C/2013 A1

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"Comet Siding Spring" redirects here. For a comet discovered in 2007, see C/2007 Q3.
C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring)
NASA-14090-Comet-C2013A1-SidingSpring-Hubble-20140311.jpg
Comet Siding Spring as seen by Hubble on 11 March 2014.
Discovery
Discovered by Siding Spring Observatory
0.5-m Schmidt (E12)[1]
Discovery date 3 January 2013[1]
Orbital characteristics A
Epoch 2014-Oct-30
(JD 2456960.5)[2]
Perihelion 1.39875 AU (q)
Eccentricity 1.00043
Orbital period several million years inbound (Barycentric solution for epoch 1950)[3]
~1 million years outbound
(Barycentric solution for epoch 2050)[3]
Inclination 129.0°
Next perihelion 25 October 2014

C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) is an Oort cloud comet discovered on 3 January 2013 by Robert H. McNaught at Siding Spring Observatory using the 0.5-meter (20 in) Uppsala Southern Schmidt Telescope.[1][4] At the time of discovery it was 7.2 AU from the Sun and located in the constellation Lepus. Comet C/2013 A1 probably took millions of years to come from the Oort cloud. After leaving the planetary region of the Solar System, the post-perihelion orbital period (epoch 2050) is estimated to be roughly 1 million years.[3] Precovery images by the Catalina Sky Survey from 8 December 2012 were quickly found.[1] On 3 March 2013, Pan-STARRS precovery images from 4 October 2012 were announced that extended the observation arc to 148 days.[5]

Discovery[edit]

The comet was discovered on 3 January 2013 by professional astronomer Robert McNaught at the Siding Spring Observatory, Australia and received the official designation C/2013 A1. Three images were obtained through the use of CCD cameras mounted on an Uppsala Southern Schmidt Telescope with a parabolic mirror of 0.5 meters in diameter. The comet appeared as an object of magnitude 18.4 to 18.6. At the time of discovery, the comet was at 7.2 AU from the Sun.

Precovery images acquired by the Catalina Sky Survey, taken on 8 December 2012 with a Schmidt telescope equipped with a parabolic mirror of 68 cm diameter, were then examined. Subsequently, two other images taken on 4 October 2012 with a 1.8-meter Pan-STARRS telescope with a Ritchey-Chrétien optical configuration, mounted on the summit of Haleakalā, on the island of Maui, in Hawaii, were examined when the comet was estimated as an object ranging from magnitude 19.7 to 20.

Encounter with Mars[edit]

Comet Siding Spring will pass extremely close to Mars on 19 October 2014 at 18:28 ± 0:01 UTC.[6] Initial observations by Leonid Elenin on 27 February 2013, suggested that it might pass 0.000276 AU (41,300 km; 25,700 mi) from the center of Mars.[7] With an observation arc of 694 days, the nominal pass is 0.000928 AU (138,800 km; 86,300 mi) from the center-point of Mars and the uncertainty region shows that it will not come closer than 0.000917 AU (137,200 km; 85,200 mi).[6] For comparison, Mars's outer moon Deimos orbits 0.00016 AU (24,000 km; 15,000 mi) from the planet. Due to the uncertainty region, there is a possibility that it will pass Mars as far away as 0.000938 AU (140,300 km; 87,200 mi). It will pass Mars at a relative velocity of 56 km/s (35 mi/s).[6] As seen from Mars the comet will reach about apparent magnitude −6.[8]

Comet Siding Spring as seen by NEOWISE on 16 January 2014.
Comet Siding Spring's closest approach to Mars to scale, showing minimum and maximum estimated distances.
Projected position of Comet Siding Spring and its closest approach to Mars on 19 October 2014.
Comet Siding Spring will encounter Mars on 19 October 2014.
Comet Siding Spring passing Mars on 19 October 2014 (artist concept; 5 September 2014).
JPL Small-Body Database uncertainty region
for close approach to Mars on 19 October 2014
Observation
arc
(in days)
Minimum
distance
(AU)
Nominal
distance
(AU)
Maximum
distance
(AU)
Nominal
passage
time (UT)
  44 0 0.0059   0.024     10:26
  58 0 0.0025   0.012     15:50
  74 0 0.00070 0.0079   21:00
148 0 0.00035 0.0021   19:28
154 0 0.00074 0.0023   18:50
162 0 0.00079 0.0023   18:45
171 0 0.00080 0.0022   18:44
185 0.00006   0.00076 0.0020   18:51
201 0.000068 0.00080 0.0019   18:45
211 0.000209 0.00079 0.0018   18:45
244 0.000098 0.00082 0.0016   18:41
293 0.000252 0.00082 0.0014   18:41
341 0.000443 0.00089 0.0013   18:32
360 0.000546 0.00089 0.0012   18:32
369 0.000607 0.00093 0.0012   18:28
379 0.000595 0.00088 0.0012   18:34
388 0.000690 0.00090 0.0011   18:31
394 0.000775 0.00095 0.0011   18:26
399 0.000801 0.00095 0.0011   18:26
415 0.000853 0.00096 0.0011   18:25
428 0.000868 0.00096 0.0010   18:25
465 0.000875 0.00092 0.0010   18:28
493 0.000867 0.00090 0.00093 18:31
612 0.000858 0.00088 0.00091 18:32
662 0.000858 0.00088 0.00090 18:33
687 0.000926 0.00093 0.00094 18:28
694 0.000916 0.00093 0.00094 18:28

Predicted effects[edit]

The main body of the comet's tail is projected to miss Mars by some 10 Mars diameters.[9] As a result, only higher than average velocity meteoroid dust, ejected earlier in the approach of the comet, allow for impacts on Mars, its moons, and orbiting spacecraft. Dust particles ejected from the nucleus of the comet, at more than double the expected velocity when the comet was 3 AU from the Sun, could reach Mars about 43 to 130 min after the closest approach of the comet.[10] There is a possibility for millimeter to centimeter size particles released more than 13 AU from the Sun, however, this is considered unlikely,[10] though massive ejections from farther out have been deduced.[11] In 2013 it was thought possible that Comet Siding Spring would create a meteor shower on Mars or be a threat to the spacecraft in Mars orbit.[12] Studies in 2014 showed the threat to orbiting spacecraft to be minimal.[13] The biggest threat will be about 100 minutes after closest approach.[13] Mars will pass about 27,000 km (17,000 mi) from the comets orbit at around 20:10 UT.[14]

The coma of the comet is projected to more than double the amount of hydrogen in the high atmosphere for a period of several tens of hours and to slightly warm it by about 30 K for a few hrs - the combination increasing the effect of atmospheric drag on Mars Reconnaisance Orbiter and MAVEN spacecrafts causing a measurable increase in orbital decay because of atmospheric ram pressure.[15] These spacecraft will be approaching Mars to minimum altitudes of 250 km and 150 km and orbital periods of 3 and 4 hours, respectively. The amount of drag cannot be narrowed down greatly until the production rate of the comet is known but it could be from 1.6 to 40 times normal drag. MAVEN, in particular, also has instruments to observe any changes to the gas composition of the atmosphere. Mars' closest orbiting moon, Phobos, orbits far higher at a minimum distance of 9,234.42 km (5,738.00 mi)[16] more than 10 times the height of Mars' atmosphere.[17]

Hypothetical impact[edit]

Hypothetical comet impact at 56 km/s
into sedimentary rock[18]
Impactor
diameter
Kinetic energy Crater
diameter
3 km (1.9 mi) 5.3 million Mt 45 km (28 mi)
5 km (3.1 mi) 24.5 million Mt 71 km (44 mi)
8 km (5.0 mi) 100 million Mt 108 km (67 mi)
15 km (9.3 mi) 660 million Mt 188 km (117 mi)
20 km (12 mi) 1.57 billion Mt 242 km (150 mi)
50 km (31 mi) 24 billion Mt 544 km (338 mi)

Estimates for the diameter of the nucleus have varied from 1 to 50 km (1 to 31 mi).[19][20] But the nucleus is now known to be only about 700 meters (0.4 mi) in diameter[21] (roughly twice the diameter of asteroid 2010 XG11 that approached Mars on 29 July 2014.)[22] Based on early upper-limit size estimates, the resulting upper-limit energy of a hypothetical impact with Mars was 20 billion megatons.[19][23] The diameter of such a hypothetical impact crater would be roughly ten times the diameter of the comet's nucleus.[19] A 700 meter impactor would create around a 7–10 km (4–6 mi) crater.

The odds of an impact with Mars were 1 in 1250 in March 2013,[24] 1 in 2000 in late March 2013,[20] 1 in 8000 by April 2013,[25] and 1 in 120,000 by 8 April 2013.[26] The 8 April 2013 JPL Small-Body Database 3-sigma solution was the first estimate to show that the minimum approach by Comet Siding Spring would miss Mars.[6] There is no risk of the comet nucleus impacting into Mars.[10]

Observation[edit]

C/2013 A1 - four images (28 July 2014).

As seen from Earth, on 19 October 2014 Mars will be in the constellation Ophiuchus, near globular cluster NGC 6401, and 60 degrees from the Sun. Mars and Comet Siding Spring will also be visible to the STEREO-A spacecraft during the 2014 encounter.[27] In orbit around Mars are the spacecrafts Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, 2001 Mars Odyssey, ESA's Mars Express, MAVEN and the indian Mars Orbiter Mission (Mangalyaan). The last two missions arrived less than one month before closest approach of the comet to Mars. All these artificial satellites may be exposed to potentially damaging particles.[28][29] The level of risk will not be known for months, but NASA is already evaluating "possible precautionary measures" as it prepares for studying the comet.[30] Two key strategies to lessen risk are to get orbiters behind Mars during the minutes of highest risk and to orient orbiters so that their most vulnerable parts are not in the line of impact.[29] On the ground are the Curiosity and Opportunity rovers.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "MPEC 2013-A14 : COMET C/2013 A1 (SIDING SPRING)". IAU Minor Planet Center. 5 January 2013. Archived from the original on 1 March 2013.  (CK13A010)
  2. ^ "MPEC 2014-L52: Observations and Orbits of Comets". IAU Minor Planet Center. 10 June 2014. Archived from the original on 15 June 2014. 
  3. ^ a b c Horizons output. "Barycentric Osculating Orbital Elements for Comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring)".  (Solution using the Solar System Barycenter and barycentric coordinates. Select Ephemeris Type:Elements and Center:@0)
  4. ^ Kaufmann, Marc (4 August 2014). "A Celestial Traveler Closes on Mars". New York Times. Retrieved 4 August 2014. 
  5. ^ "C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) Orbit". Minor Planet Center. 1 March 2013. 
  6. ^ a b c d "C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) close-approach data". JPL Small-Body Database. Jet Propulsion Laboratory. SPK-ID: 1003228. 
  7. ^ Elenin, Leonid (27 February 2013). "New data concerning the close approach of comet C/2013 A1 to Mars". SpaceObs.org blog (ISON-NM). Archived from the original on 2013-03-04. 
  8. ^ Sungrazing Comets 11 Aug 2014
  9. ^ Ye, Q.-Z.; Hui, M.-T. (2014). "An Early Look of Comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring): Breathtaker or Nightmare?". The Astrophysical Journal 787 (2): 115. arXiv:1403.7128. Bibcode:2014ApJ...787..115Y. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/787/2/115. 
  10. ^ a b c Farnocchia, D.; Chesley, S. R.; Chodas, P. W.; Tricarico, P.; Kelley, M. S .P.; Farnham, T. L. (2014). "Trajectory analysis for the nucleus and dust of comet C/2013~A1 (Siding Spring)". arXiv:1404.4640 [astro-ph.EP].
  11. ^ Sekanina, Z.; Kracht, R.. "Disintegration of Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) Shortly Before Perihelion: Evidence from Independent Data Sets". arXiv:1404.5968 [astro-ph.EP].
  12. ^ Grossman, Lisa (6 December 2013). "Fiercest meteor shower on record to hit Mars via comet". New Scientist. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013-12. 
  13. ^ a b Battams, Karl (2 August 2014). "Comet Siding Spring: Risk Assessment". Retrieved 12 August 2014. 
  14. ^ Kelley, M. S.; Farnham, T. L.; Bodewits, D.; Tricarico, P.; Farnocchia, D. (2014). "A Study of Dust and Gas at Mars from Comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring)". arXiv:1408.2792.
  15. ^ Yelle, R. V.; Mahieux, A.; Morrisson, S.; Vuitton, V.; Hörst, S. M. (2014). "Perturbation of the Mars Atmosphere by the Near-Collision with Comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring)". Icarus 237: 202. Bibcode:2014Icar..237..202Y. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2014.03.030. 
  16. ^ "Mars: Moons: Phobos". NASA. 30 September 2003. Retrieved 2 December 2013. 
  17. ^ Withers, P.; Pätzold, M.; Witasse, O. (15 November 2012). "New views of the martian ionosphere". ESA. Retrieved 10 May 2014. 
  18. ^ Marcus, Robert; Melosh, H. Jay; Collins, Gareth (2010). "Earth Impact Effects Program". Imperial College London / Purdue University. Archived from the original on 10 March 2010.  (solution using 1000kg/m^3, 56km/s, 45 degrees)
  19. ^ a b c Elenin, Leonid (25 February 2013). "Comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) – a possible collision with Mars". SpaceObs.org blog (ISON-NM). Archived from the original on 2 March 2013. 
  20. ^ a b Phillips, Tony (27 March 2013). "Collision Course? A Comet Heads for Mars". Science News. NASA. Archived from the original on 3 March 2013. 
  21. ^ "NASA's Swift Satellite Tallies Water Production of Mars-bound Comet". NASA. 19 June 2014. Retrieved 20 June 2014. 
  22. ^ "2010 XG11 close-approach data". JPL Small-Body Database. Jet Propulsion Laboratory. SPK-ID: 3553153. 
  23. ^ Bell, Charles (26 February 2013). "Comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring)". 
  24. ^ Elenin, Leonid (3 March 2013). "Close approach to Mars. Up-to-date analysis". SpaceObs.org blog (ISON-NM). Archived from the original on 7 March 2013. 
  25. ^ "Mars vs. comet in 2014: Scientists prepare for red planet sky show". CBS News. 1 April 2013. Archived from the original on 2 April 2013. 
  26. ^ DC Agle (12 April 2013). "Comet to Make Close Flyby of Red Planet in October 2014". NASA/JPL. Archived from the original on 8 March 2013. 
  27. ^ Thompson, Bill (28 February 2013). "STEREO-A spacecraft has a ring-side seat of "Siding Spring v's Mars" next year". Sungrazing Comets. Archived from the original on 2013-03-03. 
  28. ^ Moorhead, A. V.; Wiegert, P. A.; Cooke, W. J. (2014). "The meteoroid fluence at Mars due to Comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring)". Icarus 231: 13–21. Bibcode:2014Icar..231...13M. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2013.11.028. 
  29. ^ a b "NASA Preparing for 2014 Comet Watch at Mars". NASA (JPL). 28 January 2014. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. 
  30. ^ Brown, Dwayne; Webster, Guy (25 July 2014). "NASA Mars Spacecraft Prepare for Close Comet Flyby". NASA. Retrieved 25 July 2014. 

External links[edit]