The Communist Party of Byelorussia (Russian: Коммунистическая партия Белоруссии, Belarusian: Камуністычная партыя Беларусі), known as Communist Party (bolsheviks) of Byelorussia (Russian: Коммунистическая партия (большевиков) Белоруссии) until 1952, was a communist party in Belarus 1918-1991, created following the Russian Revolution of 1917. It was created as part of the Russian Communist Party (bolsheviks) December 30–31, 1918 with 17,800 members. It was important in creating the Belorussian Soviet Republic in January 1919. From February 1919 until 1920 it functioned as a single organisation together with the Communist Party of Lithuania, known as the Communist Party (bolsheviks) of Lithuania and Belorussia.
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