Okanagan language

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Colville-Okanagan)
Jump to: navigation, search
Okanagan
Colville
nsəlxcin
Native to Canada, United States
Region Southern Interior of British Columbia, Central-northern State of Washington
Ethnicity Okanagan people, Colville tribe, Lakes
Native speakers
800  (2007–2011)[1]
Salishan
Dialects
Northern Okanagan
Colville
Lakes (Sinixt)
San-poil (Nespelem)
Southern Okanagan
Methow
Language codes
ISO 639-3 oka
Glottolog okan1243[2]

Okanagan, or Colville-Okanagan, is a Salish language which arose among the indigenous peoples of the southern Interior Plateau region based primarily in the Okanagan River Basin and the Columbia River Basin in pre-colonial times in Canada and the United States. Following British, American, and Canadian colonization during the 1800s and the subsequent repression of all Salishan languages, the use of Colville-Okanagan declined drastically.

Colville-Okanagan is highly endangered and is rarely learned as either a first or second language. There are about 150 deeply fluent speakers of Colville-Okanagan Salish, the majority of whom live in British Columbia.[3] The language is currently moribund and has no deeply fluent speakers younger than 50 years of age. Colville-Okanagan is the second most spoken Salish language after Shuswap.

History and description[edit]

Historically, Colville-Okanagan originated from a language which was spoken in the Columbia River Basin and is now termed Proto Southern Interior Salish. As a result of the initial expansion of Colville-Okanagan prior to European contact, the language developed three separate dialects: Colville, Okanagan, and Lakes. There is a low degree of dialectic divergence in terms of vocabulary and grammar. Variation is primarily confined to pronunciation.

The vast majority of Colville-Okanagan words are from Proto-Salish or Proto-Interior Salish. A number of Colville-Okanagan words are shared with or borrowed from the neighboring Salish, Sahaptian, and Kutenai languages. More recent word borrowings are from English and French. Colville-Okanagan was an exclusively oral form of communication until the late 19th century when priests and linguists began transcribing the language for word lists, dictionaries, grammars, and translations. Colville-Okanagan is currently written in Latin script using the American Phonetic Alphabet.

In Colville-Okanagan the language itself is known as nsəlxcin or nsyilxcn. Speakers of nsəlxcin occupied the northern portion of the Columbia Basin from the Methow River in the west, to Kootenay Lake in the east, and north along the Columbia River and the Arrow Lakes. In Colville-Okanagan all nsyilxcn speaking bands are grouped under the ethnic label syilx. Colville-Okanagan is the heritage language of the Lower Similkameen Indian Band, the Upper Similkameen Indian Band, the Westbank First Nation, the Osoyoos Indian Band, the Penticton Indian Band, the Okanagan Indian Band, the Upper Nicola Indian Band, and the Colville, Sanpoil, Okanogan, Lakes, Nespelem and Methow bands of the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation.

Phonology[edit]

Consonants[edit]

Consonant inventory of Okanagan: [4]

Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Labialized
velar
Uvular Labialized
uvular
Glottal
Stops p t t͜ʃ k q ʔ
ejective t͜ʃʼ kʷʼ qʷʼ
Fricatives s x χ χʷ h
lateral ɬ
Nasals m n
glottalized
Trill r
glottalized
Approximants l j w
glottalized

Okanagan is also reported to contain the rare uvular flap.[5]

Vowels[edit]

The vowels found in Lakes are: [i], [a], [u], [ə], and [o]. The [ə] is the single unstressed variant of the full vowels in Okanagan while the [o] vowel is found only in borrowed words. Stress will fall only on full vowels in Okanagan.[clarification needed][does this mean [ə] is epenthetic, that vowels reduce to [ə] when not stressed, that [ə] is the only vowel which cannot be stressed, or that there can only be one vowel which is not [ə] in a word or morpheme?]

Morphology[edit]

The morphology of Okanagan is fairly complex. It is a head-marking language that relies mostly on grammatical information being placed directly on the predicate by means of affixes and clitics. The combination of derivational and inflectional suffixes and prefixes that are added onto the stem words make for a compact language.[6]

Person markers[edit]

Okanagan demonstrates great flexibility when dealing with persons, number, and gender. The language encodes the person via a series of prefixes and suffixes, and uses its number system in tandem with pluralized pronominals to communicate the number of actors within a sentence. For example:

tkaˀkaˀɬis

k- kaˀ- kaˀɬis classif plred three "There are three people" [6]

In this example the /k/ classification designates that the word contains a numeral classifier.

Additionally, Okanagan relies heavily on the use of suffixes to designate gender. Okanagan handles gender in much the same way, by attaching both determiner and ‘man’ to the sentence, the gender of an object or subject can be communicated:

wikən iˀ sqəltmixw wik- -ən iˀ sqəltmixw saw 1sg det man “I saw the man”

In this example, there is a combination of 2nd singular marker with ‘wife.’ ‘She’ is encoded into the meaning of the word via the inclusion of the gender suffix at the end of the sentence.

Person markers within Okanagan are attached to verbs, nouns, or adjectives. The marker used depending on transitivity of verbs and other conditions outlined below. The person maker used largely depends on the case being used in the sentence.

Absolutive case[edit]

Absolutive markers within Okanagan can only be used if the predicate of the sentence is intransitive. For example [Kən c'k-am] (I count) is perfectly viable in Okanagan, but *[Kən c'k-ən-t] *(I count it)is not because the verb 'count' is transitive. Person markers never occur without an accompanying intransitive verb.[6]

Person markers Singular Plural
1st kən kwu
2nd kw p
3rd null (...-əlx)

Possessive case[edit]

Simple possesives within Okanagan are predominently a result of prefixation and circumfex ona verb. However, Okanagan uses simple possesives as aspect forms on the verb in very complex ways. This practice is predominantly seen in Southern interior Salish languages.[6]

The stem: kilx 'hand'

Possesive Use Morphological process Translation
1st SG in-kilx prefix my-hand
2nd SG an-kilx prefix your-hand
3rd SG kilxs circumfix his/herhand
1st PL kilxtət circumfix Ourhand
2nd PL kilxəmp circumfix Your.PLhand
3rd PL kilxsəlx circumfix Theirhand

Ergative case[edit]

In the case of verbs, Okanagan morphology handles transitivity in various ways. The first is a set of rules for verbs that only have a single direct object, transitive verbs. For the ergative case there are two variants of person markers a stressed and an unstressed.

Stressed and Unstressed

Stressed Unstressed
1st SG -ín -n
2nd SG -íxw -xw
3rd SG -ís -s
1st PL -ím -m
2nd PL -ip -p
3rd PL -ísəlx -səlx

The stem: c'k-ən-t is the equivalent of the transitive verb 'count.'

Use Translation
1st SG c'k-ən-t-ín I count it
2nd SG c'k-ən-t-íxw You count it
3rd SG c'k-ən-t-ís S/he counts it
1st PL c'k-ən-t-ím We count it
2nd PL c'k-ən-t-íp You (PL) count it
3rd PL c'k-ən-t-ísəlx They count it

Accusative case[edit]

There are two sets of verb affixes each containing two members that dictate the composition of a verb. The first set is composed of the affixes –nt-, and -ɬt-. The second set is composed of –st- and x(i)t- where ‘i’ is a stressed vowel.

The major difference between two sets is how they incorporate affixes to remain grammatically correct. In the case of the –nt-, -ɬt- group, all particles and suffixes joining onto the stem and suffix of the verb will be identical for both. The –nt- affix connects to the stem of a transitive verb via suffixation. The suffix –nt- can only make reference to two persons: an actor and a primary goal.

q'y'-ənt-in (I write something)

The -ɬt- affix is the ditransitive counterpart of –nt- and works in much the same. The difference between the two is that it refers to three persons: an actor, and two other actors or goals. Furthermore -ɬt- is further differentiated from its ditransitive cousin -x(i)t- because it does not require a clitic to be a part of the verb.

In contrast to this group, -st- and –x(i)t- operate by unique rules. The –st- affix, much like its counterpart must be added to a verb stem by means of suffixation, it is also transitive, and refers to an actor and a primary goal, but it implies a reference to a third person, or a secondary goal without explicitly stating it.

q'y'-əst-in. (I write it [for myself])

The -x(i)t- ditransitive affix shares all of the features of -ɬt- with the sole exception that it requires a clitic to be attached to front of the verb stem. The reason for the clitic in Okanagan is to add emphasis or focus on the second object, whereas -ɬt- makes no distinction.[7]

Predicates and arguments[edit]

Each clause in Okanagan can be divided into two parts: inflected predicates which are required for every sentence, and optional arguments. Okanagan allows a maximum of two arguments per sentence construction. These are marked by pronominal markers on the predicate. Each argument is introduced to the sentence via an initial determiner; the only exception to initial determiners is in the case of proper names which do not need determiners to introduce them. Predicates may be of any lexical category. There may be additional arguments added to a sentence in Okanagan via complementizers. Okanagan is unique among the majority of Salish languages for the inclusion of the complementizer.[6]

Obliques[edit]

Okanagan has one oblique marker that serves adapts it to several different functions depending upon the context in which it is used. The oblique marker ‘t’ can be used to mark the object of an intransitive verb, as in the case below.

kən ˀiɬən t sɬiqw I eat obl meat I ate (some)meat [6]

‘t’ may also mark the agent in a passive construction, and it may be used to mark the ergative agent of transitive verbs. Finally, the oblique ‘t’ may be used to mark functions including time and instrument:

kən txam t sx̌əx̌c’iˀ I comb obl stick “I combed my hair with a stick” [6]

Complements[edit]

There are a number of complements available to Okanagan to clarify its predicates among these are positional complements, which merely indicate the place of a predicate. In addition to positional complements, there are a variety of marked complements, complements used in Okanagan that express further meaning through a series of particles.[8]

The first of the marked complements is the prefix /yi/. For the most part, /yi/ is an optional complement that is used in definite cases with the exception of cases when a proper noun is used. In such cases, the /yi/ prefix is not allowed. When /yi/ is used it refers to a definite referent.[8]

wikən yiˀ sqilx “ I saw the/those people.” The sequential complements are composed of the particles /ɬ/ and /ɬa/. /ɬa/ conveys temporal sequence while /ɬ/ represents a subordinate element.

wajˀ x̌ast ɬ k[w] cxwujˀ “It’s good if/that you come.”

wajˀ x̌ast ɬa kw cxwujˀ “It will be good when/after you come.”

Okanagan also contains a number of locational complements which refer to when or where something happened. It is a point of reference. The /l/ and the variant /lə/particles are used to tie a predicate to a time or place.[8] Xwujˀ lə sənkwəkw əˀac. “He went in the night”

Ablative complements in Okanagan come in the form of the /tl/ particle. Along with directional complements, /kʼ/ and /kʼl/, Okanagan speakers can indicate motion.[8] The ablative complement /tl/ only serves to indicate ‘moving away from.’ For instance, in the sentence below, the ablative is ‘from (across the ocean).’

Kw s-cu-txx tl sk’wətikənx “Were you saying [that he is] from Seattle?”

The directional complement’s two particles represent both direction towards something, and direction towards a specific location. /k/ signifies movement towards something:

K’ incitxw “to my house” (not towards it)

The /k’l/ particle modifies this sentence so that it specifies the house as the location to which the subject must move. K’əl incitxw “To my house” (there specifically)

Classification[edit]

Verbs may react in a number of different ways when a suffix is attached to the root stem of the word. Below are a number of ways in which intransitive roots are modified.[4]

-t can indicate a natural characteristic of the root c’ik’ “burn” c’ik’t “burned”

-lx indicates the subject is engaged in an activity qiclx “run”

-ils expresses state of mind. nk’wpils “lonely”

-p expresses lack of a subject’s control kmap “darkening”

Transitives:

-n involves action upon an object by a subject Kwu caʔntis “he hit me”

-s involve action or state resulting from an activity. kwu cˀaistixw

-sut indicates when the action of a subject is directed toward themself. tarqncut “kick oneself”

Transitive stems without person markings indicate imperatives nlk’ipnt “open it”

Intransitives can express an imperative via the –x suffix: xwuy “go”

Space, Time, Modality[edit]

The Okanagan system relies heavily on its affixes to demonstrate tense, space, and time. Below are demonstrated various affixes that attach to roots to encode meaning. Of the following two examples, they are only possible in the –n transitive paradigm.[4]

ks- unrealized action

ˁikstxt’am “I’m going to look after him”

səc- past perfect ˁi-səc-txt’-am “I’ve been looking after him.”

The following examples are for intransitives.

-k Unrealized: expresses an intentional future action or state. (I am going to…) Kn q[w]əl’ – t “ I’m warm”

-aʔx Continuative: Action or state that is in progress Kn scputaʔx “I am celebrating”

Directional prefixes[edit]

ɬ- Movement back

c- Movement toward speaker

kɬ- down, and under [4]

Prepositional case-markings for oblique objects[edit]

tl’ from, source.

k’l to, at, goal, recipient, dative.

k’ for, benefative.

L on, locative.

nˁəɬ with, comitative.

ˁit with, by, instrumental [4]

Revitalization[edit]

In 2012, the CBC featured a report on a family which is teaching its children Nsyilxcen in the home.[9]

Four non-profit organizations which support Colville-Okanagan language acquisition and revitalization are the Paul Creek Language Association in Keremeos, British Columbia, the En'owkin Centre in Penticton, British Columbia, the Waterfalls Immersion School in Omak, Washington, as well as the Salish School of Spokane in Spokane, Washington.

Revitalization in the United States[edit]

Revitalization efforts for Colville-Okanagan in the United States are limited largely to children instruction. However, there are concentrated efforts on the part of the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation to promote language preservation. Among the activities the Confederation takes part in are allocating funds both local and federal for cultural preservation projects. The Confederated Tribes’ goals are to establish three language programs, develop language dictionaries, provide translation services and curriculum, as well as establish language classes with a regular attendance of 30 or more people. Though the Confederation’s efforts are laudable, the limitations of 150 truly native speakers are evident. Language revitalization on the scale the Confederation proposes is limited by the number of native speakers available for those projects.[10]

Despite the confederation’s efforts, language revitalization cannot be reproduced on such a large scale in the short run. The Salish School of Spokane in the state of Washington takes a smaller approach towards revitalization. This school caters to the Colville-Okanagan speaking population in the tribal regions of Northeastern Washington. This school’s efforts fall under the category of full-immersion school. The Salish School’s target demographic is children between the ages of 1 to 8 years old. This places the Salish School of Spokane in the children revitalization group of schools. The school’s programs are designed to spur full native fluency in Okanagan before the age of 10. The school does this by offering classes in Okangan from 9 AM to 3:15 PM. According to school expectations and curriculum, children are expected to speak Okanagan for the duration of their time in school. In addition, The Salish School of Spokane is committed to an active learning strategy, that is, children are taught common nursery rhythms (heads, shoulders, knees and toes) that engage the learner’s body.[11]

The Salish School of Spokane makes a point of not falling into the trap of monopolizing teaching resources. Unlike Walsh’s examples of tribes opting to not share materials, The Salish School maintains a variety of audio resources and curriculum to advance Okanagan revitalization. Along with these efforts, the Salish School of Spokane not only provides curriculum, but helps develop and translate it. The Salish School works alongside organizations such as the Paul Creek Language Association, a nonprofit based in British Columbia, on the Nsəlxcin Curriculum Project. The Nsəlxcin Project aims to create foundational lesson plans from which teachers of Okanagan can draw from. The project is spearheaded by Christopher Parkin and is translated primarily by the fluent elder Sarah Peterson, with the additional help of Hazel Abrahamson and Herman Edwards. The participation of native speakers ensures clear meaning and high fidelity to the Okanagan language. The project is composed of six textbooks that are divided into three levels. Each level consists of a language book which contains a number of audio recordings, language and learning software to ease language teaching. Additionally, each level includes a literature book. The literature book provides the vital function of providing entertainment for language learners when outside of class and also reinforces sentence construction for Okanagan. Most importantly, the curriculum developed by the Nsəlxcin Curriculum Project is available in electronic format online free of charge.[12]

Revitalization in Canada[edit]

To encourage interest in teaching vocations the En’Owkin places a strong emphasis on its various certification programs. The Certificate of Aboriginal Language Revitalization is offered in the En’Owkin Centre and is taught by linguist Maxine Baptiste. The course does have a fee involved, but the certificate is offered in partnership with the University of Victoria.[13] Additionally, the center also offers a certification to become a Certified Early Childhood Education Assistant which is in partnership with Nicola Valley Institute of Technology. The certificate does not qualify one to teach at the secondary level, but does ensure employability in daycare and pre-K.[13] The strategy behind these two certificates ensures that potential teachers have easy access to college credits from centers of higher learning like the University of Victoria, and potential education assistants can be involved in the education of children, thus establishing fluency in Okanagan early on. Finally, the En’Owkin Centre places a heavy emphasis on its college readiness programs. The importance of these programs lies not only in setting up native students for success, but also incorporating Colville-Okanagan courses into curriculum for young adult to adult students. William Cohen notes in his article, that many native students perform poorly in school and the high school dropout rate for aboriginal high schoolers is very high.[14]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Okanagan at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Okanagan". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ Gordon, Raymond G. Ed. (2005). Salishan: Ethnologue. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, 15th ed. Retrieved April 14, 2014.
  4. ^ a b c d e Pattison, Lois Cornelia. “Douglas Lake Okanagan: Phonology and Morphology.” University of British Columbia. 1978.
  5. ^ "Uvular-Pharyngeal Resonants in Interior Salish." M. Dale Kinkade. International Journal of American Linguistics, Vol. 33, No. 3 (Jul., 1967), pp. 228–234
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Baptiste, Maxine Rose. Okanagan wh-questions. Diss. University of British Columbia, 2001.
  7. ^ Mattina, Anthony. The Colville-Okanagan Transitive System. International Journal of American Linguistics , Vol. 48, No. 4 (Oct. 1982), pp. 421-435
  8. ^ a b c d Mattina, Anthony. “Colville Grammatical Structure.” University of Hawaii. May 1973.
  9. ^ "First Voices: bringing aboriginal language to the dinner table. The Bent family, who live near Penticton, are teaching their young children both English and Nsyilxcen". Daybreak South - CBC Player. 2012-06-20. Retrieved 2012-08-05. 
  10. ^ The Confederated Tribes Of The Colville Reservation. Retrieved May 8, 2014
  11. ^ Salish School of Spokane. Retrieved May 1, 2014
  12. ^ The Nsəlxcin Curriculum Project. (2011). Interior Salish: Enduring Languages of the Columbian Plateau. Retrieved May 8, 2014
  13. ^ a b En'owkin Centre. Retrieved May 8, 2014
  14. ^ Cohen, William Alexander (2010). University of British Columbia. "School failed Coyote, so Fox made a new school: Indigenous Okanagan knowledge transforms educational pedagogy." Retrieved May 8, 2014.

Bibliography[edit]

Language Learning Texts[edit]

  • Peterson, Wiley, and Parkin. (2004). Nsəlxcin 1: A Beginning Course in Colville-Okanagan Salish. The Paul Creek Language Association.
  • Peterson and Parkin. (2005). Captíkʷł 1: Nsəlxcin Stories for Beginners. The Paul Creek Language Association.
  • Peterson and Parkin. (2007). Nsəlxcin 2: An Intermediate Course in Okanagan Salish. The Paul Creek Language Association.
  • Peterson and Parkin. (2007). Captíkʷł 2: More Nsəlxcin Stories for Beginners. The Paul Creek Language Association.
  • Peterson and Parkin. (In Press). Nsəlxcin 3. The Paul Creek Language Association.
  • Peterson and Parkin. (In Press). Captíkʷł 3. The Paul Creek Language Association.
  • Manuel, Herbert, and Anthony Mattina. (1983). Okanagan Pronunciation Primer. University of Montana Linguistics Laboratory.

Narratives, Songbooks, Dictionaries, and Word Lists[edit]

  • Doak, Ivy G. (1983). The 1908 Okanagan Word Lists of James Teit. Missoula, Montana: Dept. of Anthropology, University of Montana, 1983.
  • Mattina, Anthony and Madeline DeSautel. (2002). Dora Noyes DeSautel łaʔ kłcaptikʷł: Okanagan Salish Narratives. University of Montana Occasional Papers in Linguistics 15.
  • Seymour, Peter, Madeline DeSautel, and Anthony Mattina. (1985). The Golden Woman: The Colville Narrative of Peter J. Seymour. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
  • Seymour, Peter, Madeline DeSautel, and Anthony Mattina. (1974). The Narrative of Peter J. Seymour Blue Jay and His Brother-In-Law Wolf.
  • Mattina, Anthony. Colville-Okanagan Dictionary. Missoula, Mont: Dept. of Anthropology, University of Montana, 1987.
  • Pierre, Larry and Martin Louie. (1973). Classified Word List for the Okanagan Language. MS, Penticton, B.C.
  • Purl, Douglas. (1974). The Narrative of Peter J. Seymour: Blue Jay and Wolf. ICSL 9, Vancouver, B.C.
  • Somday, James B. (1980). Colville Indian Language Dictionary. Ed.D. dissertation, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks. DAI 41A:1048.
  • Peterson and Parkin n̓səl̓xcin iʔ‿sn̓kʷnim: Songs for Beginners in Okanagan Salish. The Paul Creek Language Association.
  • Peterson and Parkin n̓səl̓xcin iʔ‿sn̓kʷnim 2: More Songs for Beginners in Okanagan Salish. The Paul Creek Language Association.
  • Peterson and Parkin. n̓səl̓xcin iʔ‿sn̓kʷnim 3: Even More Songs for Beginners in Colville-Okanagan. The Paul Creek Language Association.

Linguistic Descriptions and Reviews[edit]

  • Arrowsmith, Gary L. (1968). Colville Phonemics. M.A. thesis, University of Washington, Seattle.
  • Baptiste, M. (2002). Wh-Questions in Okanagan Salish. M.A. thesis, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C.
  • Barthmaier, Paul. (2004). Intonation Units in Okanagan. Pp. 30–42 of Gerdts and Matthewson (eds.) 2004.
  • Barthmaier, Paul. (2002). Transitivity and Lexical Suffixes in Okanagan. Papers for ICSNL 37 (Gillon, C., N. Sawai, and R. Wojdak, eds.). UBCWPL 9:1–17.
  • Charlie, William M., Clara Jack, and Anthony Mattina. (1988). William Charlie’s “Two-Headed Person”: Preliminary Notes on Colville-Okanagan Oratory. ICSNL 23(s.p.), Eugene, Oregon.
  • Dilts, Philip. (2006). An Analysis of the Okanagan “Middle” Marker -M. Papers for ICSNL 41 (Kiyota, M., J. Thompson, and N. Yamane-Tanaka, eds.). UBCWPL 11:77–98.
  • Doak, Ivy G. (1981). A Note on Plural Suppletion in Colville Okanagan. Pp. 143–147 of (Anthony) Mattina and Montler (eds.) 1981.
  • Doak, Ivy G. (2004). [Review of Dora Noyes DeSautel ła’ kłcaptíkwł ([Anthony] Mattina and DeSautel [eds.] 2002.] AL 46:220–222.
  • Doak, Ivy and Anthony Mattina. (1997). Okanagan -lx, Coeur d’Alene -lš, and Cognate Forms. IJAL 63:334–361.
  • Fleisher, Mark S. (1979). A Note on Schuhmacher’s Inference of wahú’ in Colville Salish. IJAL 45:279–280.
  • Galloway, Brent D. (1991). [Review of Colville-Okanagan Dictionary ([Anthony] Mattina 1987).] IJAL 57:402–405.
  • Harrington, John P. (1942). Lummi and Nespelem Fieldnotes. Microfilm reel No. 015, remaining data as per Harrington 1910.
  • Hébert, Yvonne M. (1978). Sandhi in a Salishan Language: Okanagan. ICSL 13:26–56, Victoria, B.C.
  • Hébert, Yvonne M. (1979). A Note on Aspect in (Nicola Lake) Okanagan. ICSL 14:173–209, Bellingham, Washington.
  • Hébert, Yvonne M. (1982a). Transitivity in (Nicola Lake) Okanagan. Ph.D. dissertation, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. DAI 43A:3896.
  • Hébert, Yvonne M. (1982b). Aspect and Transitivity in (Nicola Lake) Okanagan. Syntax and Semantics 15:195–215.
  • Hébert, Yvonne M. (1983). Noun and Verb in a Salishan Language. KWPL 8:31–81.
  • Hill-Tout, Charles. (1911). Report on the Ethnology of the Okanák.ēn of British Columbia, an Interior Division of the Salish Stock. JAIGBI 41:130–161. London.
  • Kennedy, Dorothy I. D. and Randall T. [Randy] Bouchard. (1998). ‘Northern Okanagan, Lakes, and Colville.’ Pp. 238–252 of Walker, Jr. (vol. ed.) 1998.
  • Kinkade, M. Dale. (1967). On the Identification of the Methows (Salish). IJAL 33:193–197.
  • Kinkade, M. Dale. (1987). [Review of The Golden Woman: The Colville Narrative of Peter J. Seymour (Mattina 1985).] Western Folklore 46:213–214.
  • Kroeber, Karl, and Eric P. Hamp. (1989). [Review of The Golden Woman: The Colville Narrative of Peter J. Seymour (Mattina, ed.).] IJAL 55:94–97.
  • Krueger, John R. (1967). Miscellanea Selica V: English-Salish Index and Finder List. AL 9(2):12–25.
  • Mattina, Anthony and Clara Jack. (1982). Okanagan Communication and Language. ICSNL 17:269–294, Portland, Oregon.
  • Mattina, Anthony and Clara Jack. (1986). Okanagan-Colville Kinship Terms. ICSNL 21:339–346, Seattle, Washington. [Published as Mattina and Jack 1992.]
  • Mattina, Anthony and Nancy J. Mattina (1995). Okanagan ks- and -kł. ICSNL 30, Victoria, B.C.
  • Mattina, Anthony and Sarah Peterson. (1997). Diminutives in Colville-Okanagan. ICSNL 32:317–324, Port Angeles, Washington.
  • Mattina, Anthony and Allan Taylor. (1984). The Salish Vocabularies of David Thompson. IJAL 50:48–83.
  • Mattina, Nancy J. (1993). Some Lexical Properties of Colville-Okanagan Ditransitives. ICSNL 28:265–284, Seattle, Washington.
  • Mattina, Nancy J. (1994a). Roots, Bases, and Stems in Colville-Okanagan. ICSNL 29, Pablo, Montana.
  • Mattina, Nancy J. (1994b). Argument Structure of Nouns, Nominalizations, and Denominals in Okanagan Salish. Paper presented at the 2nd Annual University of Victoria Salish Morphosyntax Workshop, Victoria, B.C.
  • Mattina, Nancy J. (1994c). Notes on Word Order in Colville-Okanagan Salish. NWLC 10:93–102. Burnaby, B.C.: Simon Fraser University.
  • Mattina, Nancy J. (1996a). Aspect and Category in Okanagan Word Formation. Ottawa: National Library of Canada = Bibliothèque nationale du Canada, 1997. ISBN 0-612-17011-X
  • Mattina, Nancy J. (1996b). Anticausatives in Okanagan. Paper presented at the 4th Annual University of Victoria Salish Morphosyntax Conference, Victoria, B.C.
  • Mattina, Nancy J. (1999a). Future in Colville-Okanagan Salish. ICSNL 34:215–230, Kamloops, B.C. [Note also (Nancy) Mattina 1999c.]
  • Mattina, Nancy J. (1999b). Toward a History of the Inflectional Future in Colville-Okanagan Salish. University of California Santa Barbara Occasional Papers in Linguistics 17:27–42. Santa Barbara: University of California Santa Barbara.
  • Mattina, Nancy J. (2004). smiyáw sucnmínctәxw: Coyote Proposes. Pp. 289–299 of Gerdts and Matthewson (eds.) 2004.
  • O’Brien, Michael. (1967). A Phonology of Methow. ICSL 2, Seattle, Washington.
  • Pattison, Lois C. (1978). Douglas Lake Okanagan: Phonology and Morphology. M.A. thesis, University of British Columbia.
  • Petersen, Janet E. (1980). Colville Lexical Suffixes and Comparative Notes. MS.
  • Ray, Verne F. (1932). The Sanpoil and Nespelem: Salish Peoples of Northwestern Washington. UWPA 5. Seattle.
  • Schuhmacher, W. W. (1977). The Colville Name for Hawaii. IJAL 43:65–66.
  • Spier, Leslie. (1938). The Sinkaietk or Southern Okanagan of Washington. General Series in Anthropology, no. 6. Menasha, Wisconsin: George Banta Publishing.
  • Turner, Nancy J., Randy Bouchard, and Dorothy D. Kennedy. (1980). Ethnobotany of the Okanagan-Colville Indians of British Columbia and Washington. Occasional Paper Series 21. Victoria: British Columbia Provincial Museum.
  • Vogt, Hans. (1940). Salishan Studies. Comparative Notes on Kalispel, Spokane, Colville and Coeur d’Alene. Oslo: Skrifter utgitt av Det Norske Videnskaps-Akademi i Oslo, II, Hist.-filos. Klasse, No. 2, Jacob Dybwad.
  • Watkins, Donald. (1972). A Description of the Phonemes and Position Classes in the Morphology of Head of the Lake Okanagan. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Alberta, Edmonton.
  • Watkins, Donald. (1974). A Boas original. IJAL 40:29–43.
  • Young, Philip. (1971). A Phonology of Okanogan. M.A. thesis, University of Kansas.

External links[edit]