Comboios de Portugal

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Comboios de Portugal
Type Incorporation
Industry Rail transport
Founded 1951
Headquarters Lisbon, Portugal
Key people Manuel Queiró,
Vicente Pereira,
Isabel Vicente
Products Rail transport, Cargo
Revenue Decrease 195.2 million (2010)[1]
Operating income Decrease 308.6 million (2010)[1]
Owners Government of Portugal (100%)
Employees 2,914 (2011)[2]
Website www.cp.pt
CP's Alfa Pendular tilting train at Orient Station in Lisbon.
CP suburban trains at São Bento Station in Porto.

CP — Comboios de Portugal, EPE (CP; English: Trains of Portugal) is a state-owned company which operates freight and passenger trains in Portugal. Before June 2009, CP stood for Caminhos de Ferro Portugueses (English: Portuguese Railways) although the company has been using its current designation as a brand name since 2004.

History[edit]

On 28 October 1856 the first railway line was inaugurated in Portugal, between Lisbon and Carregado: the Companhia dos Caminhos de Ferro Portugueses was born. The network was gradually expanded both south of the Tagus and to the north of the country, as well as in the metropolitan areas of Lisbon and Porto and to Spain. During the second half of the 20th century, much of CP's rolling stock was built in Portugal by Sorefame - notably carriages with stainless steel bodywork.

Gradually, electrification was put in place for a little less than half the network. In 1975, the company was nationalized, and its name was shortened to CP, A plan to finally connect all the district capitals by a fully electrified double line was to be implemented from 2010. Part of this plan is based on the Swiss Rail 2000 model.[3]

As of 2012, the Portuguese rail system is facing the threat of considerable contraction due to spending cuts by the Portuguese government. The Vouga line is now the only narrow gauge line left in operation - it is also slated for closure.

Infrastructure[edit]

The infrastructure of the Portuguese network is managed by Rede Ferroviária Nacional, EP, usually abbreviated to REFER. A summary of the history is given in that article.

Portuguese railway network extent:

  • Broad gauge (1,668 mm (5 ft 5 2132 in)): 2,603 km (1,617 mi), 1,351 km (839 mi) electrified at 25 kV 50 Hz AC and 25 km (16 mi) at 1.5 kV DC.
  • Narrow gauge (metre gauge) 1,000 mm (3 ft 3 38 in): 188 km (117 mi) not electrified.
  • The maximum extent of 3,592 km (2,232 mi) was reached in 1949, but in the late 1980s and early 1990s some lines were shortened and some totally closed.
Main article: REFER

Organization[edit]

CP is split into four divisions:

  • CP Longo Curso, long-distance mainline services (Alfa Pendular, Intercidades and International trains).
  • CP Regional, regional services (Interregional and Regional).
  • CP Lisboa, Lisbon's suburban network.
  • CP Porto, Porto's suburban network.

Services[edit]

CP offers the following types of trains:

The network[edit]

CP's flagship service, introduced in 1999, is the Alfa Pendular which operates between Braga - Porto - Lisbon - Faro, at a top speed of 220 km/h (138 mph) with FIAT/Siemens tilting trains. As of 2006, CP's network reaches most of the country.[4]

CP inaugurated new trains in suburban service in the 1990s.

Lines/Routes[edit]

Network map

Former lines

Passenger rolling stock[edit]

Comboios de Portugal utilises the following rolling stock and commercial products:

Major stations[edit]

Lisbon[edit]

Porto[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Relatorios Financeiros/2010/grupo_empresa
  2. ^ CP - Organização
  3. ^ Werner Stohler, "Modernização do sistema da exploração ferroviária da Região de Coimbra" [1] (Portuguese) Retrieved 2010-11-07.
  4. ^ CP route map

External links[edit]