Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) Liberation
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|Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) Liberation|
|Headquarters||U-90, Shakarpur, Delhi-110092|
|Student wing||All India Students Association|
|Youth wing||Revolutionary Youth Association|
|ECI Status||Registered Party|
|Politics of India
Communist Party of India (Marxist–Leninist) Liberation is a communist political party in India.
Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) was formed in 1969 by the All India Coordination Committee of Communist Revolutionaries, who had split from Communist Party of India (Marxist) in 1967. CPI(ML) advocated armed struggle and condemned participation in parliamentary elections and work in mass movements. Initially the party leaders were Charu Majumdar and Kanu Sanyal. In 1971 the party was split in two, when Satyanarayan Singh revolted against Majumdars's sectarianism. CPI(ML) Liberation has its roots in the faction that remained loyal to Majumdar. Later Majumdar's CPI(ML) was split in pro- and anti-Lin Biao-factions. CPI(ML) Liberation is the party that evolved out if the anti-Lin Biao faction.
In 1975 Vinod Mishra was elected general secretary. From 1977 a reform process took place in Mishra's CPI(ML). The party conference in 1979 declared that mass organizations ought to be created in every front (which the original CPI(ML) had condemned as "economism"). Mishra's CPI(ML) also maintained good relations with the Communist Party of China, whilst most other Indian ML-factions condemned the reorientation that was pushed through by Deng Xiaoping after the death of Mao Zedong.
In 1982 the Indian Peoples Front was formed, and the party started contesting elections under the name of IPF. In 1989 IPF was able to win a Lok Sabha seat from Ara, Bihar. IPF contested a Municipal election from South Dum Dum constituency in Kolkata in 1982 under the leadership of Bikash Dasgupta, but lost to the much stronger CPI(M). Subsequently the movement died in Kolkata while it was still intact in other places like Ara. In 1991 the Ara seat was lost, but the party won a seat in Assam through the mass movement Autonomous State Demand Committee. In 1994 IPF was dissolved and the party started contesting elections under its proper name. However it continued to contest elections under the banner of ASDC until 1999.
Mishra died in 1998. The current general secretary is Dipankar Bhattacharya, who hails from West Bengal. In the Lok Sabha elections in 1999 the party won 0.3% of the votes and one seat (the former ASDC-seat from Assam). In the 2004 elections the seat was lost, mainly due to a split within ASDC.
The English-language publication of the party is Liberation, and thus the party is called CPI(ML) Liberation. In India there are several other CPI(ML)s, such as CPI(ML) New Democracy, CPI(ML) Janashakti and CPI(ML) Red Flag.
The main mass organizations of the party are:
- Revolutionary Youth Association (RYA)
- All India Students Association (AISA)
- All India Agricultural Labour Association (AIALA)
- All India Peasants' Coordination Committee
- All India Central Council of Trade Unions (AICCTU)
- All India Progressive Women's Association (AIPWA)
- Autonomous State Demand Committee (ASDC)
In Tamil the party is called இந்திய கம்யூனிஸ்ட் கட்சி (மார்க்ஸிஸ்ட் லெனினிஸ்ட்) விடுதலை.
"Liberation" is the monthly central English organ of CPI(ML). Apart from Liberation, the Party brings out a central Hindi weekly organ too, named "Samkaleen Lokyuddh". Some state party Committees bring out their own organs, like weekly "Ajker Deshabrati" in West Bengal, "Nabasphulinga" in Tripura, "Teeppori" in Tamil Nadu, "Telugu Liberation" in Andhra Pradesh, "Kannada Liberation" in Karnataka, "Samkali Lok Morcha" in Punjab, etc.
Lok Sabha election results
|State||No. candidates 2004||No. elected 2004||No. candidates 1999||No. elected 1999||Total no. of seats from the state|
|Jammu and Kashmir||0||0||1||0||6|
|Madhya Pradesh||0||0||1||0||29 (2004)/40(1999)|
|Uttar Pradesh||10||0||9||0||80 (2004)/85 (1999)|
|Andaman & Nicobar||1||0||0||0||1|
|Dadra and Nagar Haveli||0||0||0||0||1|
|Daman and Diu||0||0||0||0||1|
- Party website
- Constitution of the Party, retrieved at Election Commission of India website
- "The Naxalite Movement in Central Bihar" PDF document. By Bela Bhatia. Economic and Political Weekly. April 9, 2005 pp 1536 – 1549.
- "List of Political Parties and Election Symbols main Notification Dated 18.01.2013". India: Election Commission of India. 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2013.