Toronto Transit Commission
|Owner||City of Toronto|
|Locale||Toronto, parts of the GTA (may incur extra fare)|
|Transit type||Bus, rapid transit, streetcar|
|Number of lines||more than 149 bus routes, 4 rapid transit lines, 11 streetcar routes|
|Number of stations||69|
|Daily ridership||2.65 million |
|Chief executive||Andy Byford|
|Headquarters||William McBrien Building
1900 Yonge Street
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
|Number of vehicles||1,851 buses, 652 rapid transit cars, 248 streetcars, 129 Wheel-Trans buses|
|Track gauge||4 ft 10 7⁄8 in (1,495 mm) Toronto gauge|
The Toronto Transit Commission (TTC) is a public transport agency that operates transit bus, streetcar, paratransit, and rapid transit services in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Established in 1921, the TTC comprises four rapid transit lines with 69 stations, over 149 bus routes, and 11 streetcar lines, of which 148 routes make 243 connections with a rapid transit station during weekday rush hours.
The TTC operates the third-most heavily used urban mass transit system in North America, after the New York City Transit Authority and Mexico City Metro. In 4th quarter 2012, the average daily ridership was 2.76 million passengers: 1,425,300 by bus, 271,100 by streetcar, 46,400 by intermediate rail, and 1,011,700 by subway. The projected 2013 ridership is 528 million riders. The TTC also provides door-to-door services for persons with physical disabilities known as Wheel-Trans; in fourth quarter, 2012, 9,800 trips were made through this service daily. The TTC employed 12,449 personnel on December 31, 2011.
- 1 History
- 2 Operations
- 3 Services
- 4 Infrastructure
- 5 Safety
- 6 Management
- 7 Current management team
- 8 Personnel
- 9 Public criticism
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 Further reading
- 13 External links
Public transit in Toronto started in 1849 with a privately operated transit service. In later years, the city operated some routes, but in 1921 assumed control over all routes and formed the Toronto Transportation Commission to operate them. During this period, streetcars provided the bulk of the service. In 1954, the TTC adopted its present name, opened the first subway line, and greatly expanded its service area to cover the newly formed municipality of Metropolitan Toronto (which eventually became the enlarged city of Toronto). The system has evolved to feature a wide network of surface routes with the subway lines as the backbone. On February 17, 2008, the TTC made many service improvements, finally reversing more than a decade of service reductions and only minor improvements.
The Gloucester subway cars, the first version of TTC subway cars, were known as "red rockets" because of their bright red exterior, have been retired. The name lives on as the TTC uses the phrase to advertise the service, such as "Ride the Rocket" in advertising material, "Rocket" in the names of some express buses, and the new "Toronto Rocket" subway cars, which began revenue operation on July 21, 2011. Another common slogan is "The Better Way".
The TTC has recovered generally its operating costs from the fare box. This was especially true during the Great Depression and World War II, when it accumulated the considerable wealth which allowed it to expand widely after the war. It was not until the late 1950s that the newly formed Metro government was forced to provide operational subsidies, required primarily due to the TTC's requirement to provide bus service to the low-density suburbs in Metro Toronto.
Until the mid-1990s, the TTC received operational subsidies from both the municipal level and the provincial level of government. When the Harris Progressive Conservatives in Ontario ended those subsidies, the TTC was forced to cut back service with a significant curtailment put into effect on February 18, 1996, and an increased financial burden was placed on the municipal government. Since then, the TTC has consistently been in financial difficulties. Service cuts were averted in 2007, though, when the Toronto City Council voted to introduce new taxes to help pay for city services, including the TTC. As a result, the TTC became the largest transit operator in Anglo-America not to receive provincial/state subsidies. The TTC has received federal funding for capital projects from as early as 2009. The TTC is also considered one of the most costly transit systems in North America. For the 2011 operating year, the TTC had a projected operating budget of $1.45 billion. Revenue from fares covered approximately 70% of the budget, whereas the remaining 30% originated from the city. In 2009 through 2011, provincial and federal subsidies amounted to 0% of the budget. In contrast to this, STM Montreal receives approximately 10% of its operating budget from the provincial (Quebec) government, and Ottawa Transpo receives 9% of its funding from the province. The fairness of preferentially subsidizing transit in specific Canadian cities has been questioned by citizens.
Past transit operators
The TTC operated the ferry service to the Toronto Islands from 1927 to 1962, when it was transferred to the Metro Parks and Culture department.
Gray Coach Lines was a suburban and regional intercity bus operator founded in 1927 by the TTC. Gray Coach used interurban coaches to link Toronto to points throughout southern Ontario. In addition, Gray Coach operated tour buses in association with Gray Line Tours. The main terminal was the Metropolitan Toronto Bus Terminal on Elizabeth Street north of Dundas Street, downtown. In 1954, Gray Coach expanded further when it acquired suburban routes from independent bus operators not merged with the TTC as it expanded to cover Metro Toronto. By the 1980s, Gray Coach faced fierce competition in the interurban service in the GTA. The TTC sold Gray Coach Lines in 1990 to Stagecoach Holdings, which split the operation between Greyhound Canada and the government of Ontario three years later.
Buses are a large part of TTC operations today. Before about 1960 however, they played a minor role compared to streetcars. Buses began to operate in the city in 1921, and became necessary for areas without streetcar service. After an earlier experiment in the 1920s, trolleybuses were used on a number of routes starting in 1947, but all trolley bus routes were converted to bus operation between 1991 and 1993. The TTC always used the term "trolley coach" to refer to its trackless electric vehicles. Hundreds of old buses have been replaced with the new, low-floor Orion VII, and the TTC has acquired many hybrid electric buses. The TTC's hybrid buses were first put on the road in 2006; these were replaced with the newer 500 Orion VII Next Generation Hybrids in 2008. A new order will bring the total number of hybrids to over 500, second only to New York City. Older (2001–2006) TTC Orion VIIs feature the standard "breadbox" style, whereas newer (2007– ) buses feature Orion's new, more stylish body. Although most of the bus fleet has already been replaced, a number of lift-equipped, high floor buses are reaching the end of their useful lifespan, and another order of buses may be needed around 2012. With a total of 2,031 buses, the TTC is the third-largest transit bus operator in North America, behind the Metropolitan Transportation Authority in New York City (5,600+) and the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (2,911).
The TTC also runs Wheel-Trans, a paratransit service for the physically disabled with special low-floor buses designed to accommodate wheelchairs and to make boarding easier for ambulatory customers with limited mobility.
The TTC ordered 27 articulated buses, nicknamed 'Artics', which began service December 2013, with all newly ordered buses scheduled to be in service by January 2015. At 60 feet (18 metres) long versus a standard 40-foot bus, the Nova LFS Artics will hold about 112 people, in contrast to 65 on the usual bus.
The Toronto rapid transit system consists of; the Yonge–University–Spadina line (Line 1), a U-shaped line that opened in 1954 and was last extended in 1996; the Bloor–Danforth line (Line 2), an east-west line that opened in 1966 and was last extended in 1980; the Scarborough RT (Line 3), a partly elevated light metro line that opened in 1985 and continues from the Bloor-Danforth line's eastern terminus; and the Sheppard line (Line 4) opened in 2002.
The three subway lines are served by 678 cars grouped in trains of four cars on the SRT and Sheppard subway, and six cars on the Yonge-University-Spadina and Bloor-Danforth lines, with all three sharing non-revenue track connections and using the same technology. The Scarborough RT has a fleet of 28 cars grouped into trains of four cars each, and is not compatible with the subway system. It shares no track connections or equipment.
All subway lines provide service seven days a week from approximately 5:45 a.m. to 1:30 a.m. (the following day) (last train runs at approximately 1:45 in each direction) except for Sundays, in which the opening is delayed until approximately 9:00 a.m. During the overnight periods, the subway and its stations are closed to perform maintenance at track level and in the stations themselves. Overnight service is provided by buses operating above ground. These special overnight routes are issued numbers in the 300 series and are referred to as Blue Night routes, indicated by a typical TTC bus stop sign with a blue band added.
The Eglinton Crosstown LRT is under construction. It will run underground in the central part of the line between Keele Street and Laird Drive, with the remainder a surface LRT route which would span almost the entire length of the city, from Mt. Dennis in Etobicoke to Scarborough. Service is expected to commence in 2020.
Toronto's streetcar system is one of the few in North America still operating along street-running tracks and has been operating since the mid-19th century. Horsecar service started in 1861, and 600 V DC overhead electric service began in 1892. New TTC routes since the 1940s have generally been operated by other modes, and the less busy streetcar routes have also been converted. Streetcar routes are now focused on the downtown area, with none running farther north than St. Clair Avenue, 6 km from Lake Ontario.
Up to the 1980s, the TTC operated a fleet of 765 PCC-type streetcars, 540 of which it purchased new. The rest were purchased as other cities sold their PCC streetcar fleets.
The TTC's current fleet of 248 Canadian Light Rail Vehicle and Articulated Light Rail Vehicle streetcars is nearing the end of its useful life. The TTC will be buying 204 new Flexity Outlook light rapid transit vehicles from Bombardier Transportation. The first two new streetcars entered service on the 510 Spadina line on August 31, 2014. As more new vehicles arrive and are commissioned by the TTC, they will be rolled out onto other streetcar routes across Toronto with full deployment expected by 2019.
The TTC fare system accepts cash, tickets (for students ages 13 to 19 and seniors 65 or older), tokens, and transit passes. Since January 3, 2010, the adult cash fare has been $3.00 for a single trip. Tokens, however, have increased in price per token from $2.50 in 2010 to $2.60 in 2012, $2.65 in 2013, to $2.70 in 2014. In 2015 token fares have increased again to $2.80. Tokens are sold in sets of three or seven at the same price per token, and each token is valid for a single trip. They must be purchased in increments of four from token vending machines (TVMs) or you may purchase them single handed from collector booths.
TTC cash fare prices have risen faster than inflation since 1990. While the consumer price index (CPI) has risen at an annualized rate of 1.8% in Canada, TTC fares have increased at 4.5%. A hypothetical investment in tokens would have been more profitable than to deposit money in a savings account or Guaranteed Investment Certificate.
|Type of fare||Adult||Senior/student||Child|
|Cash (single fare)||$3.00||$2.00||FREE|
|Tickets & Tokens||3 tokens for $8.40
7 tokens for $19.60
|5 senior/student tickets for $9.75
10 senior/student tickets for $19.50
(choose 1 option)
|• $2.80 cash
• Express sticker
|• $1.95 cash
• Senior/student ticket
• Express sticker
|Day Pass||GTA Weekly Pass||Post-Secondary Students Metropass||PRESTO Fare System|
Transfers are free for trips in one direction, and are encouraged by the grid system of routes and by transfer terminals at many subway stations.
The Presto card, a unified smart card-based payment system for the entire Greater Toronto Area, is being introduced. Union subway station was the first Toronto location to use the card in 2007. As of December 2014, 14 TTC stations are equipped with Presto Card readers, most of which are located on the Yonge-University-Spadina line. The TTC to plans to adopt the Presto system in all of its subway stations, all buses, and new streetcars by 2017. The TTC's new streetcars that entered service in 2014 will accept Presto in November.
Schedules and route information
Route information can be accessed through the TTC Info number (416) 393-INFO (393-4636). Individual route schedules are available online at TTC.ca. Google Maps has supported the TTC since October 2010. Schedules for particular route are also usually posted at TTC transfer points, and trip planning services are available by phone.
Additional TTC information is circulated by "What's On" and "Rocket Rider/TTC Customer News" pamphlets on some vehicles. Information can be accessed in person at the TTC head office (Davisville Station 1900 Yonge St.), but the TTC Info Centre at the Bloor-Yonge Station has been closed.
On December 15, 2008, the TTC launched a new Next Vehicle Arrival System (NVAS) to indicate the time of arrival of the next vehicle along a given route. The Spadina and Harbourfont streetcar lines were the first equipped with the NVIS system, with time-to-arrival information displayed on LED systems at Union and Spadina stations. Spadina also features a flat-screen television that shows all of the cars on the 510 Spadina route. All TTC streetcars have been upgraded with Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers and now operate with NVIS. Most subway stations are equipped with OneStop media screens that display the time until the next train, the time of day, and other useful information. The next vehicle feature is available on LCD screens in all stations. Since mid-2011, all buses and streetcars have had the tracking feature enabled, accessible free online and by SMS for commuters.
Online trip planner
On February 3, 2010, the TTC launched an online trip planner, which allows commuters to plan their routes and transfers by typing in an address, main intersection, or landmark as a starting point or destination from the TTC's official website. However, since its launch, the trip planner has remained in beta mode with many bugs remaining to be fixed. On October 2010, the TTC integrated its trip planner with Google Maps.
The TTC connects with other transit systems of the Greater Toronto Area. GO Transit, MiWay, York Region Transit, Viva Rapid Transit, Brampton Transit, and Durham Region Transit are connected to the TTC via some of Toronto's subway stations and GO Transit's commuter rail stations. Some of their bus routes also coincide or intercept some of those of the TTC's, such as the Viva buses plying Finch Avenue en route to its North York hub. Via Rail and Amtrak connect with the TTC at Union Station, while Greyhound intercity buses also connect with the TTC at the Toronto Coach, Scarborough Centre and Yorkdale terminals.
The communication system used by surface vehicles is called the Communications and Information System. It was piloted in the 1970s, implemented in 1991 and is now deployed on all TTC surface vehicles.
The TTC is in the process of installing wireless routers in to many subway stations. The service is ad supported and free for users, The TTC has said that the advertisements will generate revenue.
As of February 13, 2015 the service is available in the following stations:
- St George
- St Andrew
- St Patrick
Although the Wheel-Trans door-to-door service has been available since the mid-1970s, since the 1990s, the TTC has focused on providing accessible services on conventional bus routes, the RT and subway. 29 of the 68 stations on the Scarborough RT and the Yonge–University–Spadina and Bloor–Danforth subway lines are wheel-chair accessible, and all stations on the Sheppard line are fully accessible. In December 2011 all bus routes became accessible with the retirement of the commission's last inaccessible buses. On August 31, 2014, the streetcar network became accessible when the commission launched its new fleet of low-floor Bombardier's Flexity Outlook streetcars, which will replace the commission's non-accessible vehicles by 2020.
All surface vehicles have been equipped with the Surface Vehicle Automatic Stop Announcement System (SVASAS) since February 2008. It operates over speakers indicating the next stop (e.g., "Next Stop: Yonge Street, Queen Subway Station.") An LED board on streetcars and buses displays the name of the upcoming streets as the vehicle progresses on its route. Since October 25, 2007, the Ontario Human Rights Commission has urged all public transit operations in Ontario including GO Transit to call out all stops for the visually impaired passengers. Transit operations who do not announce all stops could be violating riders' rights according to the OHRC.
Most TTC surface routes terminate at loops, side streets or subway station complexes. The TTC system is one of the few mass transit systems in Canada where many surface routes can be accessed inside a paid-fare zone common to other routes or subway lines. This feature allows boarding via the back doors at terminals, reduces the usage of paper transfers, and the need of operators to check for proof-of-payment.
Stops and shelters
The shelters in the system are installed and maintained under contracts with Astral Media (with CBS Outdoor since 2006 and previously Viacom Media) and Toronto Transportation Services. 4,100 shelters are managed by Toronto Transportation and most from the former transportation departments of the municipalities that make up the City of Toronto.
There are four versions of shelters found in the city:
- Kramer Design Associates Ltd/Cantilevered arch roof – newest version being installed
- Cantilever arch roof canopy – used on the 512 St. Clair streetcar line
- Contemporary or Barrel vault dome roof – some by Daytech and installed by Viacom and CBS are found mostly in suburbs like Scarborough
- Barrel vault dome canopy – select stations with streetcar platforms
- Traditional flat top – older version in the former city of Toronto and variants in Etobicoke
- High Capacity Traditional – used on 510 Spadina streetcar line
- Classic shelters – oldest version without adds and found mostly suburbs
The Otter Loop Shelter on Avenue Road south of Lawrence Avenue West is the only remaining bus shelter from the 1940s and 1950s. It was designed by John B. Parkin Associates. The loop and shelter are not in regular revenue service and not owned by the TTC.
The transit system is introducing shelters with solar panels and some with next stop broadcast. The latter will appear along streetcar lines.
TTC buses and streetcars are operated out of a number of garages and carhouses located around the city and are serviced at several other facilities. The surface routes are divided into several divisions. Individual divisions have a superintendent, an on-duty mobile supervisor, a CIS communications centre, and a garage facility tasked with managing the division's vehicle fleet and routes.
TTC Head Office is in the William McBrien Building, located at 1900 Yonge Street at Davisville Avenue, which opened in 1957. The previous TTC Headquarters was at Yonge and Front Streets in the Toronto Board of Trade Building.
There are plans to relocate the HQ to a yet to be built site at 4050 Yonge Street near York Mills Road. The site is a commuter parking lot with a TTC entrance to York Mills Subway Station. Build Toronto is charged with helping the commission relocate, but it is facing political opposition from many mayoral candidates.
Commuter parking lots
The TTC operates 30 commuter parking lots, all at subway stations, with a total of 13,981 parking spaces. Effective April 1, 2009, it eliminated free parking for Metropass holders. All passengers using parking facilities during peak hours must now pay for the service. The rates vary by location from $2.00–$6.00 between 5:00 a.m. and 3:00 p.m. on weekdays, with free parking at other times. Certain lots can only be used by commuters with a valid metropass. All TTC lots are open (uncovered) parking lots.
There are 10 sets (men and women) of public washrooms located on the TTC system, all at subway stations that are major transfer points, at the ends of rapid transit lines, or at the former end of rapid transit lines. All are located within the paid fare area and thus available only to subway customers.
Safety features provided by the TTC include:
- Request Stop on surface routes (9 p.m.-5 a.m.) (excluding streetcar routes); all passengers travelling alone can request the driver to stop at points between bus stops. The program started in 1991, due in part to the activities of serial rapist and killer Paul Bernardo. On October 13, 2011, after many requests from the public and, finally, a letter by LGBTQ rights group Queer Ontario, the TTC announced that it would make the Request Stop Program available to all passengers in need.
- Designated Waiting Areas (DWA) on subway and RT platforms; these are well lit, have intercoms, monitored by security cameras, and are at the location where the guard car stops.
- Toronto EMS Paramedics stationed at key locations within the subway system during the morning and evening rush to assist with medical emergencies, and provide a faster response. This also reduces delays on the rapid transit system.
- Emergency Power Cut stations – indicated by a blue beacon – and located on both ends of all Subway/RT platforms with a telephone to call Transit Control's emergency number (3555).
- Yellow Emergency Alarm (formerly Passenger Assistance Alarm) strips on all subway and RT cars since 1977.
- Emergency stopping mechanisms (PGEV – Passenger/Guard Emergency Valve) on the T1 subway and Scarborough RT trains (for use in severe emergencies, I.e., doors open while train in motion, person stuck in doors as train leaves station, derailment, etc.) except for the new Toronto Rocket subway trains.
- Approximately 12,000 cameras monitoring activities on the subway system and on the entire fleet of buses, streetcars and Toronto Rocket subway trains.
- Underground Alert messages displayed on the subway platform video screens to notify passengers about criminals.
- TTC Transit Enforcement Unit
In June 2011, the TTC announced a new suicide prevention program called "Crisis Link" aimed at people who are in a station and in immediate danger of performing self-harm. Special speed dial buttons have been installed on pay phones in station Designated Waiting Areas that "link" the caller to a 24-hour crisis councillor service provided by Distress Centres of Toronto. Signage has also been placed in high risk areas of the station platform directing those at risk to utilize the service. The program includes 141 speed dial buttons on the system's payphones and 200 posters placed on station platforms.
TTC By-law No. 1
The TTC's By-law No. 1 is a by-law governing the actions of passengers and employees while on Commission property. It can be enforced by a "proper authority" which is defined in the by-law as: "an employee or agent of the TTC wearing a TTC uniform; an employee or agent of the TTC carrying an identification card issued by the TTC; or a municipal police officer." The by-law covers rules regarding, fare payment and conduct while in the system. Effective October 12, 2009, a revised version of the by-law has been issued. Revisions include the restriction of placing feet or "any object that may soil" on seats, the prohibition of using offensive language, and the provision that one must give up their seat to a person with a disability in priority seating areas.
Transit Enforcement Unit
From 1997 to 2011, the TTC employed Special Constables that were responsible for safety and security and had similar policing powers to Toronto Police Service officers. During the phase out of the Special Constables, the Toronto Police reinstated its Transit Patrol Unit, which had originally been cancelled in the mid-1990s. The Special Constables were replaced by bylaw enforcement officers known as Transit Enforcement Officers, as part of the TTC's Transit Enforcement Unit.
The negotiation between TTC and the Toronto Police Services Board took place in 2013 resulting restored Special Constable Status and Peace Officer Authority.
OneStop media system
The TTC, in partnership with OneStop Media Group, have installed large LCD television screens in major stations throughout the system. The new media system replaced the old "Subway Online" system, which has been decommissioned.
The signs feature advertising, news headlines and weather information from local 24-hour news channel CP24, TTC-specific information regarding service changes and delays, information pertaining to using the system, and Toronto Police Service alerts about suspects. The system can also be used when an Amber Alert is issued, which also may include announcements via the P.A. system.
In September 2008, Dundas Station was the first to feature a “Next Train” announcement integrated into the signage. The system has been expanded to many other stations since its initial roll out. Since mid-July 2009, the majority of stations have been equipped with this service.
The TTC uses several types of voice and data communications. There are three main systems. The first is the system used by Operations, Security and Maintenance. This system operates on five UHF conventional frequencies. Channels 1, 3, 4 and 5 are used for day-to-day operations, while Channel 2 is reserved for the Wheel-Trans service.
Buses and streetcars use the CIS (Communications and Information System). This system employs transmit facilities throughout the city. Each bus and streetcar has a Transit Radio Unified Microprocessor (TRUMP) set on board. This is attached to a transponder receiver which allows CIS operators to track the location of the vehicle using an older computational system known as dead reckoning. The TRUMP also allows the operators and CIS operators to send and receive text messages for such things as short turns and route adjustments. There is also the option of voice communications between the operator and the CIS operator. The CIS was conceived in the late 1970s and was fully implemented in 1991. With the introduction of the NextBus GPS technology, the CIS positioning system is now[when?] using a combination of GPS data and the old dead reckoning sign-post system.
The third system is used by the subway system. This is called the Wayside system. Replacing the old devices which communicated by the third rail are new UHF MPT-1327 Trunking radio sets. The Subway system is divided into three separate systems, each representing its respective subway line. This new trunking system allows Transit Control to communicate directly with a single train, a zone encompassing several trains, or the entire line. The Scarborough RT is not included in this system. They continue to use a single channel UHF system, much the same as the system used by operations staff.
All of these systems can be monitored by a scanner capable of the UHF Low band (406–430 MHz). Numeric codes — often referring to people or positions (299 Bloor – Subway Line mechanic at Bloor) are also announced through the radio and/or the overhead paging system. The TTC also has Several "Plans" ('Plan A' through 'Plan G') that are used in emergencies but are not announced on the P.A. system and only referred to on the radio.
The TTC day-to-day operations are managed by the Chief Executive Officer. It used to be managed by the Chief General Manager (CGM). The executive of the TTC is led by the Chair of the TTC Board.
A list of CGM and CEO of the TTC:
- Herbert Henry Couzens, General Manager (GM) 1921–1924
- David William Harvey, GM 1924–1938
- Henry C. Patten, GM 1938–1952
- W. E. P. Duncan, GM 1952–1959
- John G. Inglis, General Manager – Operations (GMO) 1959–1968
- James H. Kearns, GMO 1968–1975
- R. Michael Warren, Chief General Manager (CGM) 1975–1981
- Alf Savage, CGM 1981–1987
- Al Leach, CGM 1987–1995
- David L. Gunn, CGM 1995–1999
- Rick Ducharme, CGM 1999–2006
- Gary Webster, CGM 2006–2012
- Andy Byford, acting CGM and Chief Executive Officer 2012–
Current management team
- Mike Palmer, Deputy Chief Operating Officer
- Brad Ross, director of corporate communications
- Richard Leary, Chief Service Officer
- Chris Upfold, Deputy CEO / Chief Customer Officer
In 2013, the TTC assigned group station managers on most subway and RT routes:
- Broadview to Kennedy subway stations and Kennedy to McCowan RT stations
- Castle Frank to Spadina
- Bathurst to Kipling
- Finch to St. Clair
- St. Andrew to Summerhill
- Downsview to Osgoode
The Sheppard line is managed under the "Finch to St. Clair" division.
The TTC has a team of over 12,000 employees. Most are operators, however the Commission also employs supervisors, custodians and a wide range of skilled trades people who work on vehicles and critical subway and surface infrastructure.
Unionized workers of the TTC workers have performed strike actions eight times since 1952:
- 1952 – On strike for 19 days.
- 1970 – On strike for 12 days.
- 1974 – On strike for 23 days in August; service resumed when back-to-work legislation was passed by the province, which marked the first time the province was involved in a TTC strike.
- 1978 – On strike for 8 days; service resumed by order of back-to-work legislation.
- 1991 – On strike for 8 days in September.
- 1999 – On strike for 2 days in April; service resumed by order of back-to-work legislation.
- 2006 – On strike for 1 day on May 29.
- 2008 – On strike for 2 days on April 26 at 12:01 a.m.
At the request of Mayor Rob Ford and Toronto City Council, on March 30, 2011 the Province of Ontario passed legislation classifying the TTC an essential service, which removed the employees' right to strike.
The TTC has been widely criticized by Toronto residents and members of the public. Amongst the most common complaints are the poor efficiency and organization of the staff resulting in commonly long delays and causing inconvenience to riders. Other most common complaints are the staff's poor responses and attitudes to customer issues, inquiries and needs for assistance.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Toronto Transit Commission.|
- Toronto Transit Commission facilities
- TTC Special Constable Services
- List of Toronto rapid transit stations
- Toronto rapid transit signals
- Toronto Subway font
- TTC Presidents' Conference Car
- David L. Gunn
- Rocket Riders (a non-profit citizens advocacy group dedicated to public transit issues)
- Metro systems by annual passenger rides
- Obay (a viral marketing campaign on the TTC and other transit providers in Ontario by Colleges Ontario)
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- Official website
- Clara Thomas Archives and Special Collections – Archival photographs about the Toronto Transit Commission from the Toronto Telegram Fonds – Clara Thomas Archives and Special Collections, York University
- Transit Toronto