Colville River (Alaska)
Inupiat family on Colville River, 1901.
|Source||Confluence of Thunder and Storm creeks|
|- location||North slope of the De Long Mountains|
|- elevation||2,017 ft (615 m) |
|Mouth||Harrison Bay, Beaufort Sea, Arctic Ocean|
|- location||Northeast of Nuiqsut|
|- elevation||0 ft (0 m) |
|Length||350 mi (563 km) |
|Basin||20,500 sq mi (53,000 km2) |
The Colville River[pronunciation?] (Inupiat: Kuukpik) is a major river of the Arctic Ocean coast of Alaska in the United States, approximately 350 miles (560 km) long. One of the northernmost major rivers in North America, it drains a remote area of tundra on the north side of the Brooks Range entirely above the Arctic Circle. The river is frozen for more than half the year and floods each spring.
It rises on the north slope of the De Long Mountains, at the western end of the Brooks Range, north of the continental divide in the southwestern corner of the National Petroleum Reserve. It flows initially north, then generally east through the foothills on the north side of the range, broadening as it receives the inflow of many tributaries that descend from the middle Brooks Range. Along its middle course it forms the southeastern border of the National Petroleum Reserve. At the Iñupiat village of Umiat it turns north to flow across the Arctic plain, entering the western Beaufort Sea in a broad delta near Nuiqsut, approximately 120 mi (190 km) west of Prudhoe Bay.
Measuring about 20 by 23 by 26 miles (32 by 37 by 42 km), the river's triangular delta includes 34 distributaries, each with its own mouth, at normal water stages. During high water, the number of distributaries may reach 5,000. The largest distributary is the Nechalic Channel, which flows through Nuiqsut.
The river valley contains unexploited petroleum and natural gas deposits. A current proposal by the State of Alaska to bridge the river near Nuiqsut would be the first major river crossing north of the Arctic Circle in North America.
The Colville River and its adjacent hills are home to a variety of Arctic wildlife. The Colville runs through the range of the Teshekpuk and Central Arctic caribou herds, making it a landmark and obstacle in one of the world's largest animal migrations. It is also home to brown bears and, nearer the Arctic coast, polar bears.
The Colville River has been called "hawk heaven" for its incredible concentration of peregrine falcons, gyrefalcons, and golden eagles. The steep, loose bluffs of the Colville River provide prime nesting habitat for many birds.
In 1961, Shell Oil geologist Robert Liscolm discovered dinosaur fossils at multiple locations while surveying the Colville River. However, his discoveries were met with incredulity and suspicion in the paleontology community due to the site's extreme northern location, and Liscolm died the following year in a rock slide while continuing his surveying of the Colville. In the mid- to late-1980's, Liscolm's notes were rediscovered and paleontologists returned to Liscolm's sites only to find many more dinosaur fossils and tracks. Today, the Colville River bluffs are widely recognized as one of the fossil-rich regions in the Arctic, with enormous quantities of Cretaceous dinosaur fossils. Specimens collected on the Colville include theropods, ankylosaurs, albertosaurs, pachyrhinosaurus, gorgosaurus, and hadrosaurs.
Fossils, which are legally described as any sign or remnant of ancient life, may only be collected from public lands with a government-issued permit. Illegally removing fossils from the Colville River, or other public lands, can expose a violator to steep fines or jail time. In 2012, Alaska river guide Karen Jettmar was fined $30,000 and given 3 years probation for illegally removing fossils from the Kokolik River in the western Alaska arctic.
In a region with virtually no roads, the Colville River serves as one of the transportation arteries in the Alaska arctic. In the summer, small motorboats transport indigenous subsistence hunters, paleontologists, geologists, and others working or hunting in the region. When the river freezes to a suitable thickness during winter, it can be used as an ice road to bring in supplies, as seen during the fourth season of the History Channel series Ice Road Truckers. A very small number of recreational boaters float the Colville annually, though the extreme remoteness, harsh conditions, relative lack of air transportation hubs, and presence of polar bears make recreational boating challenging.
- Derived by entering source coordinates in Google Earth.
- "Colville River". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. January 1, 2000. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
- Walker, H. Jesse; Hadden, Lynn (1998). "Placing Colville River Delta Research on the Internet in a Digital Library Format" (PDF). University of Alaska Fairbanks. Retrieved September 13, 2013.
- Alaska Atlas & Gazetteer (7th ed.). Yarmouth, Maine: DeLorme. 2010. p. 134–36. ISBN 978-0-89933-289-5.
- Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Caribou Species Profile, http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/index.cfm?adfg=caribou.main
- On Arctic Ground, "Colville River Special Area: Arctic River of Raptors", http://www.onarcticground.org/colville-river/
- Alaska Department of Fish and Game, "Bird Viewing: Gyrfalcon", http://www.adfg.alaska.gov/index.cfm?adfg=birdviewing.birdersbirds&species=gyrfalcon
- Ainsworth, Diane, "Berkeley-led team of teachers digs for Alaskan dinosaur fossils", UC Berkeley Campus News, July 11, 2002, http://www.berkeley.edu/news/media/releases/2002/07/11_fossil.html
- Schmidt, Chris, "Filming Dinosaurs in Alaska", NOVA, October 7, 2008, http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/evolution/filming-dinosaurs-in-alaska.html
- "Dinosaurs on Alaska's North Slope," Bureau of Land Management, http://www.blm.gov/pgdata/etc/medialib/blm/ak/aktest/culture_res/culture_pdfs.Par.48740.File.dat/alaska_dinosaurs.pdf
- "Alaska river guide gets 3 years probation for illegally removing fossils", Alaska Dispatch, September 28, 2012, http://www.alaskadispatch.com/article/alaska-river-guide-gets-3-years-probation-illegally-removing-fossils
- "Alaska, Colville River," Backpacker Magazine, June 2003, http://www.backpacker.com/june_2003_destinations_alaska_national_petroleum_reserve/destinations/5925
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