|Commonwealth Games Federation Flag|
|Motto||Humanity – Equality – Destiny|
|Occur every||4 years|
|Headquarters||London, England, UK|
|President||HRH Prince Tunku Imran|
|Website||CGF Official Website|
The Commonwealth Games is an international, multi-sport event involving athletes from the Commonwealth of Nations. The event was first held in 1930 and has taken place every four years ever since (except 1942 and 1946 which were cancelled). The Games are described as the third largest multi-sport event in the world after the Olympic Games and the Asian Games.
It was initially known as the British Empire Games and was renamed to the British Empire and Commonwealth Games in 1954 and the British Commonwealth Games in 1970, before finally gaining its current title, the Commonwealth Games, for the 1978 edition. The Games are overseen by the Commonwealth Games Federation (CGF), which also controls the sporting programme and selects the host cities. A host city is selected for each edition and eighteen cities in seven countries have hosted the event.
As well as many Olympic sports, the Games also include some sports that are played mainly in Commonwealth countries, such as lawn bowls, rugby sevens and netball. Only six teams have attended every Commonwealth Games: Australia, Canada, England, New Zealand, Scotland and Wales. Australia has been the highest achieving team for eleven games, England for seven and Canada for one.
Although there are 54 members of the Commonwealth of Nations, 71 teams participate in the Commonwealth Games as a number of British overseas territories, Crown dependencies, and island states compete under their own flag. The four Home Nations of the United Kingdom – England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland – also send separate teams.
A sporting competition bringing together the members of the British Empire was first proposed by the Reverend Astley Cooper in 1891 when he wrote an article in The Times suggesting a "Pan-Britannic-Pan-Anglican Contest and Festival every four years as a means of increasing the goodwill and good understanding of the British Empire".
In 1911, the Festival of the Empire was held in London to celebrate the coronation of King George V. As part of the festival an Inter-Empire Championships was held in which teams from Australia, Canada, South Africa and the United Kingdom competed in events such as boxing, wrestling, swimming and athletics.
In 1928, Melville Marks Robinson of Canada was asked to organise the first British Empire Games. The first Games were held in 1930 in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. The name changed to British Empire and Commonwealth Games in 1954, to British Commonwealth Games in 1970 and assumed the current name of the Commonwealth Games in 1978.
The Commonwealth Paraplegic Games were held alongside the Commonwealth Games from 1962 to 1974. In the regular Commonwealth Games, athletes with a disability were first included in exhibition events at the 1994 Victoria, Canada Games. At the 2002 Manchester Games they were included as full members of their national teams, making them the first fully inclusive international multi-sport games. This meant that results were included in the medal count.
The Empire Games flag was donated in 1931 by the British Empire Games Association of Canada. The year and location of subsequent games were added until the 1950 games. The name of the event was changed to the British Empire and Commonwealth Games and the flag was retired as a result.
The first edition of the event was the 1930 British Empire Games and eleven nations took part. The quadrennial schedule of the games was interrupted by the Second World War and the 1942 Games (set to be held in Montreal) and the 1946 Games were abandoned. The games were continued in 1950 and underwent a name change four years later with the first British Empire and Commonwealth Games in 1954. Over 1000 athletes participated in the 1958 Games as over thirty teams took part for the first time.
The event was briefly known as the British Commonwealth Games for the 1970 and 1974 editions and the 1978 Games, held in Edmonton, Canada, were the first to be held under the title of the "Commonwealth Games". The Edmonton event marked a new high as almost 1500 athletes from 46 countries took part.
Nigeria was the first country to boycott the Commonwealth Games in 1978 in protest over New Zealand's sporting contacts with South Africa. Participation at the 1986 Games was affected by a boycott by 32 African and Caribbean nations in protest to British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher's refusal to condemn sporting contacts of Apartheid era South Africa in 1985, but the Games rebounded and continued to grow thereafter. The 1998 Commonwealth Games in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia saw the sporting programme grow from 10 to 15 sports as team sports were allowed for the first time. Participation also reached new levels as over 3500 athletes represented 70 teams at the event. At the Games in Melbourne in 2006, over 4000 athletes took part in sporting competitions.
The three nations to have hosted the games the most number of times are Australia (5), Canada (4) and New Zealand (3). Furthermore, six editions have taken place, or will take place, in the countries within the United Kingdom (Scotland 3, England 2 and Wales 1). Two cities have held the games on multiple occasions: Auckland (1950 and 1990), and Edinburgh (1970 and 1986).
|Edition||Year||Host City||Host Nation||Start Date||End Date||Sports||Events||Nations||Competitors|
|British Empire Games|
|I||1930||Hamilton||Canada||16 August||23 August||6||59||11||400|
|II||1934||London||England||4 August||11 August||6||68||16||500|
|III||1938||Sydney||Australia||5 February||12 February||7||71||15||464|
|IV||1950||Auckland||New Zealand||4 February||11 February||9||88||12||590|
|British Empire and Commonwealth Games|
|V||1954||Vancouver||Canada||30 July||7 August||9||91||24||662|
|VI||1958||Cardiff||Wales||18 July||26 July||9||94||36||1122|
|VII||1962||Perth||Australia||22 November||1 December||9||104||35||863|
|VIII||1966||Kingston||Jamaica||4 August||13 August||9||110||34||1050|
|British Commonwealth Games|
|IX||1970||Edinburgh||Scotland||16 July||25 July||9||121||42||1383|
|X||1974||Christchurch||New Zealand||24 January||2 February||9||121||38||1276|
|XI||1978||Edmonton||Canada||3 August||12 August||10||128||46||1474|
|XII||1982||Brisbane||Australia||30 September||9 October||10||142||46||1583|
|XIII||1986||Edinburgh||Scotland||24 July||2 August||10||163||26||1662|
|XIV||1990||Auckland||New Zealand||24 January||3 February||10||204||55||2073|
|XV||1994||Victoria||Canada||18 August||28 August||10||217||63||2557|
|XVI||1998||Kuala Lumpur||Malaysia||11 September||21 September||15||213||70||3633|
|XVII||2002||Manchester||England||25 July||4 August||171||281||72||3679|
|XVIII||2006||Melbourne||Australia||15 March||26 March||162||245||71||4049|
|XIX||2010||Delhi||India||3 October||14 October||173||272||71||6700|
|XX||2014||Glasgow||Scotland||23 July||3 August|
|XXI||2018||Gold Coast City||Australia||4 April||15 April|
1Includes 3 team sports 2Includes 4 team sports 3Includes 3 team sports
Total Commonwealth Games by country
|Rank||Country||Region||Editions hosted||Year[s] hosted|
|1||Australia||Oceania||5||1938, 1962, 1982, 2006, 2018|
|2||Canada||Americas||4||1930, 1954, 1978, 1994|
|3||New Zealand||Oceania||3||1950, 1974, 1990|
|Scotland||Europe||3||1970, 1986, 2014|
There are a total of 21 sports (with two multi-disciplinary sports) and a further seven para-sports which are approved by the Commonwealth Games Federation. They are categorised into three types. Core sports must be included on each programme. A number of optional sports may be picked by the host nation, which may include some team sports such as basketball. Recognised sports are sports which have been approved by the CGF but which are deemed to need expansion; host nations may not pick these sports for their programme until the CGF's requirements are fulfilled.
Only six teams have attended every Commonwealth Games: Australia, Canada, England, New Zealand, Scotland and Wales. Australia has been the highest scoring team for eleven games, England for seven and Canada for one.
|Table of Team Participation by Commonwealth Games Edition|
|Host City||Hamilton||London||Sydney||Auckland||Vancouver||Cardiff||Perth||Kingston||Edinburgh||Christchurch||Edmonton||Brisbane||Edinburgh||Auckland||Victoria||Kuala Lumpur||Manchester||Melbourne||Delhi||Glasgow||Gold Coast|
|Participation \\ Host Nation||Canada||England||Australia||New Zealand||Canada||Wales||Australia||Jamaica||Scotland||New Zealand||Canada||Australia||Scotland||New Zealand||Canada||Malaysia||England||Australia||India||Scotland||Australia|
|Anguilla 2||1982, 1998–|
|Antigua and Barbuda||1966–1970, 1978, 1994–|
|Bahamas||1954–1970, 1978–1982, 1990–|
|Belize 4||1978, 1994–|
|Bermuda||1930–1938, 1954–1982, 1990–|
|British Guiana 3||1930–1938, 1954–1962|
|British Honduras 4||1962–1966|
|British Virgin Islands||1990–|
|Brunei Darussalam||1958, 1990–|
|Ceylon 5||1938–1950, 1958–1970|
|Cook Islands||1974–1978, 1986–|
|Dominica||1958–1962, 1970, 1994–|
|Fiji 6||1938, 1954–1986, 1998–2006|
|The Gambia||1970–1982, 1990–|
|Gold Coast 7||1954|
|Guyana 3||1966–1970, 1978–1982, 1990–|
|Hong Kong 9||1934, 1954–1962, 1970–1994|
|India||1934–1938, 1954–1958, 1966–1982, 1990–|
|Irish Free State 10||1934|
|Isle of Man||1958–|
|Jamaica||1934, 1954–1982, 1990–|
|Malaya 13||1950, 1958–1962|
|Malta||1958–1962, 1970, 1982–|
|Mauritius||1958, 1966–1982, 1990–|
|Nigeria||1950–1958, 1966–1974, 1982, 1990–1994, 2002–|
|Norfolk Island 13||1986–|
|North Borneo 10||1958–1962|
|Northern Ireland 16 15||1934–1938, 1954–|
|Papua New Guinea||1962–1982, 1990–|
|Rhodesia and Nyasaland 16||1958–1962|
|Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla 2||1978|
|Saint Helena (with Ascension Island and Tristan da Cunha)18||1982, 1998–|
|Saint Kitts and Nevis 2||1990–|
|Saint Lucia||1962, 1970, 1978, 1994–|
|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||1958, 1966–1978, 1994–|
|Sierra Leone||1966–1970, 1978, 1990–|
|Solomon Islands||1982, 1990–|
|South Africa||1930–1958, 1994–|
|South Arabia 1||1966|
|Southern Rhodesia 16||1954|
|Sri Lanka||1974–1982, 1990–|
|Tonga||1974, 1982, 1990–|
|Trinidad and Tobago||1934–1982, 1990–|
|Turks and Caicos Islands||1978, 1998–|
|Western Samoa 19||1974–1994|
|Zambia 12||1970–1982, 1990–|
|Zimbabwe 12 21||1982, 1990–2002|
- ^ Aden later renamed South Arabia, left the Commonwealth in 1968.
- ^ Anguilla was completely separated from Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla in 1980 and remaining Saint Kitts and Nevis became independent from the United Kingdom in 1983.
- ^ British Guiana was renamed Guyana in 1966.
- ^ British Honduras was renamed Belize in 1973.
- ^ Ceylon was renamed Sri Lanka in 1972.
- ^ Fiji was suspended from the Commonwealth and Games in 2009.
- ^ Gold Coast (British colony) was renamed Ghana in 1957.
- ^ Including neighbouring Islands.
- ^ Hong Kong left the Commonwealth when handed over to China in 1997.
- ^ Ireland was represented as a team from the whole of the island in 1930, and from both parts, the Irish Free State and Northern Ireland in 1934. The Irish Free State was renamed Ireland in 1937 (but also known by its name in Irish Éire), formally left the Commonwealth when it declared that it was a Republic on 1 January 1949.
- ^ Contemporary illustrations show Green Flag used for the Irish team.
- ^ Zimbabwe competed from 1958–1962 as part of Rhodesia and Nyasaland.
- ^ Malaya, North Borneo, Sarawak and Singapore federated as Malaysia in 1963. Singapore left the federation in 1965.
- ^ Newfoundland joined Canada in 1949.
- ^ The Ulster Banner was the flag of the former Government of Northern Ireland only between 1953 and 1972, but the flag has been regarded as flag of Northern Ireland since 1924 among unionists and loyalists. In the Commonwealth Games, it is used also as flag of Northern Ireland.
- ^ Southern Rhodesia and Northern Rhodesia federated with Nyasaland in 1953 as Rhodesia and Nyasaland, which dissolved at the end of 1963.
- ^ Southern Rhodesia and Northern Rhodesia competed separately from 1953.
- ^ Under the name of "Saint Helena" in the Commonwealth Games. Ascension Island and Tristan da Cunha were dependencies of Saint Helena, so the territory was officially called "Saint Helena and Dependencies" until 2009. Saint Helena, Ascension Island and Tristan da Cunha became equal parts of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha in 2009.
- ^ Western Samoa was renamed Samoa in 1997.
- ^ Zanzibar and Tanganyika federated to form Tanzania in 1964.
- ^ Zimbabwe withdrew from the Commonwealth in 2003.
Commonwealth nations/dependencies/disputed territories yet to send teams
Very few Commonwealth dependencies and nations have yet to take part:
- Ascension Island and Tristan da Cunha, former dependencies of Saint Helena and current parts of the British Overseas Territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, has never formed their own teams independent from the Saint Helena team.
- Other states, territories and territorial autonomies with native populations within the Commonwealth that may be eligible include Christmas Island and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands (territories of Australia), Nevis (a federal entity of the Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis), Rodrigues (outer islands of Mauritius), and Zanzibar (a semi-autonomous part of Tanzania).
- Cornwall, represented by the Cornwall Commonwealth Games Association (CCGA), sent a bid for participation in the 2006 Commonwealth Games, however, their application was rejected by the CGF, who stated that the constitutional status of Cornwall was not an issue that should be resolved through this medium. However, in 2010, the CCGA sought to launch a legal challenge to the decision of the CGF, stating that the Cornish bid of 2006 fulfilled the entire criterion of the CGF, and by rejecting the bid, the CGF had violated their own code, failing to follow their own criteria for participation. The Cornwall team will therefore seek competition in the 2014 games.
- The British Indian Ocean Territory currently has no permanent population although there is a sizeable population who were born in the BIOT but currently live in Mauritius and the United Kingdom and so would be eligible to compete on birth criteria.
- Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus has made applications to the CGF to send teams.
- South Sudan is likely to compete at the 2014 Commonwealth Games.
- It is also conceivable that any future members of the Commonwealth such as applicants (for example Sudan and Yemen) may participate in future games. The Colony of Aden and Federation of South Arabia, precursors to modern Yemen, participated before in 1962 and in 1966. Sudan was an Anglo-Egyptian protectorate until independence in 1956.
- The Pitcairn Islands' tiny population (currently 50 to 60 people) would appear to prevent this British overseas territory from competing.
- Tokelau was expected to take part in the 2010 Games in Delhi but did not do so.
- The lack of a permanent population would seem to prevent the British overseas territories of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands and British Antarctic Territory, the New Zealand territory of Ross Dependency and the Australian external territories of Australian Antarctic Territory, Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Coral Sea Islands and Heard Island and McDonald Islands from competing.
Lawn bowler Willie Wood from Scotland is the first competitor to have competed in seven Commonwealth Games, from 1974 to 2002. Also, Greg Yelavich, a sports shooter from New Zealand, has won 12 medals in seven games from 1986 to 2010.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Commonwealth Games|
- All-time medal tally of Commonwealth Games
- All-Africa Games
- Asian Games
- Commonwealth Mountain and Ultradistance Running Championships
- Indian Empire Games
- Jeux de la Francophonie
- Kingdom Games
- Lusophony Games
- Mediterranean Games
- Olympic Games
- Pan American Games
- World Games
- Harold, Perkin (September 1989). "Teaching the nations how to play: sport and society in the British Empire and Commonwealth". International Journal of the History of Sport 6 (2): pp. 145–155. doi:10.1080/09523368908713685.
- "The story of the Commonwealth Games". Commonwealth Games Federation. Retrieved 20 January 2008.
- "1930 British Empire Games – Introduction". Commonwealth Games Federation. Retrieved 29 October 2009.
- DePauw, Karen P; Gavron, Susan J (2005). Disability sport. Human Kinetics. pp. 102–. ISBN 978-0-7360-4638-1. Retrieved 25 February 2012.
- Van Ooyen and Justin Anjema, Mark; Anjema, Justin (25 March 2004). "A Review and Interpretation of the Events of the 1994 Commonwealth Games" (PDF). Redeemer University College. Retrieved 25 February 2012.
- "Para-sports for elite athletes with a disability". Commonwealth Games Federation website. Retrieved 25 February 2012.
- High Achievers. Australian Commonwealth Games Association. Retrieved on 2010-04-05.
- Growth of the Commonwealth Games. Commonwealth Games Federation. Retrieved on 2010-04-05.
- Sports Programme. Commonwealth Games Federation. Retrieved on 26 June 2009.
- 5 hours ago (2010-06-11). "Canoeing closer to being a full-medal event". Commonwealthdelhi2010.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2011-10-26.
- "Fiji suspended from Commonwealth". The New Zealand Herald. 2 September 2009. Retrieved 25 September 2011.
- "Commonwealth Games Federation - Commonwealth Countries". Retrieved 10 April 2013.
- "Campaign Kernow". Campaign Kernow. Retrieved 26 October 2011.
- "South Sudan faces race against time to make it to start line for London 2012". Insidethegames.biz. 10 July 2011. Retrieved 26 October 2011.
- Commonwealth Games Official Website
- Statistics (1911 to 2006)
- Flags and emblems of the Commonwealth Games – evolution of the emblems of the Games