The Committee on Human Rights in the USSR was founded in 1970 by Andrei Sakharov together with Andrei Tverdokhlebov and Valery Chalidze. Andrei Sakharov was an eminent Soviet nuclear physicist who had publicly opposed the Soviet plans for atmospheric nuclear tests. In 1968, Sakharov had published "Progress, Coexistence and Intellectual Freedom," a plea for nuclear disarmament. As a result his professorship was revoked by Soviet authorities. He became a spokesman for the human rights in the Soviet Union.
The Committee opposed secret trials, capital punishment, and punitive psychiatry.
Other prominent members of the committee included Aleksander Solzhenitsyn, Yelena Bonner, Igor Shafarevich, Pavel Litvinov 
The Committee formally sought for the membership of International League for Human Rights and in June 1971 the League adopted the Committee. It was the first time in history a Western Non Governmental Organization had linked itself with one in the Soviet Union.