Comet Holmes

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17P/Holmes
17pHolmes 071104 eder vga.jpgComet Holmes on November 4, 2007, showing the blue ion tail on the right, taken from Hungary
Discovery
Discovery date November 6, 1892
Alternative
designations
1892 V1; 1892 III;
1892f; 1899 L1;
1899 II; 1899d;
1906 III; 1906f;
1964 O1; 1964 X;
1964i; 1972 I;
1971b; 1979 IV;
1979f; 1986 V;
1986f; 1993 VII;
1993i
Orbital characteristics A
Epoch October 27, 2007 (JD 2454400.5)
Aphelion 5.183610 AU
Perihelion 2.053218 AU
Semi-major axis 3.618414 AU
Eccentricity 0.432564
Orbital period 6.882994 a
Inclination 19.1126°
Last perihelion May 4, 2007[1]
Next perihelion March 27, 2014[1][2]

Comet Holmes (official designation: 17P/Holmes) is a periodic comet in the Solar System, discovered by the British amateur astronomer Edwin Holmes on November 6, 1892. Although normally a very faint object, Holmes became notable during its October 2007 return when it temporarily brightened by a factor of about half a million, in what was the largest known outburst by a comet, and became visible to the naked eye. It also briefly became the largest object in the solar system, as its coma (the thin dissipating dust ball around the comet) expanded to a diameter greater than that of the Sun (although its mass remained minuscule).[3]

Discovery[edit]

1892 November 10, near the Andromeda galaxy

Comet Holmes was discovered by Edwin Holmes on November 6, 1892, while he was conducting regular observations of the Andromeda Galaxy (M31). Its discovery in 1892 was possible because of an increase in its magnitude similar to the 2007 outburst; it brightened to an approximate magnitude of 4 or 5 before fading from visibility over a period of several weeks.[4]

The comet's discovery was confirmed by Edward Walter Maunder (Royal Observatory, Greenwich, England), William Henry Maw (England), and Kidd (Bramley[disambiguation needed], England) and independent discoveries were made by Thomas David Anderson (Edinburgh, Scotland) on November 8 and by Mike Brown (Wilkes, USA) and by John Ewen Davidson (Mackay, Queensland, Australia) on November 9.[5]

The first calculations of the elliptical orbits of 17P/Holmes were done independently by Heinrich Kreutz and George Mary Searle. Additional orbits eventually established the perihelion date as June 13 and the orbital period as 6.9 years. These calculations proved that the comet was not a return of Biela's Comet.

The 1899 and 1906 appearances were observed, but the comet was lost (see Lost comet) after 1906 until it was recovered on July 16, 1964, by Elizabeth Roemer (US Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station, Arizona, USA). Aided by the computer predictions of Brian G. Marsden, the comet has been observed on every subsequent return.

2007 outburst[edit]

Short-period comet 17P/Holmes

During its 2007 return, Holmes unexpectedly brightened from a magnitude of about 17 to about 2.8 in a period of only 42 hours, making it visible to the naked eye. This represents a change of brightness by a factor of about half a million and is the largest known outburst by a comet. The outburst took place from October 23 to 24, 2007.[6][7] The first person reportedly to notice a change was J. A. Henríquez Santana on Tenerife in the Canary Islands; minutes later, Ramón Naves in Barcelona noticed the comet at magnitude 7.3.[7] It became easily visible to the naked eye as a bright yellow "star" in Perseus,[8][9] and by October 25 17P/Holmes appeared as the third brightest "star" in that constellation.[7]

While large telescopes had already shown fine-scale cometary details, naked-eye observers saw Holmes as merely star-like until October 26.[8] After that date, 17P/Holmes began to appear more comet-like to naked-eye observers.[8] This is because during the comet's outburst, its orbit took it to near opposition with respect to Earth, and since comet tails point away from the Sun, Earth observers were looking nearly straight down along the tail of 17/P Holmes, making the comet appear as a bright sphere.

Based on orbital computations and luminosity before the 2007 outburst, the comet's nucleus was estimated at 3.4 km.[10]

The comet not only became brighter, but it also swelled in size as its coma expanded. In late October 2007 the coma's apparent diameter increased from 3.3 arcminutes to over 13 arcminutes,[11] about half the diameter that the Moon subtends in the sky. At a distance of around 2 AU, this means that the true diameter of the coma had swelled to over 1 million km,[12] or about 70% of the diameter of the Sun. By comparison, the Moon is 380,000 km from Earth. Therefore, during the 2007 outburst of Comet Holmes the coma was a sphere wider than the diameter of the Moon's orbit around Earth. On 2007 November, the coma had dispersed to a volume larger than the sun, briefly giving it the largest extended atmosphere in the solar system.[3][13]

The cause of the outburst is not definitely known. The huge cloud of gas and dust may have resulted from a collision with a meteoroid, or, more probably, from a build-up of gas inside the comet's nucleus which eventually broke through the surface.[14] However, researchers at the Max Planck Institute suggest in a paper published in Astronomy and Astrophysics that the brightening can be explained by a thick, air-tight dust cover and the effects of H2O sublimation, with the comet's porous structure providing more surface area for sublimation, up to one order of magnitude greater. Energy from the Sun – insolation – was stored in the dust cover and the nucleus within the months before the outburst.[15]

The comet remained visible in February 2008 though it had become a challenging target at about magnitude +5 in the constellation Perseus. It had expanded to greater than 2 degrees of arc as seen from the Earth, and thus had very little surface brightness.

Comet Holmes TLR1.jpg
On October 25 the comet looked liked a bright new star in the constellation of Perseus.
Motion with expanding dust cloudComet Holmes simulation 120 days.gif
A simulation showing the angular diameter of the expanding dust cloud for 120 days past the initial event on October 24. The surface brightness decreased over time.
17P Holmes Composite19 Nup.jpg
This photo composite shows the comet's size and motion in the constellation Perseus from October 25, 2007 through March 9, 2008.
OrbitComet Holmes orbit 2007.gif
17P/Holmes is a periodic comet in an inclined and elliptical orbit between Mars and Jupiter.[16] The comet was closest to the sun on May 4, 2007.

References[edit]

Comet 17P/Holmes, 2007/11/02
  1. ^ a b Seiichi Yoshida (2009-04-12). "17P/Holmes". Seiichi Yoshida's Comet Catalog. Retrieved 2010-02-24. 
  2. ^ Syuichi Nakano (2011-05-19). "17P/Holmes (NK 2100)". OAA Computing and Minor Planet Sections. Retrieved 2012-02-18. 
  3. ^ a b Jewitt, David (2007-11-09). "Comet Holmes Bigger Than The Sun". Institute for Astronomy at the University of Hawaii. Retrieved 2007-11-17. 
  4. ^ Editors. "Comet Holmes Stays Bright, Enlarges in the Evening Sky", Sky and Telescope, 27 October 2007. Retrieved 29 October 2007.
  5. ^ Davidson, J. E. "Comet e, 1889," The Observatory, July 1890, Vol. 13, pp. 247. Retrieved 27 October 2007.
  6. ^ Gunn, Angela. "Flash News Flash!," USA Today Tech Space, 24 October 2007. Retrieved 25 October 2007.
  7. ^ a b c Roger W. Sinnott (October 24, 2007). "Comet Holmes Undergoes Huge Outburst". Sky & Telescope. Archived from the original on 2007-10-27. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  8. ^ a b c Fischer, Daniel. "Incredible comet eruption: from under 17th to 3rd magnitude in hours!," The Cosmic Mirror, #306, 24 October 2007. Retrieved 25 October 2007.
  9. ^ Skymap: late October 2007, Northeast, after sunset, Spaceweather.com. Retrieved 28 October 2007
  10. ^ Primary measurements, Chris L. Peterson Cloudbait Observatory, Colorado, The coma size values plotted at the bottom of this page are primary measurements. They were obtained using conventional methods: individual short CCDs images were made in order to avoid saturation, and these were then calibrated with bias, flat, and dark frames and summed to increase the image dynamic range. Each stacked image (for the 5 nights of data) was astrometrically calibrated (using Pinpoint) for scale, and the intensity profile of the coma measured with a standard tool (in this case, the line profile tool in MaximDL). The resulting profiles were exported to Excel, normalized to the same gain, and the width measured against the noise floor. The best reference is the plotted data itself.
  11. ^ Primary measurements, (see luminosity graph; bottom of page) Cloudbait Observatory, Colorado
  12. ^ 2 AU×(~150 Gm/AU)×sin(13 arcmin) ≈ 1.1 million km
  13. ^ Britt, Robert (2007-11-15). "Incredible Comet Bigger than the Sun". Space.com. Retrieved 2008-04-30. 
  14. ^ "Comet Holmes brightens in retreat", BBC NEWS, 30 October 2007
  15. ^ Altenhoff, W. J.; Kreysa, E.; Menten, K. M.; Sievers, A.; Thum, C.; Weiss, A. (2009). "Why did Comet 17P/Holmes burst out? Nucleus splitting or delayed sublimation?". Astronomy and Astrophysics 495 (3): 975–978. arXiv:0901.2739. Bibcode:2009arXiv0901.2739A. 
  16. ^ Nasa 3D simulation of orbit for 17P/Holmes (Java Applet)

External links[edit]

Periodic comets (by number)
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18D/Perrine-Mrkos