Common cold

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Common colds)
Jump to: navigation, search
Common cold
Classification and external resources
Rhinovirus.PNG
A representation of the molecular surface of one variant of human rhinovirus.
ICD-10 J00
ICD-9 460
DiseasesDB 31088
MedlinePlus 000678
eMedicine med/2339
Patient UK Common cold
MeSH D003139

The common cold (also known as nasopharyngitis, rhinopharyngitis, acute coryza,[1] head cold, or simply a cold) is a viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract which primarily affects the nose.

Symptoms include coughing, sore throat, runny nose, sneezing, and fever which usually resolve in seven to ten days, with some symptoms lasting up to three weeks. Well over 200 virus strains are implicated in the cause of the common cold; the rhinoviruses are the most common.

Upper respiratory tract infections are loosely divided by the areas they affect, with the common cold primarily affecting the nose, the throat (pharyngitis), and the sinuses (sinusitis), occasionally involving either or both eyes via conjunctivitis. Symptoms are mostly due to the body's immune response to the infection rather than to tissue destruction by the viruses themselves. The primary method of prevention is by hand washing with some evidence to support the effectiveness of wearing face masks. The common cold may occasionally lead to pneumonia, either viral pneumonia or secondary bacterial pneumonia.

No cure for the common cold exists, but the symptoms can be treated. It is the most frequent infectious disease in humans with the average adult getting two to three colds a year and the average child getting between six and twelve. These infections have been with humanity since antiquity.[2]

Signs and symptoms

The typical symptoms of a cold include a cough, a runny nose, nasal congestion and a sore throat, sometimes accompanied by muscle ache, fatigue, headache, and loss of appetite.[3] A sore throat is present in about 40% of the cases and a cough in about 50%,[4] while muscle ache occurs in about half.[5] In adults, a fever is generally not present but it is common in infants and young children.[5] The cough is usually mild compared to that accompanying influenza.[5] While a cough and a fever indicate a higher likelihood of influenza in adults, a great deal of similarity exists between these two conditions.[6] A number of the viruses that cause the common cold may also result in asymptomatic infections.[7][8] The color of the sputum or nasal secretion may vary from clear to yellow to green and does not indicate the class of agent causing the infection.[9]

Progression

A cold usually begins with fatigue, a feeling of being chilled, sneezing and a headache, followed in a couple of days by a runny nose and cough.[3] Symptoms may begin within 16 hours of exposure[10] and typically peak two to four days after onset.[5][11] They usually resolve in seven to ten days but some can last for up to three weeks.[12] The average duration of cough is 18 days[13] and in some cases people develop a post-viral cough which can linger after the infection is gone.[14] In children, the cough lasts for more than ten days in 35–40% of the cases and continues for more than 25 days in 10%.[15]

Cause

Virology

Coronaviruses are a group of viruses known for causing the common cold. They have a halo, or crown-like (corona) appearance when viewed under an electron microscope.

The common cold is a viral infection of the upper respiratory tract. The most commonly implicated virus is a rhinovirus (30–80%), a type of picornavirus with 99 known serotypes.[16][17] Others include: human coronavirus (~15%),[18][19] influenza viruses (10-15%),[20] adenoviruses (5%),[20] human parainfluenza viruses, human respiratory syncytial virus, enteroviruses other than rhinoviruses, and metapneumovirus.[21] Frequently more than one virus is present.[22] In total over 200 different viral types are associated with colds.[5]

Transmission

The common cold virus is typically transmitted via airborne droplets (aerosols), direct contact with infected nasal secretions, or fomites (contaminated objects).[4][23] Which of these routes is of primary importance has not been determined; however, hand-to-hand and hand-to-surface-to-hand contact seems of more importance than transmission via aerosols.[24] The viruses may survive for prolonged periods in the environment (over 18 hours for rhinoviruses) and can be picked up by people's hands and subsequently carried to their eyes or nose where infection occurs.[23] Transmission is common in daycare and at school due to the proximity of many children with little immunity and frequently poor hygiene.[25] These infections are then brought home to other members of the family.[25] There is no evidence that recirculated air during commercial flight is a method of transmission.[23] However, people sitting in close proximity appear at greater risk.[24] Rhinovirus-caused colds are most infectious during the first three days of symptoms; they are much less infectious afterwards.[26]

Weather

The traditional folk theory is that a cold can be "caught" by prolonged exposure to cold weather such as rain or winter conditions, which is how the disease got its name.[27] Some of the viruses that cause the common colds are seasonal, occurring more frequently during cold or wet weather.[28] The reason for the seasonality has not been conclusively determined.[29] This may occur due to cold induced changes in the respiratory system,[30] decreased immune response,[31] and low humidity increasing viral transmission rates, perhaps due to dry air allowing small viral droplets to disperse farther and stay in the air longer.[32] It may be due to social factors, such as people spending more time indoors, near an infected person,[30] and specifically children at school.[25][29] There is some controversy over the role of low body temperature as a risk factor for the common cold; the majority of the evidence suggests that it may result in greater susceptibility to infection.[31]

Other

Herd immunity, generated from previous exposure to cold viruses, plays an important role in limiting viral spread, as seen with younger populations that have greater rates of respiratory infections.[33] Poor immune function is also a risk factor for disease.[33][34] Insufficient sleep and malnutrition have been associated with a greater risk of developing infection following rhinovirus exposure; this is believed to be due to their effects on immune function.[35][36] Breast feeding decreases the risk of acute otitis media and lower respiratory tract infections among other diseases[37] and it is recommended that breast feeding be continued when an infant has a cold.[38] In the developed world breast feeding may not however be protective against the common cold in and of itself.[39]

Pathophysiology

The common cold is a disease of the upper respiratory tract.

The symptoms of the common cold are believed to be primarily related to the immune response to the virus.[40] The mechanism of this immune response is virus specific. For example, the rhinovirus is typically acquired by direct contact; it binds to human ICAM-1 receptors through unknown mechanisms to trigger the release of inflammatory mediators.[40] These inflammatory mediators then produce the symptoms.[40] It does not generally cause damage to the nasal epithelium.[5] The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) on the other hand is contracted by both direct contact and airborne droplets. It then replicates in the nose and throat before frequently spreading to the lower respiratory tract.[41] RSV does cause epithelium damage.[41] Human parainfluenza virus typically results in inflammation of the nose, throat, and bronchi.[42] In young children when it affects the trachea it may produce the symptoms of croup due to the small size of their airway.[42]

Diagnosis

The distinction between different viral upper respiratory tract infections is loosely based on the location of symptoms with the common cold affecting primarily the nose, pharyngitis the throat, and bronchitis the lungs.[4] However there can be significant overlap and multiple areas can be affected.[4] The common cold is frequently defined as nasal inflammation with varying amount of throat inflammation.[43] Self-diagnosis is frequent.[5] Isolation of the actual viral agent involved is rarely performed,[43] and it is generally not possible to identify the virus type through symptoms.[5]

Prevention

The only possibly useful ways to reduce the spread of cold viruses are physical measures[44] such as hand washing and face masks; in the healthcare environment, gowns and disposable gloves are also used.[44] Isolation, e.g. quarantine, is not possible as the disease is so widespread and symptoms are non-specific. Vaccination has proved difficult as there are so many viruses involved and they mutate rapidly.[44] Creation of a broadly effective vaccine is thus highly improbable.[45]

Regular hand washing appears to be effective in reducing the transmission of cold viruses, especially among children.[46] Whether the addition of antivirals or antibacterials to normal hand washing provides greater benefit is unknown.[46] Wearing face masks when around people who are infected may be beneficial; however, there is insufficient evidence for maintaining a greater social distance.[46] Zinc supplements may help to reduce the prevalence of colds.[47] Routine vitamin C supplements do not reduce the risk or severity of the common cold, though they may reduce its duration.[48]

Management

Poster encouraging citizens to "Consult your Physician" for treatment of the common cold

No medications or herbal remedies have been conclusively demonstrated to shorten the duration of infection.[49] Treatment thus comprises symptomatic relief.[50] Getting plenty of rest, drinking fluids to maintain hydration, and gargling with warm salt water, are reasonable conservative measures.[21] Much of the benefit from treatment is however attributed to the placebo effect.[51]

Symptomatic

Treatments that help alleviate symptoms include simple analgesics and antipyretics such as ibuprofen[52] and acetaminophen/paracetamol.[53] Evidence does not show that cough medicines are any more effective than simple analgesics[54] and they are not recommended for use in children due to a lack of evidence supporting effectiveness and the potential for harm.[55][56] In 2009, Canada restricted the use of over-the-counter cough and cold medication in children six years and under due to concerns regarding risks and unproven benefits.[55] In adults there is insufficient evidence to support the use of cough medications.[57] The misuse of dextromethorphan (an over-the-counter cough medicine) has led to its ban in a number of countries.[58]

In adults the symptoms of a runny nose can be reduced by first-generation antihistamines; however, these sometimes have adverse effects such as drowsiness.[50] Other decongestants such as pseudoephedrine are also effective in adults.[59] Ipratropium nasal spray may reduce the symptoms of a runny nose but has little effect on stuffiness.[60] Second-generation antihistamines however do not appear to be effective.[61]

Due to lack of studies, it is not known whether increased fluid intake improves symptoms or shortens respiratory illness[62] and a similar lack of data exists for the use of heated humidified air.[63] One study has found chest vapor rub to provide some relief of nocturnal cough, congestion, and sleep difficulty.[64]

Antibiotics and antivirals

Antibiotics have no effect against viral infections and thus have no effect against the viruses that cause the common cold.[65] Due to their side effects, antibiotics cause overall harm, but are still frequently prescribed.[65][66] Some of the reasons that antibiotics are so commonly prescribed include people's expectations for them, physicians' desire to help, and the difficulty in excluding complications that may be amenable to antibiotics.[67] There are no effective antiviral drugs for the common cold even though some preliminary research has shown benefits.[50][68]

Alternative medicine

While there are many alternative treatments used for the common cold, there is insufficient scientific evidence to support the use of most.[50] As of 2010 there is insufficient evidence to recommend for or against either honey or nasal irrigation.[69][70] Zinc has been used to treat symptoms, with studies suggesting that zinc, if taken within 24 hours of the onset of symptoms, reduces the duration and severity of the common cold in otherwise healthy people.[47] Due to wide differences between the studies, further research may be needed to determine how and when zinc may be effective.[71] Whereas the zinc lozenges may produce side effects, there is only a weak rationale for physicians to recommend zinc for the treatment of the common cold.[72] Vitamin C's effect on the common cold, while extensively researched, is disappointing, except in limited circumstances, specifically, individuals exercising vigorously in cold environments.[48][73] There is no firm evidence that Echinacea products provide any meaningful benefit in treating or preventing colds.[74] It is unknown if garlic is effective.[75] A single trial of vitamin D did not find benefit.[76]

Prognosis

The common cold is generally mild and self-limiting with most symptoms generally improving in a week.[4] Half of cases go away in 10 days and 90% in 15 days.[77] Severe complications, if they occur, are usually in the very old, the very young, or those who are immunosuppressed.[78] Secondary bacterial infections may occur resulting in sinusitis, pharyngitis, or an ear infection.[79] It is estimated that sinusitis occurs in 8% and an ear infection in 30% of cases.[80]

Epidemiology

The common cold is the most common human disease,[78] and affects people all over the globe.[25] Adults typically have two to five infections annually[4][5] and children may have six to ten colds a year (and up to twelve colds a year for school children).[50] Rates of symptomatic infections increase in the elderly due to a worsening immune system.[33]

Native Americans and Inuit are more likely to be infected with colds and develop complications such as otitis media more often than Caucasians.[20] This may be explained by issues such as poverty and overcrowding rather than by ethnicity.[20]

History

A British poster from World War II describing the cost of the common cold[81]

While the cause of the common cold has only been identified since the 1950s the disease has been with humanity since antiquity.[2] Its symptoms and treatment are described in the Egyptian Ebers papyrus, the oldest existing medical text, written before the 16th century BCE.[82] The name "cold" came into use in the 16th century, due to the similarity between its symptoms and those of exposure to cold weather.[83]

In the United Kingdom, the Common Cold Unit was set up by the Medical Research Council in 1946 and it was here that the rhinovirus was discovered in 1956.[84] In the 1970s, the CCU demonstrated that treatment with interferon during the incubation phase of rhinovirus infection protects somewhat against the disease,[85] but no practical treatment could be developed. The unit was closed in 1989, two years after it completed research of zinc gluconate lozenges in the prophylaxis and treatment of rhinovirus colds, the only successful treatment in the history of the unit.[86]

Society and culture

The economic impact of the common cold is not well understood in much of the world.[80] In the United States, the common cold leads to 75–100 million physician visits annually at a conservative cost estimate of $7.7 billion per year. Americans spend $2.9 billion on over-the-counter drugs and another $400 million on prescription medicines for symptomatic relief.[87] More than one-third of people who saw a doctor received an antibiotic prescription, which has implications for antibiotic resistance.[87] An estimated 22–189 million school days are missed annually due to a cold. As a result, parents missed 126 million workdays to stay home to care for their children. When added to the 150 million workdays missed by employees suffering from a cold, the total economic impact of cold-related work loss exceeds $20 billion per year.[21][87] This accounts for 40% of time lost from work in the United States.[88]

Research directions

A number of antivirals have been tested for effectiveness in the common cold; however as of 2009 none have been both found effective and licensed for use.[68] There are ongoing trials of the anti-viral drug pleconaril which shows promise against picornaviruses as well as trials of BTA-798.[89] The oral form of pleconaril had safety issues and an aerosol form is being studied.[89]

DRACO, a broad-spectrum antiviral therapy being developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, has shown preliminary effectiveness in treating rhinovirus, as well as a number of other infectious viruses.[90][91]

Researchers from the University of Maryland School of Medicine in Baltimore and the University of Wisconsin–Madison have sequenced the genome for all known human rhinovirus strains.[92]

References

  1. ^ John, Pramod R. John (2008). Textbook of Oral Medicine. Jaypee Brothers Publishers. p. 336. ISBN 9788180615627. 
  2. ^ a b editors, Ronald Eccles, Olaf Weber, (2009). Common cold. Basel: Birkhäuser. p. 3. ISBN 978-3-7643-9894-1. 
  3. ^ a b Eccles p. 24
  4. ^ a b c d e f Arroll B (March 2011). "Common cold". Clinical evidence 2011 (3): 1510. PMC 3275147. PMID 21406124.  open access publication - free to read
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i Eccles R (November 2005). "Understanding the symptoms of the common cold and influenza". Lancet Infect Dis 5 (11): 718–25. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(05)70270-X. PMID 16253889. 
  6. ^ Eccles p. 26
  7. ^ Eccles p. 129
  8. ^ Eccles p. 50
  9. ^ Eccles p. 30
  10. ^ Richard A. Helms, ed. (2006). Textbook of therapeutics: drug and disease management (8. ed.). Philadelphia, Pa. [u.a.]: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 1882. ISBN 9780781757348. 
  11. ^ al.], edited by Helga Rübsamen-Waigmann ... [et (2003). Viral Infections and Treatment.. Hoboken: Informa Healthcare. p. 111. ISBN 9780824756413. 
  12. ^ Heikkinen T, Järvinen A (January 2003). "The common cold". Lancet 361 (9351): 51–9. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(03)12162-9. PMID 12517470. 
  13. ^ Ebell, M. H.; Lundgren, J.; Youngpairoj, S. (Jan–Feb 2013). "How long does a cough last? Comparing patients' expectations with data from a systematic review of the literature.". Annals of Family Medicine 11 (1): 5–13. doi:10.1370/afm.1430. PMC 3596033. PMID 23319500.  open access publication - free to read
  14. ^ Dicpinigaitis PV (May 2011). "Cough: an unmet clinical need". Br. J. Pharmacol. 163 (1): 116–24. doi:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.01198.x. PMC 3085873. PMID 21198555.  open access publication - free to read
  15. ^ Goldsobel AB, Chipps BE (March 2010). "Cough in the pediatric population". J. Pediatr. 156 (3): 352–358.e1. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2009.12.004. PMID 20176183. 
  16. ^ Palmenberg AC, Spiro D, Kuzmickas R, Wang S, Djikeng A, Rathe JA, Fraser-Liggett CM, Liggett SB (2009). "Sequencing and Analyses of All Known Human Rhinovirus Genomes Reveals Structure and Evolution". Science 324 (5923): 55–9. doi:10.1126/science.1165557. PMID 19213880. 
  17. ^ Eccles p. 77
  18. ^ Pelczar (2010). Microbiology:Application Based Approach. p. 656. ISBN 9780070151475. 
  19. ^ medicine, s cecil. Goldman (24th ed. ed.). Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders. p. 2103. ISBN 9781437727883. 
  20. ^ a b c d Michael Rajnik; Robert W Tolan (13 Sep 2013). "Rhinovirus Infection". Medscape Reference. Retrieved 19 March 2013.  open access publication - free to read
  21. ^ a b c "Common Cold". National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. 27 November 2006. Retrieved 11 June 2007.  open access publication - free to read
  22. ^ Eccles p. 107
  23. ^ a b c editors, Ronald Eccles, Olaf Weber, (2009). Common cold (Online-Ausg. ed.). Basel: Birkhäuser. p. 197. ISBN 978-3-7643-9894-1. 
  24. ^ a b Eccles pp. 211, 215
  25. ^ a b c d al.], edited by Arie J. Zuckerman ... [et (2007). Principles and practice of clinical virology (6th ed.). Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley. p. 496. ISBN 978-0-470-51799-4. 
  26. ^ Gwaltney JM Jr, Halstead SB. "Contagiousness of the common cold".  Invited letter in "Questions and answers". Journal of the American Medical Association 278 (3): 256–257. 16 July 1997. doi:10.1001/jama.1997.03550030096050. Retrieved 16 September 2011.  Closed access
  27. ^ Zuger, Abigail (4 March 2003). "'You'll Catch Your Death!' An Old Wives' Tale? Well..". The New York Times. 
  28. ^ Eccles p. 79
  29. ^ a b "Common cold – Background information". National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Retrieved 19 March 2013. 
  30. ^ a b Eccles p. 80
  31. ^ a b Mourtzoukou EG, Falagas ME (September 2007). "Exposure to cold and respiratory tract infections". The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease : the official journal of the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 11 (9): 938–43. PMID 17705968. 
  32. ^ Eccles p. 157
  33. ^ a b c Eccles p. 78
  34. ^ Eccles p. 166
  35. ^ Cohen S, Doyle WJ, Alper CM, Janicki-Deverts D, Turner RB (January 2009). "Sleep habits and susceptibility to the common cold". Arch. Intern. Med. 169 (1): 62–7. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2008.505. PMC 2629403. PMID 19139325.  open access publication - free to read
  36. ^ Eccles pp. 160–165
  37. ^ McNiel, ME; Labbok, MH; Abrahams, SW (July 2010). "What are the risks associated with formula feeding? A re-analysis and review.". Breastfeeding review : professional publication of the Nursing Mothers' Association of Australia 18 (2): 25–32. PMID 20879657. 
  38. ^ Lawrence, Ruth A. Lawrence, Robert M. (2010-09-30). Breastfeeding a guide for the medical profession (7th ed.). Maryland Heights, Mo.: Mosby/Elsevier. p. 478. ISBN 9781437735901. 
  39. ^ Williams, [edited by] Kenrad E. Nelson, Carolyn F. Masters (2007). Infectious disease epidemiology : theory and practice (2nd ed. ed.). Sudbury, Mass.: Jones and Bartlett Publishers. p. 724. ISBN 9780763728793. 
  40. ^ a b c Eccles p. 112
  41. ^ a b Eccles p. 116
  42. ^ a b Eccles p. 122
  43. ^ a b Eccles pp. 51–52
  44. ^ a b c Eccles p. 209
  45. ^ Lawrence DM (May 2009). "Gene studies shed light on rhinovirus diversity". Lancet Infect Dis 9 (5): 278. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(09)70123-9. 
  46. ^ a b c Jefferson T, Del Mar CB, Dooley L, Ferroni E, Al-Ansary LA, Bawazeer GA, van Driel ML, Nair S, Jones MA, Thorning S, Conly JM (July 2011). Jefferson, Tom, ed. "Physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (7): CD006207. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006207.pub4. PMID 21735402. 
  47. ^ a b Singh M, Das RR (February 2011). Singh, Meenu, ed. "Zinc for the common cold". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2): CD001364. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001364.pub3. PMID 21328251. 
  48. ^ a b Hemilä H, Chalker E, Douglas B, Hemilä H (2007). Hemilä, Harri, ed. "Vitamin C for preventing and treating the common cold". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (3): CD000980. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000980.pub3. PMID 17636648. 
  49. ^ "Common Cold: Treatments and Drugs". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 9 January 2010. 
  50. ^ a b c d e Simasek M, Blandino DA (2007). "Treatment of the common cold". American Family Physician 75 (4): 515–20. PMID 17323712.  open access publication - free to read
  51. ^ Eccles p. 261
  52. ^ Kim SY, Chang YJ, Cho HM, Hwang YW, Moon YS (2009). Kim, Soo Young, ed. "Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the common cold". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (3): CD006362. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006362.pub2. PMID 19588387. 
  53. ^ Eccles R (2006). "Efficacy and safety of over-the-counter analgesics in the treatment of common cold and flu". Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 31 (4): 309–319. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2710.2006.00754.x. PMID 16882099. 
  54. ^ Smith SM, Schroeder K, Fahey T (2008). Smith, Susan M, ed. "Over-the-counter (OTC) medications for acute cough in children and adults in ambulatory settings". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (1): CD001831. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001831.pub3. PMID 18253996. 
  55. ^ a b Shefrin AE, Goldman RD (November 2009). "Use of over-the-counter cough and cold medications in children". Can Fam Physician 55 (11): 1081–3. PMC 2776795. PMID 19910592.  open access publication - free to read
  56. ^ Vassilev ZP, Kabadi S, Villa R (March 2010). "Safety and efficacy of over-the-counter cough and cold medicines for use in children". Expert opinion on drug safety 9 (2): 233–42. doi:10.1517/14740330903496410. PMID 20001764. 
  57. ^ Smith, SM; Schroeder, K; Fahey, T (15 August 2012). Smith, Susan M, ed. "Over-the-counter (OTC) medications for acute cough in children and adults in ambulatory settings". Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) 8: CD001831. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001831.pub4. PMID 22895922. 
  58. ^ Eccles p. 246
  59. ^ Taverner D, Latte GJ (2007). Latte, G. Jenny, ed. "Nasal decongestants for the common cold". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (1): CD001953. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001953.pub3. PMID 17253470. 
  60. ^ Albalawi ZH, Othman SS, Alfaleh K (July 2011). Albalawi, Zaina H, ed. "Intranasal ipratropium bromide for the common cold". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (7): CD008231. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD008231.pub2. PMID 21735425. 
  61. ^ Pratter MR (January 2006). "Cough and the common cold: ACCP evidence-based clinical practice guidelines". Chest 129 (1 Suppl): 72S–74S. doi:10.1378/chest.129.1_suppl.72S. PMID 16428695. 
  62. ^ Guppy MP, Mickan SM, Del Mar CB, Thorning S, Rack A (February 2011). Guppy, Michelle PB, ed. "Advising patients to increase fluid intake for treating acute respiratory infections". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (2): CD004419. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004419.pub3. PMID 21328268. 
  63. ^ Singh M, Singh M (May 2011). Singh, Meenu, ed. "Heated, humidified air for the common cold". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (5): CD001728. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001728.pub4. PMID 21563130. 
  64. ^ Paul IM, Beiler JS, King TS, Clapp ER, Vallati J, Berlin CM (December 2010). "Vapor rub, petrolatum, and no treatment for children with nocturnal cough and cold symptoms". Pediatrics 126 (6): 1092–9. doi:10.1542/peds.2010-1601. PMC 3600823. PMID 21059712.  open access publication - free to read
  65. ^ a b Arroll B, Kenealy T (2005). Arroll, Bruce, ed. "Antibiotics for the common cold and acute purulent rhinitis". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (3): CD000247. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000247.pub2. PMID 16034850. 
  66. ^ Eccles p. 238
  67. ^ Eccles p. 234
  68. ^ a b Eccles p. 218
  69. ^ Oduwole O, Meremikwu MM, Oyo-Ita A, Udoh EE (January 2010). Oduwole, Olabisi, ed. "Honey for acute cough in children". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1): CD007094. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007094.pub2. PMID 20091616. 
  70. ^ Kassel JC, King D, Spurling GK (March 2010). King, David, ed. "Saline nasal irrigation for acute upper respiratory tract infections". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (3): CD006821. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006821.pub2. PMID 20238351. 
  71. ^ "Zinc for the common cold — Health News — NHS Choices". nhs.uk. 2012. Retrieved 24 February 2012. "In this review, there was a high level of heterogeneity between the studies that were pooled to determine the effect of zinc on the duration of cold symptoms. This may suggest that it was inappropriate to pool them. It certainly makes this particular finding less conclusive." 
  72. ^ Science, M.; Johnstone, J.; Roth, D. E.; Guyatt, G.; Loeb, M. (10 July 2012). "Zinc for the treatment of the common cold: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Canadian Medical Association Journal 184 (10): E551–E561. doi:10.1503/cmaj.111990. PMC 3394849. PMID 22566526.  open access publication - free to read
  73. ^ Heiner KA, Hart AM, Martin LG, Rubio-Wallace S (2009). "Examining the evidence for the use of vitamin C in the prophylaxis and treatment of the common cold". Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners 21 (5): 295–300. doi:10.1111/j.1745-7599.2009.00409.x. PMID 19432914. 
  74. ^ Karsch-Völk M, Barrett B, Kiefer D, Bauer R, Ardjomand-Woelkart K, Linde K (2014). "Echinacea for preventing and treating the common cold". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (Systematic review) 2: CD000530. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000530.pub3. PMID 24554461. 
  75. ^ Lissiman E, Bhasale AL, Cohen M (2012). Lissiman, Elizabeth, ed. "Garlic for the common cold". Cochrane Database Syst Rev 3: CD006206. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006206.pub3. PMID 22419312. 
  76. ^ Murdoch, David R. (3 October 2012). "Effect of Vitamin D3 Supplementation on Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Healthy Adults: The VIDARIS Randomized Controlled Trial</subtitle>". JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association 308 (13): 1333. doi:10.1001/jama.2012.12505. 
  77. ^ Thompson, M; Vodicka, TA; Blair, PS; Buckley, DI; Heneghan, C; Hay, AD; TARGET Programme, Team (11 Dec 2013). "Duration of symptoms of respiratory tract infections in children: systematic review.". BMJ (Clinical research ed.) 347: f7027. doi:10.1136/bmj.f7027. PMC 3898587. PMID 24335668. 
  78. ^ a b Eccles p. 1
  79. ^ Eccles p. 76
  80. ^ a b Eccles p. 90
  81. ^ "The Cost of the Common Cold and Influenza". Imperial War Museum: Posters of Conflict. vads. 
  82. ^ Eccles p. 6
  83. ^ "Cold". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 12 January 2008. 
  84. ^ Eccles p. 20
  85. ^ Tyrrell DA (1987). "Interferons and their clinical value". Rev. Infect. Dis. 9 (2): 243–9. doi:10.1093/clinids/9.2.243. PMID 2438740. 
  86. ^ Al-Nakib W; Higgins, P.G.; Barrow, I.; Batstone, G.; Tyrrell, D.A.J. (December 1987). "Prophylaxis and treatment of rhinovirus colds with zinc gluconate lozenges". J Antimicrob Chemother. 20 (6): 893–901. doi:10.1093/jac/20.6.893. PMID 3440773. 
  87. ^ a b c Fendrick AM, Monto AS, Nightengale B, Sarnes M (2003). "The economic burden of non-influenza-related viral respiratory tract infection in the United States". Arch. Intern. Med. 163 (4): 487–94. doi:10.1001/archinte.163.4.487. PMID 12588210. 
  88. ^ Kirkpatrick GL (December 1996). "The common cold". Prim. Care 23 (4): 657–75. doi:10.1016/S0095-4543(05)70355-9. PMID 8890137. 
  89. ^ a b Eccles p. 226
  90. ^ Rider TH, Zook CE, Boettcher TL, Wick ST, Pancoast JS, Zusman BD (2011). Sambhara, Suryaprakash, ed. "Broad-spectrum antiviral therapeutics". PLoS ONE 6 (7): e22572. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0022572. PMC 3144912. PMID 21818340.  open access publication - free to read
  91. ^ Fiona Macrae (11 August 2011). "Greatest discovery since penicillin: A cure for everything – from colds to HIV". The Daily Mail. UK. 
  92. ^ Val Willingham (12 February 2009). "Genetic map of cold virus a step toward cure, scientists say". CNN. Retrieved 28 April 2009. 
Notes

External links