is tantalite.[1]

Tantalum from coltan is used to manufacture tantalum capacitors, used in electronic products. Coltan mining has been cited[2][3] as helping to finance serious conflict, for example the Ituri conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo.[4][5][6]

Production and supply[edit]

Approximately 71% of global tantalum supply in 2008 was met by newly mined product, 20% from recycling, and the remainder from tin slag and inventory.[7]

Tantalum minerals are mined in Australia, Brazil, Canada, Democratic Republic of Congo, China, Ethiopia, and Mozambique.[8] Tantalum is also produced in Thailand and Malaysia as a by-product of tin mining and smelting.

Potential future mines, in descending order of magnitude, are being explored in Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Uganda, Greenland, China, Mozambique, Canada, Australia, the United States, Finland, Afghanistan,[9] and Brazil.[10] A significant reserve of coltan was discovered in 2009 in western Venezuela.[11] In 2009 the Colombian government announced coltan reserves had been found in Colombia's eastern provinces.[12]

  metric tons of tantalum mined
  1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Australia 165 218 224 170 238 274 276 302 330 350 485 660 940 765 807 854 478 441 557 81 0 80 0 0
Brazil 90 84 60 50 50 50 55 55 310 165 190 210 200 200 213 216 176 180 180 180 180 180 140 140
Canada 86 93 48 25 36 33 55 49 57 54 57 77 58 55 57 63 56 45 40 25 0 25 50 50
D.R. Congo 10 16 8 6 1 1 -- -- NA NA 130 60 30 15 20 33 14 71 100 87 n.a. n.a. 100 110
Rwanda - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 110 120 150 150
Africa, Other 45 66 59 59 8 3 3 3 82 76 208 173 242 245 333 214 146 135 313 297 391 390 230 140
WORLD 396 477 399 310 333 361 389 409 779 645 1070 1180 1470 1280 1430 1380 870 872 1190 670 681 790 670 590
1990-1993: U.S. Geological Survey, "1994 Minerals Yearbook" (MYB), "COLUMBIUM (NIOBIUM) AND TANTALUM" By Larry D. Cunningham,
Table 10; 1994-1997: MYB 1998, Table 10; 1998-2001: MYB 2002, p. 21.13; 2002-2003: MYB 2004, p. 20.13; 2004: MYB 2008, p. 52.12;
2005-2009: MYB 2009, p. 52.13. USGS did not report data for other countries (China, Kazakhstan, Russia, etc.) owing to data uncertainties.
NA Not available. -- Zero.
   % of global mined tantalum production
  1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
Australia 41.7% 45.7% 56.1% 54.8% 71.5% 75.9% 71.0% 73.8% 42.4% 54.3% 45.3% 55.9% 63.9% 59.8% 56.4% 61.9% 54.9% 50.6% 46.8% 12.1% NA% NA% NA% NA%
Brazil 22.7% 17.6% 15.0% 16.1% 15.0% 13.9% 14.1% 13.4% 39.8% 25.6% 17.8% 17.8% 13.6% 15.6% 14.9% 15.7% 20.2% 20.6% 15.1% 26.9% NA% NA% NA% NA%
Canada 21.7% 19.5% 12.0% 8.1% 10.8% 9.1% 14.1% 12.0% 7.3% 8.4% 5.3% 6.5% 3.9% 4.3% 4.0% 4.6% 6.4% 5.2% 3.4% 3.7% NA% NA% NA% NA%
D.R. Congo 2.5% 3.4% 2.0% 1.9% 0.3% 0.3% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 0.0% 12.1% 5.1% 2.0% 1.2% 1.4% 2.4% 1.6% 8.1% 8.4% 13.0% NA% NA% NA% NA%
Africa. excl.
DR Congo
11.4% 13.8% 14.8% 19.0% 2.4% 0.8% 0.8% 0.7% 10.5% 11.8% 19.4% 14.7% 16.5% 19.1% 23.3% 15.5% 16.8% 15.5% 26.3% 44.3% NA% NA% NA% NA%
WORLD 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%
Plot of global mined tantalum production, 1990–2009, for World, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Democratic Republic of Congo, and the rest of Africa.
Data sources:[13]

Use and demand[edit]

Coltan is used primarily for the production of tantalum capacitors, used in many electronic devices. Many sources mention coltan's importance in the production of cell phones, but this is an over-simplification, as tantalum capacitors are used in almost every kind of electronic device.

It is also used in high temperature alloys for air and land based turbines.[14] The upsurge in electronic products over the past decade resulted in a peak in late 2000, lasting a few months. In 2005 the price was still down at early 2000 levels.[15][16]

The United States Geological Survey estimates that tantalum production capacity could meet global demand, which is growing at four percent annually, at least until the year 2013.[7]

Resource curse[edit]

Main Page: Resource curse

Countries rich in resources such as Congo have been affected by the phenomenon referred to as “resource curse”.[17] “Resource curse” is used to describe the situation when countries that are rich in resources have poorer economic development than countries that have fewer resources.[17] This phenomenon does not allow for the Congolese to have a balanced and sustained development. It also indicates that there is a clear relationship between the wealth of resources “…and the likelihood of weak democratic development, corruption, and civil war.”[17] Such high levels of corruption lead to great political instability and issues because whoever controls the assets (mainly the political leaders, and the government in Congo) can use it to their benefit. These resources can generate wealth for these people which can be used to keep “…themselves in power, either through legal means, or coercive ones (e.g. funding militias)”.[18] The beginning of coltan as an important mineral, crucial to technological products “occurred as warlords and armies in the eastern Congo converted artisanal mining operations…into slave labour regimes to earn hard currency to finance their militias”.[19]

Digital age[edit]

Main article: Information Age

Coltan is made into a component for many digital products such as cell phones. The digital age has caused issues regarding power relations and violence between individuals from the Congo and the rest of the world. An example of uneven power relations was in late 2000, when there was a great demand for the PlayStation 2. This demand caused the price of coltan to increase very quickly and after demand for the gaming system fell, so did the price of coltan.[20] The price hike of coltan had made the violence in eastern Congo a lot worse, as the violence was being directed at everyday "social production".[20] Since there is a growing need for new technologies, the demand for coltan is growing substantially.

Mining[edit]

For individuals living within the Congo, mining is the easiest source of income available, as the work is consistent and regular, even if just for $1/day.[20] However, coltan is laborious to mine, as it takes around “three day’s march into the forests to scratch out the ore with hand tools and pan it … about 90 percent of young men are doing this now…”.[21] Research conducted by anthropologists has revealed reasons as to why the Congolese leave the farming industry. Congolese individuals can try to work in places like farms, but they need money quickly and cannot wait for their crops to grow. As farmers, they face other obstacles as well. There are no roads for people to travel on, making it extremely difficult for them to get their product to rural markets, and they have a high chance of their harvest being taken by militias and the Congolese army.[20] Once their food is taken away or they no longer have the capacity to grow food, they need to resort to mining in order to sustain themselves and provide for families. The organized mines however, are usually run by corrupt groups like militias. There are few tools available for the Congolese to efficiently mine for coltan, with no safety procedures or past experience working in mines.[19] There is no government aid or intervention in many unethical and abusive circumstances. Coltan mining is viewed by miners as a way of providing for themselves in an area where war and internal conflict are widespread and the government has no concern for citizens' welfare.[22]

Ethics of mining in the Democratic Republic of Congo[edit]

Conflicts, including the Rwandan occupation in the east of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), made it difficult for the DRC to exploit its coltan reserves. Mining of the mineral is mainly artisanal and small-scale.[23] A 2003 UN Security Council report[24] charged that a great deal of the ore is mined illegally and smuggled over the country's eastern borders by militias from neighbouring Uganda, Burundi and Rwanda.[25]

All three countries named by the United Nations as smugglers of coltan have denied being involved. Austrian journalist Klaus Werner has documented links between multi-national companies like Bayer and the illegal coltan traffic.[26] A United Nations committee investigating the plunder of gems and minerals in the Congo listed in its final report[24] approximately 125 companies and individuals involved in business activities breaching international norms. Companies accused of irresponsible corporate behavior are for example the Cabot Corporation,[27] Eagle Wings Resources International[28] Forrest Group[29] and OM Group.[30]

Coltan smuggling likely provides income for the military occupation of Congo[citation needed], as well as prolonged civil conflict. To many[who?], this raises ethical questions akin to those of blood diamonds. Owing to the difficulty of distinguishing legitimate from illegitimate mining operations, several processors such as Cabot Corp (USA) have decided to forgo central African coltan altogether, relying on other sources.[citation needed]

Much coltan from the DRC is being exported to China for processing into electronic-grade tantalum powder and wires.[31] Coltan imports from DRC to Europe are usually directed to Central/Eastern Europe and Russia. These cargoes mostly travel through the route Dar es Salaam/Tanzania-Piraeus (Greece) and then they are further distributed through Balkans. Nova Dies, an offshore consortium based in British Virgin Islands, mostly controls the trans-Balkan transportation network.[32] As the cargoes imported through this network largely concern unprocessed coltan mined in uncontrolled artisanal mines, this export route is assumed as a long-term threat for DRC economy given that it hinders the development of DRC based processing infrastructure.[33] Reported estimates of the Congo's fraction of the world's coltan reserves range from 64% and up.[34] but the higher numbers are difficult to trace to reliable data.[35] Estimates from professional bodies like the British Geological Survey land at lower values, i.e. a 9% total for Central Africa.[36] Tantalum, the primary mineral extracted from Coltan, is also mined from other sources, and Congolese coltan represented around 10% of world production in recent years.[37][38]

Environmental concerns[edit]

Because of uncontrolled mining in the DRC, the land is being eroded and is polluting lakes and rivers, affecting the ecology of the region[citation needed].

The Eastern Mountain Gorilla's population has diminished as well. Miners are far from food sources and have been hunting gorillas.[39] The gorilla population has been seriously reduced and is now critically endangered. In Central and West Africa an estimated 3–5 million tons of bushmeat is obtained by killing wild animals (including gorillas) each year.[40]

Price increases and changing demands[edit]

There has been a significant drop in the production and sale of coltan and niobium from African mines since the dramatic price spike in 2000, based on dot com speculation and multiple ordering. This is confirmed in part by figures from the United States Geological Survey.[41][42]

The Tantalum-Niobium International Study Centre in Belgium, the country that colonized the Congo, has encouraged international buyers to avoid Congolese coltan on ethical grounds:

The central African countries of Democratic Republic of Congo and Rwanda and their neighbours used to be the source of significant tonnages. But civil war, plundering of national parks and exporting of minerals, diamonds and other natural resources to provide funding of militias has caused the Tantalum-Niobium International Study Center to call on its members to take care in obtaining their raw materials from lawful sources. Harm, or the threat of harm, to local people, wildlife or the environment is unacceptable.[43]

For economic rather than ethical reasons, a shift is also being seen from traditional sources such as Australia, towards new suppliers such as Egypt.[44] This may have been brought about by the bankruptcy of the world's biggest supplier, Australia's Sons of Gwalia. The operations previously owned by Gwalia in Wodgina and Greenbushes continue to operate in some capacity.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Tantalum-Niobium International Study Center, Coltan, retrieved 2008-01-27 
  2. ^ Congo: war-torn heart of Africa, December 1, 2008, retrieved 2012-10-18 
  3. ^ Breaking the Silence- Congo Week, December 15, 2009, retrieved 2011-10-11 
  4. ^ "The VICE Guide to Congo | VICE United States". Vice.com. Retrieved 2013-04-29. 
  5. ^ Söderberg, Mattias (2006-09-22), Is there blood on your mobile phone?, retrieved 2009-05-16 
  6. ^ "IRC Study Shows Congo's Neglected Crisis Leaves 5.4 Million Dead; Peace Deal in N. Kivu, Increased Aid Critical to Reducing Death Toll". 22 January 2008. Retrieved 17 April 2011. 
  7. ^ a b Papp, John F. (January 2011), "Niobium (Columbium) and Tantalum", U.S. Geological Survey, 2009 Minerals Yearbook, pp. 52.1 - 52.14, retrieved 2011-01-17 
  8. ^ US Geological Survey (2006), Minerals Yearbook Nb & Ta, United States Geological Survey, retrieved 2008-06-03 
  9. ^ Michael Skinner (27 February 2009). "Multi-billion Dollar Mining Boom: The economics of war and empire in Afghanistan". Global Research. Retrieved 29 April 2013. 
  10. ^ Mining Journal (November 2007), Tantalum supplement (PDF), retrieved 2008-06-03 [dead link]
  11. ^ [[[Category:All articles with unsourced statements]][citation needed]]
  12. ^ November 21st, 2009
  13. ^ 1990-1993: U.S. Geological Survey, 1994 Minerals Yearbook (MYB), "COLUMBIUM (NIOBIUM) AND TANTALUM" By Larry D. Cunningham, Table 10; 1994-1997: MYB 1998 Table 10; 1998-2001: MYB 2002 p. 21.13; 2002-2003: MYB 2004 p. 20.13; 2004: MYB 2008 p. 52.12; 2005-2009: MYB 2009 p. 52.13. USGS did not report data for other countries (China, Kazakhstan, Russia, etc.) owing to data uncertainties. .
  14. ^ Applications for Tantalum, retrieved 2008-06-03 
  15. ^ The Economics of Tantalum, retrieved 2008-06-03 
  16. ^ Coltan Facts, 2009, retrieved 2009-12-17 
  17. ^ a b c Humphreys et al (2007). Escaping the Resource Curse. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 1. 
  18. ^ Humphreys et al (2007). Escaping the Resource Curse. New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 10–11. 
  19. ^ a b Mantz, J. W. "Improvisational economies: Coltan production in the eastern Congo". Social Anthropology. Retrieved 28 January 2013. 
  20. ^ a b c d Smith, James H. (1 February 2011). "Tantalus in the Digital Age: Coltan ore, temporal dispossession, and "movement" in the Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo". American Ethnologist 38 (1): 17–35. doi:10.1111/j.1548-1425.2010.01289.x. 
  21. ^ Jackson, Stephen. "Making a killing: criminality and coping in the Kivu war economy". ROAPE Publications. Retrieved 28 January 2013. 
  22. ^ Jackson, Stephen. "Making a killing: criminality and coping in the Kivu war economy". Review of African Political Economy. ROAPE Publications. Retrieved 28 January 2013. 
  23. ^ Dorner, Ulrike; Franken, Gudrun; Liedtke, Maren; Sievers, Henrike (2012-03-01). "Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining (ASM)". Retrieved 2012-09-09. 
  24. ^ a b S/2003/1027, United Nations, 2003-10-26, retrieved 2008-04-19  |first1= missing |last1= in Authors list (help)
  25. ^ "Security Council Condemns Illegal Exploitation of Democratic Republic of Congo’s Natural Resources" (Press release). UN. 3 May 2001. Retrieved 2008-05-12. 
  26. ^ Werner, Klaus, 2003,The New Black Book of Brand Companies (in German Das neue Schwarzbuch Markenfirmen), ISBN 3-216-30715-8
  27. ^ Friend of the Earth-United States (2004-08-04), FOE complaint to Department of State concerning U.S. companies, retrieved 2009-05-15 
  28. ^ Friend of the Earth-United States (2004-08-04), Groups File Complaint With State Department Against Three American Companies Named in UN Report, retrieved 2009-05-15 
  29. ^ BBC (2006-04-17), Scramble for DR Congo's mineral wealth, BBC News Online, retrieved 2008-04-19 
  30. ^ Friends of the Congo, Coltan: What You Should Know, retrieved 2008-04-19 
  31. ^ Tiffany Ma, "China and Congo's Coltan Connection," Project 2049 Futuregram (09-003), June 22, 2009, at http://project2049.net/documents/china_and_congos_coltan_connection.pdf
  32. ^ https://www.linkedin.com/company/nova-dies-british-virgin-islands-international-business-company
  33. ^ http://www.newsday.co.tt/commentary/0,197374.html
  34. ^ "The Democratic Republic of the Congo: Major Challenges Impede Efforts to Achieve U.S. Policy Objectives; Systematic Assessment of Progress Is Needed" GAO-08-562T, March 6, 2008 http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d08562t.pdf -- on request for their source the GAO gave the Golbal Witness report "Under-Mining Peace: Tin - the Explosive Trade in Cassiterite in Eastern DRC" June 30, 2005 http://www.globalwitness.org/media_library_detail.php/138/en/
  35. ^ Nest, Michael (2013). Coltan. New York: John Wiley & Sons. 
  36. ^ Richard Shaw; Kathryn Goodenough. "Niobium-tantalum". British Geological Survey. Retrieved 24 May 2014. 
  37. ^ "'Coltan' | Tantalum-Niobium International Study Center". Tanb.org. Retrieved 2013-04-29. 
  38. ^ http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/niobium/myb1-2008-niobi.pdf
  39. ^ Taylor and Goldsmith, Andrea and Michele (December 2002), Gorilla Biology: A Multidisciplinary Perspective, ISBN 978-0-521-79281-3, retrieved 2010-11-19 
  40. ^ Olive, Brooke (August 21, 2007), Mountain Gorillas, Bushmeat or Blackmail?, retrieved 2009-12-17 
  41. ^ U.S. Geological Survey, Mineral Commodity Summaries, January 2002, Tantalum p. 166-7
  42. ^ U.S. Geological Survey, Mineral Commodity Summaries, January 2005, Tantalum p. 166-7
  43. ^ Tantalum-Niobium International Study Center, Tantalum, retrieved 2008-01-27 
  44. ^ Gippsland Limited, Abu Dabbab Tantalum, retrieved 2011-04-02 

External links[edit]