Saint Comgall and monks from Bangor Abbey, Bangor harbour mosaic
Dál nAraidi in Ulster,
Magheramorne in County Antrim
|Died||597 or 602|
|Honored in||Roman Catholic Church,
Saint Comgall was born sometime between 510 and 520, according to the Irish annals, in Dál nAraidi (Dalaradia) in Ulster near the place now known as Magheramorne in present-day County Antrim. After serving as a soldier in his early life, he studied at Clonard with Saint Finnian, and at Clonmacnoise with Saint Ciaran, who died in 549. He lived for a while in Ulster on an island on Lough Erne, accompanied by a few friends who followed a severe form of monastic life. The regime was so austere that seven companions died of cold and hunger.
Initially intending to go to Britain, Comgall was dissuaded by Lugidius, the bishop who ordained him, at whose advice he remained in Ireland to spread the monastic life throughout the country. He founded a monastery at Bangor in present-day County Down, on the southern shore of Belfast Lough, directly opposite Carrickfergus. According to the Irish annals, Bangor was founded no later than 552, though Ussher and most of the later writers on the subject assign the foundation to the year 555.
According to Adamnan's Life of Columba, there was a close connection between Comgall and Columba, though there does not appear to be sufficient authority for stating that Comgall was the disciple of Columba in any strict sense. Comgall was a friend to Saint Brendan, Saint Cormac, Saint Cainnech, and Finnian of Moville.
After a period of intense suffering, Comgall received the Eucharist from Saint Fiacre and died in the monastery at Bangor. The year of his death was either 602, according to Annals of Tigernach and Chronicon Scotorum, or 597, according to Annals of Innisfallen. His relics, which were kept at Bangor, were scattered during Viking raids in 822.
Comgall belonged to what is known as the Second Order of Irish Saints. These flourished in the Irish Church during the sixth century. They were for the most part educated in Britain, or received their training from those who had grown up under the influence of the British Schools. They were the founders of the great Irish monastic schools, and contributed much to the spread of monasticism in the Irish Church. It is an interesting question how far Comgall, or men like him, had advanced in their establishments at Bangor and elsewhere in introducing the last stages of monasticism then developed on the Continent by St. Benedict. In other words, did St. Congall give his monks at Bangor a strict monastic rule resembling the Rule of St. Benedict? The Antiphonary of Bangor of the 7th century claimed that Comgall was 'strict, holy and constant'; and there has come down to us a Rule of St. Comgall in Irish, but the evidence would not warrant us in saying that as it stands at present it could be attributed to him. The fact, however, that Columbanus, a disciple of Comgall and himself a monk of Bangor, drew up for his Continental monasteries a "Regula Monachorum" would lead us to believe that there had been a similar organization in Bangor in his time. This, however, is not conclusive, since Columbanus might have derived inspiration from the Benedictine Rule then widely spread over South-Western Europe.
St. Comgall is mentioned in the "Life of Columbanus" by Jonas, as the superior of Bangor, under whom St. Columbanus had studied. He is also mentioned under 10 May, his feast-day in the "Felire" of Óengus the Culdee published by Whitley Stokes for the Henry Bradshaw Society (2nd ed.), and his name is commemorated in the Stowe Missal (MacCarthy), and in the Martyrology of Tallaght.
- MacCaffrey, James (1908). "St. Comgall". The Catholic Encyclopedia 4. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved 19 February 2013.
- Wallace, Martin (1995). A Little Book of Celtic Saints. Belfast: Appletree Press, p. 35, ISBN 0-86281-456-1.
- Farmer, David Hugh (1997). The Oxford dictionary of saints (4 ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 112–113. ISBN 0-19-280058-2.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "St. Comgall". Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company.
- Butler, Rev. Alban, "St. Comgall, Abbot in Ireland", Lives of the Saints, Vol.V, 1866