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In management, command and control refers more generally to the maintenance of authority with somewhat more distributed decision making. In these civilian contexts, the term "command" is unfashionable but the meaning is the same. Some management science theorists even hold that the idea is now obsolete. For instance, Dee Hock says that "Purpose and principle, clearly understood and articulated, and commonly shared, are the genetic code of any healthy organization. To the degree that you hold purpose and principles in common among you, you can dispense with command and control. People will know how to behave in accordance with them, and they'll do it in thousands of unimaginable, creative ways. The organization will become a vital, living set of beliefs." However, purpose and principle notions generally involve linear, predictable systems, which would thus not require command and control.
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