Community radio is a radio service offering a third model of radio broadcasting in addition to commercial and public broadcasting. Community stations serve geographic communities and communities of interest. They broadcast content that is popular and relevant to a local, specific audience but is often overlooked by commercial or mass-media broadcasters. Community radio stations are operated, owned, and influenced by the communities they serve. They are generally nonprofit and provide a mechanism for enabling individuals, groups, and communities to tell their own stories, to share experiences and, in a media-rich world, to become creators and contributors of media.
In many parts of the world, community radio acts as a vehicle for the community and voluntary sector, civil society, agencies, NGOs and citizens to work in partnership to further community development aims, in addition to broadcasting. There is legally defined community radio (as a distinct broadcasting sector) in many countries, such as France, Argentina, South Africa, Australia and Ireland. Much of the legislation has included phrases such as "social benefit", "social objectives" and "social gain" as part of the definition. Community radio has developed differently in different countries, and the term has somewhat different meanings in the United Kingdom, Ireland, the United States, Canada, and Australia.
Vision, philosophy, and status 
Modern community radio stations serve their listeners by offering a variety of content that is not necessarily provided by the larger commercial radio stations. Community radio outlets may carry news and information programming geared toward the local area (particularly immigrant or minority groups who are poorly served by major media outlets). Specialized musical shows are also often a feature of many community radio stations. Community and pirate stations (in areas where they are tolerated) can be valuable assets for a region. Community radio stations typically avoid content found on commercial outlets such as Top 40 music, sports and "drive-time" personalities. A meme used by members of the movement is that community radio should be 10 percent radio and 90 percent community. This means that community radio stations should focus on getting the community talking and not solely on radio (which is a technological process); the social concerns of community radio are stressed over radio per se. There is also a distinction drawn in contrast to mainstream stations, which are viewed as pandering to commercial concerns or the personalities of presenters.
Conceptions of community in the literature 
Communities are complex entities, and what constitutes the "community" in community radio is subject to debate which varies by country. "Community" may be replaced by terms such as "alternative", "radical" or "citizen" radio. In sociology, a "community" has been defined as a group of interacting people living in a common location.
Community radio has been built around the ideals of access and participation. Stations have been run by locals, typically to serve a local audience. However, the internet's availability and popularity has encouraged many stations to podcast and/or stream and audio and make it available globally.
Two philosophical approaches to community radio exist, although the models are not mutually exclusive. One emphasizes service and community-mindedness, focusing on what the station can do for the community. The other stresses involvement and participation by the listener.
In the service model locality is valued; community radio, as a third tier, can provide content focused on a more local or particular community than a larger operation. Sometimes, though, providing syndicated content not already available within the station's service area is viewed as public service. Within the United States, for example, many stations syndicate content from groups such as Pacifica Radio (such as Democracy Now!) on the basis that it provides content not otherwise available (because of a program's lack of appeal to advertisers—in Pacifica's case, due to its politically controversial nature).
In the access (or participatory) model, the participation of community members in producing content is viewed as a good in itself. While this model does not necessarily exclude a service approach, there is some disagreement between the two.
By country 
Community broadcasting is Australia’s third media sector, formally represented by the Community Broadcasting Association of Australia (CBAA). In January 2012, there were 359 licensed community radio stations (including remote indigenous services). A 2002 report found that 20,000 Australians (or 0.1 percent of the population) were involved as volunteers in the community radio sector on a regular basis, and volunteers account for more than $145 million in unpaid work each year. Nationally, more than 7 million Australians (or 45 percent of people over 15) listen to community radio each month. The role of community broadcasting in Australia, according to CBAA, is to provide a diverse range of services meeting community needs in ways unmet by other sectors. Community broadcasting is sustained by the principles of access and participation, volunteerism, diversity, independence and locality.
Community radio stations may be specialized music stations, represent local music and arts or broadcast talks and current-affairs programs representing alternative, indigenous Australian, environmental, feminist or gay and lesbian interests (filling perceived gaps in commercial or government radio content). 53 percent of community radio stations serve an array of communities of interest, including indigenous and ethnic groups, people with a print disability, young people, older people, the arts/fine music, religious, and the gay and lesbian communities. The remaining stations provide a service which may be described as generalist: addressing the interests of communities in particular areas, but also addressing a range of specialized interests.
Community broadcasting, more than any other form of media in Australia, shapes and reflects the national character in all its diversity. The sector is unique in its capacity to provide fresh programming by and for indigenous, ethnic and RPH communities. Community broadcasting stations have a strong commitment to local news and information, the promotion of local and national music, arts and culture and providing training in media skills.
When a not-for-profit community group applies to the regulating body (the Australian Communications and Media Authority) for a community broadcasting licence, it specifies the community interest it intends to serve. Licensees are selected by the regulator on the basis of suitability and on the merits of the licence application and the capacity to serve identified community interests. Upon grant of a five-year renewable licence each station is then required to continue to serve the community interest for which the licence was granted.
Bangladesh NGOs Network for Radio and Communication(BNNRC) has been struggling for the last 12 years to open up the community media (including Community Radio, Community Television and Community film) and giving focus on its vital role as voices of the voiceless people. BNNRC has been addressing the community radio & community TV access issue for over a decade, almost since its emergence in the year 2000.
BNNRC is in special consultative status with the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations. BNNRC has been promoting advocacy to the government in relation to community radio with other organizations since its emergence in 2000.
The objective of BNNRC's Community Radio intervention is to address social issues (such as poverty and social exclusion) at the community level, empower marginalized rural groups and catalyze democratic processes and ongoing development efforts.
At the moment, positive and supportive condition is prevailing in our country. Because; Bangladesh Government has already acknowledged the importance of community radio and announced the Community Radio Installation, Broadcast & Operation Policy. Bangladesh is the 2nd country in South Asia in formulating policy for Community Radio. Now 14 Community Radio Stations are on-air in the country, aiming to ensure empowerment and right to information for the rural community. They are broadcasting altogether 120 hours program per day on information, education, local entertainment and development motivation activities. Around 536 Youth Women & Youth are now working with those Stations throughout the country as rural broadcasters.
The prime role of community radio is giving a voice to people who do not have access to mainstream media to express their views on community development. Promoting the right to communicate, expediting the process of informing the community, assisting the free flow of information and acting as a catalyst of change are major tasks achievable by community radio. It also upholds creative growth and democratic spirit at the community level.
As a result, the Ministry of Information of the People's Republic of Bangladesh announced the Community Radio Installation, Broadcast and Operation Policy 2008. Under this policy, the Ministry of Information approved 14 community radio stations for the first time in Bangladeshi history. To ensure the free flow of information to the people, the government enacted the Right to Information Act 2009. Community radio stations are a strong step in empowering rural people.
The reality of today is that the bondage between the community people and local-level community radio stations are getting strengthened day-by-day. Community Radio has now become their part of life. Community Radio becomes the instrument for the livelihood battle of the rural people.
BNNRC established the Community Media News Agency (CMNA), Community Media Academy (CMA) and Monthly Community Media to share development news & building capacity for the Community Media sector in Bangladesh. BNNRC now started advocacy with the Government of Bangladesh to open up Community Television for Development. We hope that, community television will come into being within a short time in Bangladesh. We hope that, community television will come into being within a short time.
Initially, the government approved 16 community Radio in Bangladesh
- Community Radio Sagor Giri 99.2 [Young Power in Social Action (YPSA) for Sitakunda, Chittagong
- Community Radio Nalta 99.2 [Nalta Community Hospital (Satkhira)]
- Community Radio Mukti 99.2 [LDRO (Bogra)]
- Community Radio Pollikontho 99.2 [BRAC (Moulivi Bazer)]
- Barandro Community Radio 99.2 [ (Naogaon)]
- Community Radio Mahananda 98.8 [Proyas (Chapai Nababgonj)]
- Community Radio Padma 99.2 [CCD (Rajshahi)]
- Community Radio Jhinuk 99.2 [Srizoni (Jhinaidhah)]
- Community Radio Bikrampur 99.2 EC Bangladesh (Munshiganj)
- Community Radio Lokobetar 99.2 [MMC (Barguna Sadar Upazila)]
- Community Radio Chilmari 99.2 [ Chilmari, RDRS (Kurigram)]
- Community Radio Sundarban 98.8 Koyra Upazilla (Khulna)
- Community Radio Naf 99.2 Teknaf [ACLAB (Cox's Bazar District)
- Community Rural Radio 98.8 [Agriculture Information Servics (AIS) Community Rural Radio (Barguna District)]
- Community Radio Charfassion, Bhola [COAST Trust (Bhola District)
- Community Radio SagarDheep, Hatyia Island, [DUS (Noakhali District)
BNNRC provided technical assistance to about 200 organizations in the community radio application process through a national "help desk" on community radio at the BNNRC Secretariat in Dhaka. Through this experience, a proactive institution is creating the necessary human resources, research and development and technical cooperation for community Radio in Bangladesh. To this end, BNNRC has established a Community Radio Academy (CRA). The Academy will organize community radio related training, research, technical assistance and other support as needed by community-radio activists.
Community radio is considered an alternative, effective mass media for the rural disadvantaged population to express their thoughts in their own voice and their own style.
Radio is the primary mass medium in Benin and sub-Saharan Africa. Of its 55 radio stations, 36 are community stations with programming ranging from news and sports to music and quiz shows. Although there is a need for such stations, it is difficult for them to succeed due to financial and structural problems and a lack of funding.
A well-known example of community radio in Bolivia was the tin miners' radio. Funded by trade union dues and operated mainly at the local and regional level, there were more than 25 such radio stations between 1960 and 1985. Changes in government policy eliminated many unionised mining jobs after 1985 and some radio stations were sold or ceased to exist. In spite of many difficulties, five stations continue to broadcast.
La Voz del Minero, Radio Pío XII, RadioVanguardia de Colquiri, Radio Animas, Radio 21 de Diciembre, and Radio Nacional de Huanuni were some of the most important radio stations created, funded and managed by Bolivian mining workers. In 1949, a station began broadcasting in the mining district of Catavi. During the next 15 years, other districts followed; they bought the equipment, trained young people from their villages, and the workers funded the stations with a percentage of their salaries.
Most of the radio stations began small, with simple equipment. A few received foreign support and evolved into more sophisticated stations, with better equipment. Several built theatres next to their stations, so union meetings could be broadcast live; for example, Radio Vanguardia had a theatre decorated with large murals narrating the story of the Colquiri mining centre. One scene on a mural depicts the attack by Bolivian Air Force planes in 1967 (when the country was under military rule).
During the early 1970s 26 radio stations were in operation, all in the mining districts of the highlands. At the time, the miners' unions in Bolivia were still powerful and considered among the most politically advanced in Latin America. In times of peace and democracy the miners' radio stations were integrated into the daily life of the community, becoming an effective replacement for telephone and postal service. People would receive their mail through the stations and post messages, which were read several times during the day: calls for a meeting of women from the Comité de Amas de Casa (Housewives' Committee); messages from union leaders about their negotiations with the government in the capital; messages of love between young people; the announcement of a new play by the Nuevos Horizontes theater group (often staged on the platform of a big truck, with workers illuminating the scene with their own lamps); and announcements of sport activities, burials, births and festivities.
In times of political upheaval, the union radio stations would become the only trustworthy source of information. As the military captured newspapers, radio and TV stations in the capital and other cities, the only information available would come from the miners' radio stations. They would join the cadena minera ("mining chain") until the army penetrated the mining camps and mounted an assault on the stations, which were defended (sometimes to the death) by the workers. A film by Bolivian filmmaker Jorge Sanjinés, The Courage of the People, reenacts the attack on the mining district of Siglo XX by the army in June 1967. Another film, a documentary by Alfonso Gumucio Dagron and Eduardo Barrios entitled Voices of the Mine and produced by UNESCO, describes their political and social importance. The miners' radio stations would air reports on the political situation; they would also link for live transmissions when an important sporting or cultural event took place in the mining district. Other than that, each station was fully independent of the others.
The miners' radio stations were important because of the importance of mining in Bolivia; Bolivian miners were also influential because for several decades they had a powerful means to communicate their ideas. As the importance of mining in Bolivia declined during the 1980s, the unions were weakened and some of the radio stations disappeared (along with their mining districts).
Community radio stations in Canada often target commercially underserved minority-language communities such as Franco-Ontarians, Acadians, Anglo-Quebecers or First Nations. These stations are often volunteer-run and operated by cooperatives or other not-for-profit corporations. In larger cities, community-oriented programming more commonly airs on campus radio stations, although some cities do have community radio stations as well. Most English-language community stations in Canada are members of the National Campus and Community Radio Association, or NCRA, while most of Canada's French language community radio stations are members of either l'Association des Radiodiffuseurs Communitaire du Quebec (ARCQ) or l’Alliance des radios communautaires du Canada inc (l'ARC).
The province with the largest number of community radio stations in Canada is Saskatchewan. The majority of those stations are affiliated with Missinipi Broadcasting Corporation, an aboriginal public radio network. Community stations are subject to the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission's (CRTC) community radio policy.
In this policy, the CRTC requires community stations to
- facilitate community access to programming;
- promote the availability of training throughout the community; and
- provide for the ongoing training and supervision of those within the community wishing to participate in programming.
It also requires stations to offer diverse programming that reflects the needs and interests of the community, including:
- music by new and local talent;
- music not generally broadcast by commercial stations;
- spoken word programming; and
- local information.
The CRTC classifies community radio stations as one of two types, with slightly different regulatory requirements. Most stations are classified as "Type B"; however, a community radio station which operates as the sole local media service serving its community — such as an English language community radio station in Quebec, a First Nations radio station or a community radio station in a small town with no other local radio stations at all — is classified as "Type A", granting it a more flexible set of regulatory and license requirements to accommodate the wider range of community programming interests that such a station needs to serve.
In Ecuador, many community radio stations are operated by religious groups and include Catholic, Protestant and Bahá'í stations. The amount of community participation and self-management varies. Radio Latacunga was associated with a project in which indigenous organizations were supplied with simple equipment to record weekly programs for broadcast in the early morning. Some indigenous groups operate their own radio stations; these include the Shuar Federation in the tropical rainforest, and the community of Simiatug in Bolívar Province. Unlike in Bolivia, trade-union radio has historically not been influential in Ecuador.
The first community stations began as pirates, broadcasting political free-speech and music programs after the change from socialism. Tilos Rádió in 1991 was the first such station, followed by Fiksz Rádió and Civil Rádió. Since 2004 a new category arose: kisközösségi (small community stations), which are low-power stations. By 2010, more than 70 such microstations have begun broadcasting throughout the country. There are village stations, small-town stations, university stations, subcultural and religious stations. In Budapest Cool FM, Első Pesti Egyetemi Rádió and Fúzió Rádió are small community stations.
In India the campaign to legitimise community radio began in the mid-1990s, soon after the Supreme Court of India ruled in its judgment of February 1995 that "airwaves are public property".[dead link] This inspired groups across the country; however, only educational (campus) radio stations were originally permitted (under a number of conditions).
the oldest radio of uttarakhand is Henvalvani fm 90.4 MHz which is stuated in chamba tehri garhwal The roots of Henvalvani Community Radio, Chamba, were laid in September 2001 when a group of young rural youth came together in an attempt to find a distinct voice of their own. The Himalaya Trust, an NGO based in Dehradun conducted a radio training with the group, teaching them basics of recordings, specially focused on highlighting the needs of their local communities. For the groups members, making topical programs and airing them back in the hill villages in their vicinity was a first step towards an information revolution, and they have never looked back since. Not having any steady platform to air back their programs from, initially Henvalvani (or the voice of Henval, a name derived from the valley where the initiative is located) used to narrowcast its programs, its members traveling from village to village encouraging people to come and listen, contribute or join in the discussions. Recently, Henvalvani has also begun to broadcast some of its programs on satellite radio World Space (Asiadev channel) and has distributed digital radio sets to some villages in an attempt to build steady listenership (this was done through collaboration with another development agency). The All India Radio, Najibabad has also aired some of their community- based programs, thus ensuring a larger reach to the group. In 2006, Henvalvani set up its own low cost studio in Chamba and today about twelve young members work out of this space. Since its inception, Henvalvani has worked on various kinds of programs, all contextual and community centric in nature like awareness campaigns, programs promoting local talents or documenting traditional practices, environmental history and people’s movements in the valley, health capsules, stories of migration to the cities and so on. In partnership with a local NGO of the area, ASTHA, Henvalvani has also organized community melas and youth programs, in an attempt to bring together diverse voices of the hills on one common platform. Its members have participated in several trainings and meetings on community media in and outside of India. Committed to spreading the community media movement in the country, some of its members have also shared their own skills and knowledge with communities elsewhere by conducting trainings and workshops for other radio enthusiasts. this is broadcasting in garhwali language and 3march 2012 it is broadcast fast programme it is working since 2001 and it have many progrmme
Anna FM was India's first campus "community" radio station. Launched on 1 February 2004, it is run by the Education and Multimedia Research Centre (EM²RC); all programmes are produced by Media Science students at Anna University.
On 16 November 2006, the government of India implemented new Community Radio Guidelines, which permit NGOs and other civil organizations to own and operate community radio stations. About 4,000 community radio licenses are being offered across India, according to government sources. By 30 November 2008, the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting of the Government of India had received 297 applications for community radio licenses (including 141 from NGOs and other civil organizations, 105 from educational institutions and 51 for "farm radio" stations to be run by agricultural universities and agricultural extension centers, or Krishi Vigyan Kendras). Of these, 107 community radio stations have been cleared for licensing through the issuance of Letters of Intent. 13 Grant of Permission Agreements (GOPA) have been signed with license applicants under the new plan.
By 30 November 2008, there were 38 operational community radio stations in the country. Of these, two are run by NGOs and the rest by educational institutions. The first community-based radio station licensed to an NGO (as distinct from campus-based radio) was launched on 15 October 2008, when Sangham Radio[dead link] in Pastapur village, Medak district, Andhra Pradesh state went on the air at 11:00 am. Sangham Radio, which broadcasts on 90.4 MHz, is licensed to the Deccan Development Society (DDS) (an NGO which works with women's groups in approximately 75 villages in Andhra Pradesh). The community radio station is managed by General and Algole Narsamma. The second NGO-led community radio station in India was launched on 23 October 2008 at Taragram in Orchha, Madhya Pradesh state. Named Radio Bundelkhand[dead link] after the Bundelkhand region of central India where it is located, the radio station is licensed to the Society for Development Alternatives (DA) (a Delhi-based NGO). Radio Bundelkhand also broadcasts on 90.4 MHz for four hours a day (including two hours of repeat broadcasts). Radio Namaskar, the first Community Radio of Odisha (India) established at KONARK ( Internationally renowned tourist place for Sun Temple) to make the common people informative & active participant of the community development process.Started its broadcasting on 12, Feb,2010.Radio Namaskar is established by Young India, a civil society organisation formed by some National Youth Awardees, Indira Gandhi NSS Awardees & Ex- NSS volunteers those are committed to the cause of social transformation & development.(www.radionamaskar.org)
According to the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, 47 community radio stations were operational in India by 1 November 2009 (including 45 campus-based stations and two CRS run by NGOs). By December 2009, the number of CR stations run by civil groups had increased to seven:
- Sangham Radio (Pastapur, Medak District, Andhra Pradesh)
- Radio Bundelkhand (Orchha, Madhya Pradesh)
- Mann Deshi Tarang (Satara, Maharashtra)
- Namma Dhwani (Budikote, Karnataka)
- Radio Mattoli (Wayanad, Kerala)
- Kalanjiam Samuga Vanoli (Nagapattinam, Tamil Nadu)
- Barefoot (Tilonia, Rajasthan)
By 4 December 2009, the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting had issued Grant of Permission Agreements (GOPA) for 62 community radio stations. Most of the GOPAs were issued to educational institutions.
The Society for Development Alternatives, a Delhi based NGO, received its Wireless Operating License on 31 July 2008 (for a Nomad 50 Watt FM transmitter, the NIN100) and began test transmissions on 15 August. Their CR station is located in the NGO’s Taragram campus, Orchha, Bundelkhand (Tikamgarh District, Madhya Pradesh), some 12 kilometres from Jhansi. The CRS, which broadcasts on 90.4 MHz, was inaugurated on 23 October 2008 at 11.35am by a community worker, Prabha.
'Gurgaon ki Awaaz' (The Voice of Gurgaon) received its Letter of Intent in July 2008, signed their GOPA in August 2009 and started broadcasting on 19 November 2009. Based in Gurgaon (which, though in the state of Haryana is considered a part of the National Capital Region of Delhi), GKA is the first and so far only civil-society-led community radio station in Delhi NCR. Gurgaon ki Awaaz broadcasts 24X7, in Hindi and Haryanvi.
Community Radio Sarang on 107.8 is managed by the Mangalore Jesuit Educational Society (MJES) and run by St. Aloysius College, Mangalore (a coastal town in southern Karnataka). Radio Sarang is a campus radio station but is oriented towards local communities as well. It broadcasts in Konkani, Kannada, Tulu, and English daily, and in Malayalam, Beary (the mother tongue of local Muslims) and Hindi on a weekly basis. It also broadcasts in Punjabi, by request of the local Sikh community. Since 15 June 2010, the CR station broadcasts 14 hours a day from 6:30 to 20:30. Richard Rego, SJ is founder and director of the station.
Banasthali Radio was the first campus-based CR station licensed in the state of Rajasthan, primarily covering the north-eastern part of Tonk district. Banasthali Radio has been operating since January 2005 as a campus radio station for students. The transmission reaches 50 villages surrounding the campus.
To create a common platform for the local communities of Supi in Uttarakhand, TERI launched Kumaon vani (a community radio service) on 11 March 2010. Uttarakhand Governor Margaret Alva inaugurated the community radio station, the first in the state. Kumaon Vani airs programmes on the environment, agriculture, culture, weather and education in the local language and with the active participation of the communities. The station covers a radius of 10 km, reaching an audience of almost 2,000 around Mukhteshwar.
Licensed to the Tibetan Children’s Village School in Dharamsala, Kangra (Himachal Pradesh), Radio Tashi Delek 90.4 FM is believed to be the first licensed community radio station in the Indian Himalayan Region. The Tibetan Community Radio Station was inaugurated by the Dalai Lama on 1 June 2010. Tashi Delek broadcasts from the Tibetan Children's Village (TCV) in Dharamsala, serving the Tibetan, Indian and expatriate communities of the region with music and local information.
Jnan Taranga (90.4 FM), the first community radio service in the North East of India, began regular broadcasts on 20 November 2010. The campus-based station, licensed to Krishna Kanta Handiqui State Open University, Guwahati, Assam, aired its first programme on 28 January 2009 as an experimental broadcast. Jnan Taranga literally means "knowledge wave".
Radio Sharda, launched on 6 Dec 2011, is the first community radio station in the state of Jammu & Kashmir. It broadcasts in Kashmiri and Hindustani on 90.4 MHz in Jammu (Buta Nagar) and is billed as “a community radio for the displaced people of Kashmir” (i.e., Kashmiri Pandits). It is licensed to Pir Panchal, a civil society organization.
Radio Ujjas, licensed to Kutch Mahila Vikas Sangathan (Kutch Women's Development Organization) is probably India's first community radio station close to its international border. It began test transmission at around 6.30pm on 10 Mar 2012. KMVS has been broadcasting its flagship Kutchi language programme, 'Kunjan Paanje Kutch Ji’ (Sarus Crane of our Kutch) from AIR Bhuj since 16 Dec 1999. Radio Ujjas is located in Bhimsar village in Nakhatrana Taluk, Kutch District of Gujarat, close to the Pakistan border. They applied for a CR license in 2007.
Under the 2006 community radio policy, any not-for-profit "legal entity"—except individuals, political parties (and their affiliates), criminal and banned organizations—can apply for a CR license. Central funding is not available for such stations, and there are stringent restrictions on fundraising from other sources. Only organisations which have been registered for a minimum of three years old and with a proven track record of local community service may apply. License conditions implicitly favour well-funded stations over inexpensive low-power operations, several of which (Mana Radio in Andhra Pradesh and Raghav FM in Bihar, for example) operated successfully on shoestring budgets before the imposition of a community radio policy.
The licence entitles them to operate a 100-watt (ERP) radio station, with a coverage area of approximately a 12-km radius. A maximum antenna height of 30 meters is allowed. Community radio stations are expected to produce at least 50 percent of their programmes locally, as much as possible in the local language or dialect. The stress is on developmental programming, although there is no explicit ban on entertainment. News programmes are banned on community radio in India (as they are on commercial FM radio). However, the government recently clarified that certain categories of news are permitted on radio, including sports news and commentaries, information on traffic and weather conditions, coverage of cultural events and festivals, information on academic events, public announcements pertaining to utilities such as electricity and the water supply, disaster warnings and health alerts.
Five minutes of advertising per hour is allowed on community radio. Sponsored programs are not allowed, except when the program is sponsored by the government at the local or state level.
Activists and community workers from across the country have banded together under the aegis of the Community Radio Forum of India to coordinate training and support for community radio stations, and to work for a more proactive community radio policy. The Community Radio Forum, India, was registered as a Society and Trust on 26 February 2008. In the meantime, mobile telephone operators have begun to offer commercial broadcast services over GSM, evading government restrictions built around traditional concepts of broadcasting technology.
By 1 July 2010, the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting announced that 715 applications for CR licenses had been received, including 104 under the old campus-radio guidelines. 231 Letters of Intent were issued (including 63 under the old guidelines). Grant of Permission Agreements were signed with 102 applicants, and 68 community radio stations were on the air. 107 applications were rejected, and 377 applications were being processed.
By 1 February 2012, the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting had received a total of 991 community radio licence applications. Grant of Permission Agreements had been signed with 161 applicants and 126 community radio stations were on air.
From April 1, 2012, the Ministry of Communications and IT has hiked the spectrum fees to Rs. 91,000 - a fivefold increase from the previous annual fee of Rs. 19,700. This move has provoked widespread protest from functional community radio stations, advocacy bodies like Community Radio Forum, and even the Secretary, Ministry of Information and Broadcast has gone on record to say that his Ministry's views were not sought before the decision was taken. He also expressed concern that many organizations would find it impossible to pay the increased spectrum royalty charges. The Community Radio Forum has already boycotted one policy consultation held by the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, on 9th and 10 May. Several community radio stations also observed a 'Day of Silence' on 9 May, where the spectrum fee hike was announced, a protest song played, community views were invited, and subsequently transmission was switched off for the rest of the day.
However after pressure from Ministries and NAC the govt waived off the entire fees 
Content Exchange 
Indian government has been promoting content exchange especially radio programmes, good practices, case studies etc. to facilitate meaningful utilisation of available resources.
In past two years, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting has promoted EK duniya anEK awaaz (Edaa) - which is an audio and knowledge exchange portal for Community Radio practitioners in South Asia. Edaa is a web-based service that uploads the content of radio stations. Listening to Bhojpuri or Tamil from villages that don’t appear even on Google maps, is such an exciting platform that even the ministry mentions this in its press release on future plans for Community Radio.
Ireland has had self-described community radio stations since the late 1970s, although it was not until 1995 that the first 11 licensed stations went on the air as part of an 18-month pilot project run by the Independent Radio and Television Commission. Early stations were represented by the National Association of Community-Radio Broadcasters, which in 1988 published a guide to setting up new stations.
There are currently 24 licenced stations in Ireland. In 2004 the licenced stations formed a co-operative CRAOL as a representative group in 2004, with the stations as shareholders. In 2007, new membership categories were created for aspiring stations, and a "Development Ladder" established to aid new stations in their development. By 2010, there were 42 aspiring stations at various stages of development. The Broadcasting Act 2009 provided a legal definition of community radio, which previously had been determined by the Community Radio Policy of the Broadcasting Commission of Ireland (now the Broadcasting Authority of Ireland). The Act also provided for the availability of a 100-day licence (within a 12-month period) for aspiring groups who meet the legal definition.
An Agreement for Mutual Co-operation was established in 2008 by CRAOL; this ensures that the signatories (which include all fully licenced stations) share successful funding applications, training materials and policies. This has led to a significant increase in networking and information-sharing. The agreement also covered the sharing of programming, and a network website facilitates these activities through a resource bank and online programme exchange.
Community radio stations in Ireland encompass stations serving a geographic community or a community of interest (such as campus stations, Christian and Irish-language stations). Accredited training in Community Radio has been available through CRAOL since 2004. The pace of such training has increased since mid-2009, with 95 percent of CRAOL member stations involved. In June 2010 the first Community Radio Conference was held in Croke Park, Dublin. Stations are located in all four provinces of Ireland; however, coverage is not universal. Dublin has the largest number of stations, and there are significant clusters in north and west Connaught and mid-Munster.
Community radio in Ireland encompasses:
- Process: Participation by communities in creation of programming
- Product: Service provided to the community through programming supplied
The combination of process and product is determined by the needs of the community, and implemented through a management structure controlled by the community.
Japan has a network of low-power community radio stations across the country. Their most common call sign is JOZZ-XXXX.
The first community radio was established in Jordan on the internet. AmmanNet.net was established in November 2000 as a means of bypassing government restrictions on private, non-governmental radio. In 2005 AmmanNet was licensed as an FM station in Jordan's capital, Amman. AmmanNet has also been involved in the training of two other community radio stations in Jordan: one in the twin villages of Lib and Mleih, and another as part of King Hussein University in the southern city of Maan. AmmanNet is also involved in training Arab media activists in internet radio. A program was begun to train personnel and launch nine Gulf-based radio stations as part of khaleejnet.net.
Two other community radio stations were recently established in Jordan. Yarmouk FM is located at Yarmouk University in Irbed as part of the school's Journalism and Mass Communications program. Farah FM is under construction, but has a license to broadcast in Amman and Zarqa (Jordan's second-largest city). This station will focus primarily on youth and women's issues.
The best-known community radio network in the Philippines is Radyo Natin (Our Radio). Its stations nationwide broadcast a live Manila feed via satellite; sometimes stations air local programming, cutting the Manila feed. It is considered a community network, because local programs air on different RN stations. Radyo Natin is owned by the Manila Broadcasting Company.
Radyo Natin is the largest network of community radio stations in the Philippines, counting over 150 small FM stations throughout the archipelago from Batanes in the north to Tawi-Tawi in the south. RN stations are owned and operated by franchise holders, who are public-service-oriented communicators in their own right. With audio streaming, it is possible for the national feed to reach listeners all over the world via the internet; it is hoped that in the near future (as of 2011), the franchise stations will also be heard worldwide. Radyo Natin is able to reach audiences which have never been reached before by radio.
Although Radyo Natin is found in the FM band, in the mornings it affiliates with Manila Broadcasting Company’s flagship station, DZRH, for national news programming. During the afternoons, Radyo Natin features popular music.
With its studios at the MBC Building in the Star City Complex in Pasay, Radyo Natin sends its signals to its stations by satellite. These stations, in turn, rebroadcast its signals locally. These individual Radyo Natin stations can, however, “unhook” from the Manila central studios and air events in their own areas at specified times; thus, Radyo Natin is nationwide in coverage but local in nature.
In 2005 a show-cause order containing a cease-and-desist directive from the commissioner of the National Telecommunications Commission was issued to Radyo Natin, forcing the closure of all stations. In the order against Manila Broadcasting Company, NTC Commissioner Ronald Olivar Solis said that the company is "operating a low power FM station as a commercial broadcasting station without the necessary authority from the Commission."
Nepal adopted community radio in 1997 when Radio Sagarmatha (Sagarmatha is Nepalese for "Mount Everest"), broadcasting on 102.4 MHz, became the first independent public-interest broadcaster in South Asia. It was established by the Nepal Forum of Environmental Journalists (NEFEJ) in May of that year. Radio Sagarmatha is in the front lines of the fights for freedom of expression and the right to information of Nepalese citizens. As of 2011, there are more than 150 community radio stations which have been licensed by the Nepalese government. In Nepal, there are no separate policies or laws for community radio. The existing policy and applies to both community and commercial radio stations. Community radio stations have been petitioning the government to introduce different policy and law for community radio stations, whose mottoes are social change and social justice. They have played a role in restoring democracy and changing Nepal to a republic from a monarchy. The rule of law, gender equality, education, health, civics, anti-corruption initiatives, good governance, the environment and day-to-day problems and issues are examined in a different format by the local community radio stations. Community radio enjoys good coverage throughout Nepal, and news is one of its most popular formats.
Radio Sagarmatha's history is interwoven with the gradual loosening of government control over the airwaves in Nepal. From the time of the new constitution in November 1990, the drive to put the station on the air was instrumental in bringing about a new communications environment and a new awareness of the importance and need for independent, public-interest broadcasting.
Mass media in Nepal face barriers; the geography of the country is ill-suited to either mass-circulation print media or coverage by electronic media. Access to newspapers, radio, television and education is limited by poverty; Nepal has a low literacy level, particularly in rural areas and among women. Both print and electronic media are concentrated in urban centers like Kathmandu and are thought to have limited relevance for rural people.
In 1990, Nepal changed from a monarchical non-party system to a parliamentary model. A new constitution enshrined the right to freedom of expression (specifically, the right of every citizen to demand and receive information on any matter of public importance). The expression of basic communication rights in the constitution was followed by more focused policy and practical guidelines: in 1992, a National Communications Policy; in 1993, a National Broadcasting Act and in 1995, broadcast regulations.
Before 1994 radio broadcasting was the exclusive domain of Radio Nepal, the state broadcaster established during the early 1950s. Even after 1990, state governments were slow in relinquishing monopoly control of radio broadcasting. The first independent license was granted in 1997, four-and-a-half years after the initial application. The battle for this license was long, hard-fought and significant. The main obstacles were an unstable political environment, conservative politicians and bureaucrats disinclined to change and the monolithic presence of Radio Nepal. Between October 1992 (when the application was registered) and May 1997 (when the license was granted), Nepal had four different governments, four ministers and four secretaries of communication. Waged primarily by journalists committed to the cause of free expression and public-interest broadcasting, the fight involved figures of national prominence, professional associations, NGOs, the print media, foreign embassies, UN organizations, and INGOs.
From the outset the main organization vehicle for Radio Sagarmatha (for both the campaign to get a license and to establish a radio station) has been the Nepal Forum of Environmental Journalists, a non-governmental organization and association of journalists. Key international supporters during the establishment phase were UNESCO and DANIDA.
NEFEJ is the current license-holder of Radio Sagarmatha, although the station was officially a joint effort and partnership with three other media-based NGOs: the Himal Association, Worldview Nepal and the Nepal Press Institute. The station was headed by a seven-member board of directors, constituted by NEFEJ. Through NEFEJ bylaws, the board had representation from all four partner NGOs and met monthly to review and plan activities, set policy and provide direction for the station.
In April 1999, Radio Sagarmatha operated with the following staff: a station manager, six full-time producers, two technicians, a music librarian, an engineer, an accountant and an assistant. The station also benefited from the contributions and experience of international supporters. Volunteers are an important part of Radio Sagarmatha's programming and operation. The station's programming has given many people the opportunity to have their voices and opinions heard in a public forum. On a daily basis, the station takes listeners into everyday life. The variety of voices and sounds (and its less-than-state-of-the-art equipment) gives the station a different tone from other broadcasters in the region: one of real life, as lived and programmed by real people. Interviewees and those profiled on the station come from a variety of backgrounds and occupations.
Radio Sagarmatha works to present listeners with "a human package": a combination of issues and entertainment, social discussions and music, and a conduit for the variety of voices and opinion previously unheard on Nepal's radio channels. In its programming, the station's difference from the state broadcaster and the growing number of Western-style commercial stations is most evident. Public-affairs journalism and broadcasting are at the heart of Radio Sagarmatha's mission and vision for a more responsible press and a more pluralistic society. With a long tradition of folk media and a rich musical heritage, cultural programming is also prominent in the station's six-hour daily broadcast.
Other aspects of programming include an initiative named "Safa Radio: The Clean Air Campaign" in which the station works with the Nepal Environmental Scientific Society to measure air pollution in Kathmandu and broadcasts information about the capital's air quality. Though prohibited at first from broadcasting news, the station airs summaries of daily news stories in a format mixed with music and broadcasts daily community-news programs. Community access is an important part of programming. There is a daily feature, It's My Turn Now (in which individuals from the community voice their opinions), vox populi segments, listeners' letters and feedback recorded by telephone. In late 1998, Radio Sagarmatha formed a partnership with the BBC World Service; 30 minutes of the BBC Nepali service and 30 minutes of world news in English are heard in, respectively, the evening and morning programme blocks.
New Zealand 
The Association of Community Access Broadcasters (ACAB) is a group of 11 New Zealand community radio stations. The stations, established between 1981 and 2000 and receiving government funding since 1989, broadcast community programming and provide facilities, training and on-air time for individuals and community groups to produce the programming.
The ACAB group is a core component of New Zealand On Air's Community Broadcasting Strategy. A government funding pool of approximately $2 million is allocated annually for the 11 stations to produce programming for women, youth, children, ethnic and other minorities and people with disabilities in accordance with section 36(c) of the Broadcast Act. Individual station funding is allocated on a four-tier system based on audience reach, with each station receiving between $110,000 and $220,000. In return for government funding, ACAB stations have an individual and collective mandate to broadcast programmes for people of a wide range of particular religions, cultures, languages, ages and sexualities. Stations operate independently and locally, making decisions on programming and scheduling by consensus.
South Africa 
Shortly after the end of World War II, the country's repressive state policies gave the SABC (South African Broadcasting Corporation) an effective monopoly. For nearly half a century it was the only broadcaster permitted to operate, and faced no independent radio competition on South African territory until the early 1990s' transition to democracy. The first legally permitted, non-SABC broadcast was that of 1991's "Festival Radio" from the campus radio studios at Rhodes University in Grahamstown. An Independent Broadcast Authority was created to oversee the opening of the country's airwaves, with small community radio stations being permitted to broadcast for the first time. Applications were discussed in open session, to ensure transparency and accountability. Notable early community broadcasters included Bush Radio in Cape Town and Radio Unitra in Umtata. The Independent Communications Authority (ICASA) now regulates (as of 2011) the telecommunications and broadcasting sectors.
Solomon Islands 
The Solomon Islands have a number of community FM radio stations established under a United Nations Development Programme in Isabel Province. In March–June 2009 these were used to strengthen women and youth networking under a peace-building project of the Commonwealth of Learning. The stations are linked to rural email stations of the People First Network. The Don Bosco Technical School has also assisted the Tetere community in operating a radio station near Honiara, and the Solomon Islands Development Trust established a Community Media Centre to expand local capacity.
Soweto has only 1 Community Radio Station called Jozi Fm 105.80 Fm . It first went on air in 1995 as Bua Community Station and it was later named Jozi Fm. It is now lead by Mr Mpho Mhlongo who is a former presenter and one of the founders of the station.
South Korea 
The South Korean government licensed several low-power community radio stations in 2005. Maximum power is one watt, which covers 5 km.
In Sweden, community radio (Swedish: närradio) was introduced in 1978 with test transmissions; regular broadcasts began the following year. Commercials were not permitted until 1993, but stations are primarily operated as non-profit NGOs. There are 150 community radio stations in the country.
Community radio in Thailand grew quickly during the government of Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra, taking advantage of a delay in the establishment of a regulatory authority. Thailand's 2,000 to 3,000 community radio stations (often operating unlicensed) have been accused of causing interference with air-traffic-control and other radio stations. However, selected community radio stations have been the target of police crackdowns, causing critics to accuse the government of political interference.
United Kingdom 
In the UK, the idea of community-based services can be traced back at least as far as the original concept for BBC local radio in the early 1960s. Thereafter, various land-based unlicensed pirate radio stations (such as East London Radio and Radio AMY: Alternative Media for You) developed the idea further. As pirate stations proliferated during the late 1970s and early 1980s, these stations were joined by those broadcasting specifically to minority immigrant communities (such as the Afro-Caribbean and Asian communities, particularly in cities such as London, Birmingham, Bristol, and Manchester). Although "community radio" remains synonymous with "pirate radio" for some people in the UK, most minority immigrant stations focused purely on specific musical genres and were operated (theoretically at least) on a for-profit basis. Community radio services in the UK are operated on a not-for-profit basis, with community ownership and control built into their structure.
Community radio stations were in operation on cable systems from 1978 onwards; mostly situated in new-town areas, they were operated by volunteers. Notable stations included Radio Thamesmead (later RTM Radio) in southeast London, one of the first cable radio stations in the UK, which began on the Rediffusion cable system in the southeast London area in 1978. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, the newly formed Radio Authority awarded licences (termed "Incremental" by the outgoing Independent Broadcasting Authority) to a number of new, ex-pirate and cable-based community ventures. The old breed of community radio stations could raise funds by selling airtime and by receiving donations or grants.
Following an experiment begun in 2001 by the former UK broadcast regulator Radio Authority, since 2005 some 200 such stations have been licensed by broadcasting regulator Ofcom. Most such stations broadcast on FM one of these is preston.fm ( www.preston.fm ) serving the Preston and South Ribble and surrounding area (typically at a radiated power of approximately 25 watts); another is Penistone FM ( www.penistonefm.co.uk ) which serves a 5kM radius in South Yorkshire; a few operate on AM (medium wave), particularly in rural areas.
United States 
U.S. community radio stations are usually staffed by volunteers and air a wide variety of programming. They generally have smaller budgets than National Public Radio (NPR) network outlets, due to the small audience of potential contributors and business donors. Community radio stations are distinct from NPR stations; most community-radio programming is locally produced by non-professional disc jockeys and producers (although a few have honed their skills well enough to launch professional radio careers), whereas NPR relies more on syndicated programming (from its own sources and other outlets, such as PRI. NPR stations almost always have paid staffs to handle most duties. Community stations often try, as a matter of principle, to reduce their dependence on financial contributions from corporations (and governments, in comparison with other public broadcasters).
Many community stations are licensed as full-power FM stations, while others (especially newer community stations founded after 2005) are licensed under low-power broadcasting rules. Many of the former were founded in the 1960s and 1970s when cultural experimentation (such as the New Left) in the U.S. had a significant following, particularly among the young. Some of the largest and best-known community radio stations are those owned by the non-profit Pacifica Foundation, including WBAI in New York; WPFW in Washington, D.C.; KPFA in Berkeley, California (which covers the San Francisco area) KPFK in Los Angeles and KPFT in Houston, TX (which also covers Huntsville, Goodrich, Livingston, and Galveston). Many community radio stations are affiliates of the Pacifica Radio Network.
The National Federation of Community Broadcasters was formed in 1975 as an umbrella organization for community-oriented, noncommercial radio stations. The NFCB publishes handbooks for stations and lobbies on behalf of community radio at the federal level. It has been criticized for encouraging the homogenization of community stations through its Healthy Station Project. The project encouraged stations to scale back volunteers' power over management and the content of their programs, as well as embrace more-predictable "strip" programming. The Grassroots Radio Coalition is a loose coalition of stations which formed as a reaction against increasing commercialization of public radio and lack of support for volunteer-based stations (including those belonging to the NFCB). Some stations are members of both groups.
In the U.S., community radio stations are non-profit, community-based operations licensed by the Federal Communications Commission for broadcasting in the non-commercial public portion of the FM band. These stations differ from other public radio outlets in the U.S. by allowing community volunteers to actively participate as broadcasters.
In 2012, environmental campaigner, Bill McKibben reported American public radio to be experiencing a revival, in part because of podcasting's popularity and because more young people were now seeing radio as 'cool'.
See also 
- International Freedom of Expression Exchange
- World Association of Community Radio Broadcasters (AMARC)
- CRAOL (Community Radio Forum of Ireland - Irish Sector Body)
- Community Media Association (UK Sector Body)
- Prometheus Radio Project
- Allegheny Mountain Radio
- Gram Vaani Community Media (technology systems for CR stations)
- Bangladesh NGOs Network for Radio and Communication (Bangladesh Sector Body)
- "Broadcasters by Region and State". acma.gov.au. Australian Communications and Media Authority. Retrieved 3 April 2013.
- Forde, Susan; Meadows, Michael; Foxwell, Kerrie. "Culture, Commitment, Community: the Australian Community Radio Sector" (pdf). CB Online. Community Broadcasting Association of Australia. Retrieved 3 January 2007.
-  Spurgeon, Christina L. and McCarthy, Joanna (2005). "Mobilising the Community Radio Audience". 3CMedia: Journal of Community, Citizen's and Third Sector Media and Communication, 1 (February), pp. 1-13. ISSN 1832-6161.
- "CBAA Strategic Plan 2008/11". Community Broadcasting Association of Australia. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
- ACMA—Community broadcasting
- ACMA—Licence allocations, renewals and transfers
-  List of UN-ECOSOC organizations, p. 16.
- Schaay, Michiel (September 1980). "A History of Bolivian Radio".
- The National Campus and Community Radio Association
- Campus and community radio policy
- Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission Community Radio Stations
- Industry Canada Spectrum Management and Telecommunications
- Indian Ministry of Broadcasting—Community Radio Stations
- "FM of the Masses". Retrieved 22 April 2013.
- "Consultation paper for Community Access Radio and Regional Television funding - April 2008". NZ On Air. Retrieved 2010-06-06.
- "Association of Community Access Broadcasters, Aotearoa New Zealand". Acab.org.nz. Retrieved 2010-06-06.
- "Community-radio crackdown panned". The Nation. Bangkok. 1 June 2005.
- "Abuse blamed on regulation". Bangkok Post. Post Publishing. 1 June 2005.[dead link]
- Bryson, Gary; Trevithick, Neil (2 March 2011). "What can I say in Thailand?". 360. Australia: ABC. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
- Hansard 1981
- Jesse Walker, Rebels on the Air: An Alternative History of Radio in America (New York University Press, 2001), pp.147-149
- Dunaway, David (2002). "Community Radio at the Beginning of the 21st Century: Commercialism vs. Community Power" (pdf). In Jankowski, Nicholas W.; Prehn, Ole. Community Media in the Information Age: Perspectives and Prospects (Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press). Retrieved 2009-02-15.
- McKibben, Bill (24 March 2012). "The rise of public radio in the US". Saturday Extra. Australia: ABC Radio National. Retrieved 2012-07-14.
Further reading 
- Bekken, Jon. "Community Radio at the Crossroads: Federal Policy and The Professionalization of a Grassroots Medium" in Sakolsky, Ron and S. Dunifer (eds.) Seizing the Airwaves: A Free Radio Handbook
- Girard, Bruce (ed). "A Passion for Radio: Radio waves and community"
- UNESCO, "How to Do Community Radio: A Primer"
- TQM Communications, AM/FM newsletter number one, Spring 1990.
- Smith, Mike "UK Radio, A Brief History - Other Media Developments"
- Larry Hollon
- Seth, Aaditeshwar. "The Community Radio Movement in India"
- Gram Vaani, "Community radio 101: Setting up a CR station"
- "Handbook for Good Governance and Development of Community Radio" BNNRC, Bangladesh.
- Atlas of Community Radio in Bangladesh" BNNRC, Bangladesh.
- "Dummies Guide to Community Radio" ABC, UK.
- "National Strategy for the Implementation of Community Radio Installation, Broadcast and Operations Policy in Bangladesh" Ministry of Information, People's Republic of Bangladesh
- "Community Radio Operation, Establishment and Broadcasting Policy 2008, Bangladesh" Ministry of Information, People's Republic of Bangladesh
- "Momentum for Change: Community Radio in Bangladesh" BNNRC Bangladesh
- EK duniya anEK awaaz, An audio content and resource exchange platform for Community Media producers in South Asia
- World Association of Community Radio Broadcasters (AMARC)—(English), (French), (Spanish)
- Community Media Forum Europe (Pan-European)
- Community radio at the Open Directory Project
- Community Media Sustainability Guide from Internews Network
- Bangladesh NGOs Network for Radio and Communication (BNNRC)
- Bangladesh: Ministry of Information