Communalism (South Asia)
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Communalism is used in South Asia to denote attempts to promote primarily religious stereotypes between groups of people identified as different communities and to stimulate violence between those groups. It derives not from community but from "tensions between the (religious) communities. The sense given to this word in South Asia is represented by the word sectarianism outside South Asia.
In South Asia, "communalism" is seen as existing primarily between Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs, and Christians. In contemporary India, "communalism" designates not only the conflicts between extremist religious communities, but also those between peoples of the same religion but from different regions and states. Caste Political parties are generally considered to play an important role in stimulating, supporting and/or suppressing communalism.
Communalism is a term used in South Asia to represent idealogies centred on particular communities, especially religious communities. The term came into use in early 20th century during the British colonial rule, where the rulers saw India divided into several communities and attempted to placate separate "communal" interests. The Hindu Mahasabha and the All-India Muslim League represented such communal interests, whereas Indian National Congress represented an overarching "nationalist" vision. In the run up to independence in 1947, communalism and nationalism came to be competing idealogies and led to the division of British India into the Republics of India and Pakistan. The bloody Partition violence gave a clear sense to every one what communalism leads to, and it has since been frowned upon in India.
Movements and groups
- Hindu Nationalism/sectarianism
- Indian Muslim nationalism/Islamic Fundamentalism
- All-India Muslim League
- Indian Union Muslim League
- National Development Front
- Fairazi movement
- Wahabist Tabligh-e-Islam and other Muslim extremist groups.
- Tablighi Jamaat (Deobandi)
- Students Islamic Movement of India
- Tamil Nadu Muslim Munnetra Kazagham
- Students Islamic Organisation of India
- Popular Front of India
- Christian fundamentalist/Secessionist
- Various Secessionists
Incidents of communal violence
Examples of communalist violence, with strong motivations based on religious identity include:
- the 1809–1811 Hindu-Muslim Lat Bhairo riots
- the 1921 Moplah Rebellion
- the 1931 Hindu-Muslim Benares riot
- the 1931 Cawnpore Riots
- Manzilgah and Sukkur (Sind) Riots, 15th Feb. 1940
- the 1946 Calcutta riots death toll estimated at 6,000, most of the victims were Hindus.
- the 1947 "population exchanges" at the partition of India, resulting in an estimated 500,000 deaths.
- the 1984 anti-Sikh riots following the assassination of Indira Gandhi.
- the 1992 Bombay Riots in Bombay more than 200,000 people (both Hindus and Muslims) fled the city or their homes during the time of the riots, 900–3000 people died.
- 1992 December 2- Babri masjid demolition by Sangparivar and subsequent communal violence in various parts of India
- the 1998 Wandhama massacre, 25 Hindu victims.
- the 1999 Graham Staines murder.
- the 2000 Chittisinghpura massacre, 35 Sikhs killed.
- the 2002 Godhra Train Burning, 58 Hindus killed.
- the 2002 Gujarat violence,790 Muslims and 254 Hindus killed.
- the 2002 Kaluchak massacre, 31 Hindus killed.
- the 2002 Marad massacre, 14 Hindu deaths – Indian Union Muslim League conspired and executed the massacre.
- the 2006 Kherlanji massacre, lynching of four Dalits.
- the 2008 Indore Riots, 7 people killed, 6 of whom were Muslims
- the 2007–2009 religious violence in Orissa, Christians mostly targeted, Hindu houses burnt.
- the 2010 Deganga riots, Hindus targeted, Hindu businesses, houses and other property destroyed.
- the 2012 Assam violence, between Bodo Hindus and Bengali Muslim settlers
Incidents of "communal violence" cannot clearly be separated by incidents of terrorism. "Communal violence" tends to refer to mob killings, while terrorism describes concerted attacks by small groups of militants (see definition of terrorism). See also Terrorism in India#Chronology of major incidents.
- Caste system
- Persecution of Hindus
- Ayodhya debate
- Terrorism in India
- Indian nationalism
- Pakistani nationalism
- NCERT controversy
- Religion in India
- Persecution of Muslims
- Islamic Terrorism
- Language conflicts in India
- Hate group
- Manuel, Peter. "Music, the Media, and Communal Relations in North India, Past and Present," in Contesting the Nation: Religion, Community, and the Politics of Democracy in India, edited by David Ludden (Philadelphia: Univ. of Pennsylvania, 1996), pp. 119–39.
- M. E. Marty, R. S. Appleby (eds.), Fundamentalisms Observed The Fundamentalism Project vol. 4, eds., University Of Chicago Press (1994), ISBN 978-0-226-50878-8
- Mumtaz Ahmad,an 'Islamic Fundamentalism in South Asia: The Jamaat-i-Islami and the Tablighi Jamaat', pp. 457–530.
- Gold, Daniel, 'Organized Hinduisms: From Vedic Truths to Hindu Nation', pp. 531–593.
- T. N. Madan, 'The Double-Edged Sword: Fundamentalism and the Sikh Religious Tradition', pp. 594–627.
- Asgharali Engineer. Lifting the veil: communal violence and communal harmony in contemporary India. Sangam Books, 1995. ISBN 81-7370-040-0.
- Ludden, David, editor. Contesting the Nation: Religion, Community, and the Politics of Democracy in India, edited by David Ludden (Philadelphia: Univ. of Pennsylvania, 1996).
- A History of the Hindu-Muslim Problem in India from the Earliest Contacts Up to its Present Phase With Suggestions for Its Solution. Allahabad, 1933. Congress report on the 1931 Cawnpur Riots.
- Nandini Gooptu, The Urban Poor and Militant Hinduism in Early Twentieth-Century Uttar Pradesh, Modern Asian Studies, Cambridge University Press (1997).
- Communalists and their communities
- The riot-torn history of Hindu-Muslim relations, 1920–1940