Compagnie des Transports Strasbourgeois

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Compagnie des Transports Strasbourgeois
Type Private
Industry Public transport
Founded 1877
Headquarters Strasbourg, Alsace
Key people Jean-Philippe Lally
Managing Director
Employees 1,450 (2011)
Website www.cts-strasbourg.fr

The Compagnie des Transports Strasbourgeois (CTS, English: Strasbourg Transport Company) is the company responsible for the comprehensive public transport network of the Urban Community of Strasbourg (CUS), the urban community of the French city of Strasbourg.

The CTS currently operates all six lines of the Tramway de Strasbourg and the bus network with the eight associated Park and Ride facilities, on behalf of the Urban Community of Strasbourg. It also runs other services through its subsidiary Compagnie des Transports du Bas-Rhin (CTBR) and on behalf of the Conseil général du Bas-Rhin. These comprise 27 coach lines, of which 9 serve Strasbourg and participate in the Vélhop cycle network. It also runs Strasbourg's tourist trackless train called the minitram.

History[edit]

CTS tram on Line 1 crosses the Rhine, early 1920s

Establishment[edit]

In 1877, the Strassburger Pferde-Eisenbahn Gesellschaft ("Strasbourg Horse Railway Company") was established. The business did not take a French name until 1884, as the Companie des Tramways Strasbourgeois (Strasbourg Tramway Company, CTS).

On 22 July 1878 the company opened its first carriage line. It continued to expand its network, with financial support from banks such as the Straehling-Valentin bank, and also the development of a local interest in the activity of the railway.[1]

Electrification of the tram network did not start until 1894, in partnership with the town and AEG.[2] The first lines were electrified the following year at the 1895 Exposition Industrielle.[where?]

In 1900, the network ran almost fifteen lines over 50 km (31 mi) of route. In 1912 the city of Strasbourg became the major shareholder of the company with 51% ownership. It was the start of its status as a public-private partnership. The city also granted an exclusive contract to run the network and construct any future lines.,[2] which gave the city power to control Strasbourg's development.

World War I[edit]

CTS tram on Line 3, Avenue de la Marseillaise, in the early 1920s

The declaration of war in 1914 took most of the company's staff (over 500 men from a labour force of 540). The business resorted to hiring over 260 women to keep the network running.[3]

Between the wars[edit]

At the end of the war, the network was heavily damaged and split in two: the outer-Rhine lines were transferred to the Republic of Baden in 1922.[3] It was during this period that the Bas-Rhin invested in the society, which was facing financial difficulties.

Although the first bus only appeared in 1928, the tramway transported over 50 million passengers during 1930. Despite that, traffic declined. The CTS turned towards tourism in 1932 with the creation of the ASTRA company, with luxury touring coaches.[3]

World War II[edit]

Old Line 6 tram on the Pont du Corbeau

To address the shortage of fuel, the Trolleybus made its appearance in 1939[3] on the Roethig – Ostwald line. The tram network served to evacuate Strasbourg so normal service stopped. Only the suburban network continued to run, to allow adequate provisioning of the French army.[4] But the German authorities restarted the services when they took control of the city in June 1940. During the war, the tram network was one of the only methods on transport with a peak in usage, with nearly 73 million journeys in 1943.[4] When Strasbourg became French again, the CTS faced a crisis, with a loss of human and material resources.

After World War II[edit]

After the war, the authorities considered the reconstruction of the network. Between 1940 and 1950 it replaced two tramways with trolleybuses, and turned decisively to buses thereafter. Buses would be easier for the armed forces to commandeer if war broke out again, and the company could not afford new locomotives for the network.[5]

In 1953, the company began to replace the urban tramways with bus lines. On 1 May 1960 the tramway made its last journey on the 12 km (7.5 mi) line 4/14 (Neuhof Forest   Wacken), and finished dismantling the network, work which had progressed gradually since the end of the war.[5] Freight had not travelled by tramway since April 1958, except for manure which was trasported until 1960.

In 1954, the CTS handed over the RosheimSaint-Nabor line (via Ottrott) to Carières de Saint-Nabor, which led to the discontinuation of passenger traffic on that line.[6] Tourist steam locomotives continued to use the line until 1988. An 030T Borsig T3[7] and a postal van, both classed as Monuments Historiques, are preserved by the CTS at their Kibitzenau depot.[6]

Network renewal[edit]

CTS bus in 1965 in the Place de la Gare

In spring 1962, the last trolleys were scrapped after circling the three lines 28 (Roethig - Ostwald), 5/15 (Place Broglie - Quartier de Quinze), and the 10 (the belt line).[5] Dismantling the tramway caused a 20% drop in usage during the 1960s.[8] The network was revolutionised in 1967 with the abolition of conductors. Their role was combined with that of the driver, so the drivers also collected the fares from the passengers. Reconquering the market continued with the creation of 4 km (2.5 mi) of separate bus lanes, and the introduction of articulated buses. In 1976 the single fare began, and the urban lines were extended to the whole of the Urban Community of Strasbourg.

The CTS refocused on public transport and resold ASTRA and its dedicated freight vehicles.[8] It was one of the first transport companies to introduce an Intelligent transportation system allowing the exchange of data between the vehicles and a central command centre.[8]

Return of the tramway[edit]

Main article: Strasbourg tramway
Bus in the Place Kléber in 1969, pedestrianised when the tramway arrived in 1994

At the end of the 1980s, the municipality launched a project to add a new type of public transport. A metro system was the first choice, with the prominence of Véhicule Automatique Léger,[9] but after the municipal elections of 1989, the new municipality decided to turn back to the tramway. The CTS were assigned to manage the project, to begin in January 1991. The Line A went into service on 26 November 1994. With an initial length of 9.8 km (6.1 mi), it connected Hautepierre Maillon and Illkirch Baggersee'.[9]

The CTS attempted to associate a multitude of services with the tramway. Since 1997, an airport shuttle bus has linked the airport with the tramway at Baggersee',[9] cycle parks have been installed at certain stations etc. In 1998, the Line A was extended from Baggersee as far as Illkirch-Lixenbuhl, and creating the embryonic Line D, doubling the length of Line A by adding the segment Rotonde - Étoile Polygone.

Lines B and C first saw daylight in September 2000. Line B runs from Elsau and Hoenheim Station, and Line C is from Elsau to the Esplanade quarter.

A new type of ticketing was put in place in September 2004: the Badgeo card replaced the standard paper tickets on the urban routes. It was joined by an intercity network in 2006.[10]

Grid network and new energy sources[edit]

The Navette aéroport, suspended since 2008
The CTS-tested hybrid-engined bus

Following the 2001 municipal elections, a new phase of network upgrades was approved. It was scheduled between 2006 and 2008, but several organisations and three individuals (including two elected Green councillors) appealed, and the work was delayed. That set of extensions did not begin until 25 August 2007[11] and completed in May 2008, allowing the creation of 13.5 km (8.4 mi) of track and 18 km (11 mi) of commercial lines.[12]

In December 2008, the first phase of the tram-train went into service, and the CTS stopped the airport shuttle, which was replaced by the TER Alsace's new service.[13]

At the end of 2008, the CTS launched an experiment with a hybrid articulated bus: a Solaris Urbino 18.[14] This circled on Line 6 along with the diesel buses, allowing performance comparisons between the two engine types. After a year of circulation, the company judged the tests inconclusive and announced that it would not be acquiring further hybrid vehicles.

On 27 November 2010, the tramway network was upgraded with the creation of Line F[15] between Elsau and the Place d'Islande and foreshadowing the tram-train, and Line C added a new segment from the station Gare Centrale to Neuhof Rudolphe Reuss.[16] At the end of 2010, the city and the CTS filed a project to create a pneumatic tramway on the WolfisheimVendenheim route via Strasbourg in the 2nd call for busway projects for Grenelle II[17] This plan was widely criticised by local associations, residents, and the municipality opposition.[17]

In parallel with the announcement of abandoning hybrid fuel, the company decided to continue buying vehicles running on natural gas. So, in November 2011, the Cronenbourg depot, which did not have facilities to accommodate natural gas buses,[18] simultaneously equipped and put into circulation 30 gas Irisbus Citelis buses.[19]

Corporate structure[edit]

Share capital[edit]

The company capital (€5m) is shared:[20]

Other minor shareholders include the Caisse des dépôts et consignations (parent company of Veolia Transdev) and Électricité de Strasbourg.

The board is more than 80% controlled by local collectives. Major board members select the chairman of the board: currently Roland Ries (Senator-Mayor of Strasbourg), the vice-president of the CUS since May 2008.

Workforce[edit]

On 31 December 2010, the workforce numbered 1,457 including 971 drivers,[21] compared to 1,539 employees (of which 935 were urban driver-conductors and 116 suburban) at 31 December 2003.[22]

Financial structure[edit]

CTBR coach

A new range of fares was introduced in July 2010. Called the tarification solidaire, it recognises income splitting, but applies only to season tickets paid by subscription.[23] The versement transport (VT) in the CUS has been fixed at 2% since 1 January 2011 (being 1.75% before).[24]

In 2009, total expenses came to €192,014,173 and income €194,194,702, allowing a profit at fiscal year end of €2,180,528 (€276,817 in 2008). Of the whole provision, revenue represented only €63,269,204, or 31.6%, and this included the receipts from the territorial collectivities. The lump sum contribution of local (direct subsidiary) collectives brought in €47,955,557, or 24.6%, and transfer charges €40,766,350, or 21.0% of income.

All in all, the income from the CUS and the Department of Bas-Rhin came to around €120,720,000, including income from the VT reversed back into the CTS. But in 2009, assets included the suburban network, which today is run by a sister company, the CTBR. On the urban network, directly received commercial receipts from passengers amounted to no more than €0.5 per trip.[25]

Network[edit]

Tramway lines[edit]

Main article: Strasbourg tramway

The current Strasbourg tramway network opened on 25 November 1994, serving the Urban Community of Strasbourg. It has six lines, totalling more than 40 km (25 mi) of track, and 55 km (34 mi) of route (some routes sharing track in the city centre). It is the second longest tramway network in France, after the Lyon tramway.

It was the first tramway network in France to have low-floor trams.[26] Rolling stock consists of 53 Eurotrams (manufactured by Bombardier Transportation), later augmented by 41 Alstom Citadis cars of a similar general design to the Eurotram. Strasbourg's tramway network, unlike those of some other towns and cities in France, is more of a grid (rather than being hub and spoke). In the city centre, all tracks are shared by at least two lines, and three lines share the tracks between the stations of Homme de Fer and Observatoire, which makes for easy interchange and increases service frequency in the city centre.

Line Route Provider
tramA Handicapped/disabled access Hautepierre Maillon - Illkirch Lixenbuhl CTS
tramB Handicapped/disabled access Lingolsheim Tiergaertel - Hoenheim Gare
tramC Handicapped/disabled access Gare Centrale - Neuhof Rodolphe Reuss
tramD Handicapped/disabled access Rotonde - Aristide Briand
tramE Handicapped/disabled access Roberstau Boecklin - Baggersee
tramF Handicapped/disabled access Elsau - Place d'Islande

Bus and shuttle routes[edit]

The Urban Community of Strasbourg bus network covers the entire area, and also serves the town of Kehl in Germany, opposite the Rhine from Strasbourg, via the Europe Bridge. There are more than twenty bus and shuttle routes. Most are operated by the CTS, but some are subcontracted to local companies. The network is integrated into the tramway lines, and does not go into the most central part of the city, which is reserved for pedestrians and trams.

The last major review of the system happened with the extensions to the tramway network in August 2007. A study looking at the entire bus system is scheduled for 2013.

Compagnie des transports du Bas-Rhin[edit]

Vélhop bus (previously a CTS bus)

In 2008, the CTS established a joint venture with Transdev, Mugler and Striebig to operate Réseau 67 ("Network 67").[27] The Compagnie des transports du Bas-Rhin (CBTR) took over more than twenty routes under the auspices of the Conseil général du Bas-Rhin.[28] Ownership of coaches was transferred from the CTS to the conseil général, and the CTBR redistributed them between the four carriers. Other vehicles remained the property of the companise that had bought them.

Vélhop[edit]

Main article: Vélhop

Since 2010, Vélhop has been the bicycle hire service for the CUS, provided by the CTS.[29]

Plans were that by the end of 2011, over 4,400 Vélhops could be hired from automatic stations, either inside shops or on specially-equipped buses.[30]

Vehicles[edit]

Tramway[edit]

In 2011, the CTS had 94 tramcars of three different types, all of which could run over all routes.[31]

Constructor Model Quantity[31] Fleet numbers[31] Years in service[31] Length
ABB Eurotram 26 1001 – 1026 1994 – 1995 33 m (108 ft)
Adtranz Eurotram 10 1031 – 1040 1998 – 2000 33 m (108 ft)
Adtranz Eurotram 17 1051 – 1067 1998 – 2000 43 m (141 ft)
Alstom Citadis 41 2001 – 2041 2005 – 2006 45 m (148 ft)

The trams move all over the network, although lines E and F are usually sered by three-car trams because they are the busiest.

With the planned Tram-train Strasbourg - Bruche - Piémont des Vosges set to be completed in 2018, the Citadis Dualis tram-trains, manufactured by Alstom,[32] are planned to join that fleet to provide commuting between the centre and the TER Alsace network.

Eventually, with the planned extensions, the fleet is expected to have over a hundred trams. There have been no additional orders for the extensions due to be implemented between 2013 and 2015.

Bus[edit]

Standard[edit]

Renault Agora S, the network's most widespread standard bus

In 2011, the Heuliez GX 57 were being refurbished, and replaced by the Solaris Urbino 12.

Constructor Model Fuel Quantity[33] Fleet numbers Years in service
Heuliez Bus Heuliez GX 57 Diesel 4 611 – 613, 615 1997 – 1998
Renault Trucks Renault Agora S Diesel 27 651 – 677 1997 – 1998
Renault Trucks Renault Agora S CNG 15 700 – 714 1997 – 1999
Irisbus Irisbus Agora S CNG 40 715 – 754 2000 – 2002
Irisbus Irisbus Agora S Diesel 49 851 – 900 2003 – 2005
Heuliez Bus Heuliez GX 327 CNG 41 755 – 795 2005 – 2007
Solaris Solaris Urbino 12 Diesel 8[34] 616 – 623 2010
Irisbus Irisbus Citelis 12 CNG 15[19][35] 401 – 415 2011

Articulated[edit]

The Irisbus Citelis 18 fleet is destined to replace that of the Van Hool AG300. The Solaris Urbino 18 Hybride, delivered in 2010, is a test bus. Had its evaluation been satisfactory, it would have led to an order of hybrid vehicles. It was in service throughout 2011, but as of March 2012 no further orders have been made.

Constructor Model Fuel Quantity[33] Fleet numbers Years in service
Heuliez Bus Heuliez GX 87 Diesel 41 362, 366, 367 1995 – 1998
Van Hool Van Hool AG300 Diesel 16 548 – 550, 553, 556 – 558,
560 – 566, 569 – 570
1995 – 1997
Renault Trucks Renault Agora L Diesel 24 571 – 594 1997 – 1998
Irisbus Irisbus Agora L Diesel 4 595 – 598 2005
Irisbus Irisbus Citelis 18 CNG 13 301 – 313, 339 – 352 2005 – 2007, 2011[19][35]
Irisbus Irisbus Citelis 18 Diesel 24 314 – 338 2003 – 2005
Solaris Solaris Urbino 18 Hybrid 1[14][36] 400 2010

Specials[edit]

CTS tourist mini-tram

The SC 10Rs are being renovated and assigned to other duties, to be used exclusively for passengers with reduced mobility. The Sprinter is used for special services, or within CTS. The three mini-trams are used for the tourist Mini-tram service.

Constructor Model Fuel Quantity[33] Fleet numbers Years in service
Renault Renault SC 10R Diesel 6 959 – 964 1988
Mercedes-Benz Mercedes-Benz Sprinter Diesel 1 112 1999
/ Mini-Tram Electric 3 / 1992 – 2003

Charter buses[edit]

Mercedes-Benz Citaro on Route 21
Vehixel Cytios on the Hôpital Civil shuttle

The CTS subcontracts some routes to other operating companies: 21, 27 and 31, the three shuttles and school buses.[37] The CTS does not own the vehicles used on these routes.

Standard[edit]

In 2011, standard (i.e. non-articulated) buses chartered by the CTS included to Kunegel, which operates route 27 with several vehicle types, (during 2011, four Renault R 312s, seven Heuliez GX 317s and two Mercedes-Benz Citaros), and Transdev Alsace, which operates a larger fleet to provide the school services on routes 21 and 31. For this it has ten Renault R 312s, three Mercedes-Benz Citaros, three Setra S 315 NFs (unused since the closure of the airport shittle at the end of 2008) and three Renault Agora Ss.

Articulated[edit]

In 2011, articulated buses were chartered by Kunegel, with five Van Hool AG300s used on school services, and by Transdev Alsace, which operated three Van Hool AG300s, four Mercedes-Benz Citaro Gs and a single Renault Agora L. These services are used on route 31 and school services.

Low-height buses and minibuses[edit]

The CTS has no midibuses (reduced-capacity buses). Minibuses are used on shuttles run by Transdev Alsace. In 2011, these were thought to be four Vehixel Cytios with a Mercedes-Benz Sprinter chassis, and a previous-generation Renault Master.

Livery[edit]

The new CTS livery (since 2011), white with detail by a different artist each year (in 2011, Tomi Ungerer)

When the tramways start in 1877, first horse-drawn and since 1984 electrically powered, the livery was entirely green. But in 1907, a decision was taken to repaint the entire fleet and other infrastructure in ivory.[38] The ivory livery lasted until the tramways were dismantled in 1960.

In the 1960s, the livery was predominantly blue, except for the grille and bumpers, which were red.[39] But the company started to put new colours on their vehicles: white for the vehicle top and red-orange for the bottom, echoing the town's colours and those of the region of Alsace.[8]

In the 1980s, the network consisted only of bus routes operated by a single model, the Renault SC10, and the livery was the same on every vehicle: cream on the top with red on the bottom. The suburban network was operated by some Saviem S53s in a livery of grey with a light gree-blue band. As new bus models appeared, at the start of the 1990s, the company slightly changed the livery; the white background stayed, but several red-orange bands reappeared on the vehicles.

When the tramway was reintroduced, the company completely rethought its visual identity. The whole of the urban network (bus and tram) was put in the same livery. So, on buses, the bottom was in dark green and the rest of the vehicle in dark grey. Between the two colours, there was a 30 cm (12 in) band. On the trams, the theme stayed the same but underwent several minor changes: the green stayed at the bottom but to a lesser extent. In 2005, the delivery of the new Citadis 403 cars reduced the amount of green once again (with more prominence on each end of the car set), and white was by far the most prominent colour (only on the Citadis).

In 2011, when more new vehicles were delivered, the company again presented a new livery. It is entirely white, but vehicles are decorated by a different artist chosen annually. The 29 new natural gas-powered vehicles (14 articulated and 15 standard Irisbus Citelis units) delivered in 2011 were decorated by the artist Tomi Ungerer.[40]

Depots[edit]

The CTS has three depots, all in Strasbourg.[41] Each of the depots is designated as a mixed "unit of production" (UP), which is taken from the first letter of the depot: UPC (Cronenbourg), UPE (Elsau) and UPK (Kibitzenau).[31] They are all "mixed", and can handle both buses and trams (repair and maintenance shops and cleaning stations).

Cronenbourg[edit]

Elsau station, next to the Elsau depot

The corporate headquarters is located in Strasbourg, in the Cronenbourg quarter. The depot was built in 1931 and was renovated and enlarged between 1992 and 1994, to service the new tramway. Its official designation is UPC.[31] In 2011, il was equipped to handle CNG-powered buses.[18]

The depot also houses the company administration, and the central supervision (French: Poste de commandes centralisées (PCC, "Central Command Post") which co-ordinates the movements of the entire bus and tramway network.[42] A single track connects the Rotonde station with the depot, and so allows trams to access the rest of the network.[43]

Lines and routes connected to UPC
Tramway A, D
Bus 4, 6, 17, 19, 70, 71, 72

Elsau[edit]

The Elsau depot was created for the tramway network extension, to serve lines B and C. It was inaugurated in 2000. With the 2010 network restructuring, the depot took over the new line F but lost line C, which moved to Kibitzenau.[44] It opened for business in September 1999. It has a compression station for natural gas. Its official denomination is GPE.[31] The depot can rapidly recharge gas-powered vehicles; the Strasbourg authorities want to increase the fleet of gas-powered rolling stock.

Lines and routes connected to UPE
Tramway B, F
Bus 2, 10, 12, 13, 15, 15a, 22, 50

Kibitzenau[edit]

The Kibitzenau depot is the newest, inaugurated in January 2006 as part of the 2007–08 tramway extensions. It replaced the previous depot at Neudorf.[45] The station is "mixed", handling both buses and trams, and also has a natural gas compression station.

Its official designation is UPK.[31][46]

Lines and routes connected to UPK
Tramway C, E
Bus 7, 14, 24, 40, 62, 63, 65, 66

Neudorf[edit]

The Neudorf depot, designated UPN, was located at Aristide Briand. It was demolished in 2005–06, to be replaced by the Kibitzenau depot, since it was not able to handle buses.[45]

Maintenance equipment[edit]

The CTS's Unimog

The extent and frequency of the network means it needs continuous maintenance. The CTS keeps a fleet of maintenance vehicles for both the bus and tram networks.

Two lorries called Aspirails travel the tramway network each day, to get rid of foreign objects in the rail grooves.[47] If there is a fault on the rolling stock or the fixed infrastructure, the CTS has a fleet of road-rail vehicles, such as tractors, a Unimog and several bulldozers.[42]

For the bus network, the company uses tractors as tow trucks. In parallel, a fleet of minibuses (Renault Master, Renault Kangoo, and so on) are available to transport the mechanics and service staff around the entire network.

Maintenance equipment is not painted in the CTS livery: vehicles are white, with the company logo affixed. Vehicle storage is distributed between the three depots.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ CTS 2003, 1878–1894: l'époque héroïque du tramway hippomobile ("The horse-drawn era")
  2. ^ a b CTS 2003, 1895–1914: l'essor avec l'électricité ("Developments with Electricity")
  3. ^ a b c d CTS 2003, 1914–1939: guerre et crise économique ("War and economic crisis")
  4. ^ a b CTS 2003, 1939–1945: dans la tourmente de la guerre ("In the torment of war")
  5. ^ a b c CTS 2003, 1945–1962: mutations au nom de la modernisation ("Change in the name of modernisation")
  6. ^ a b (French) "Voie ferrée Rosheim - Saint Nabor : chronologie ("Rosheim   Saint Nabor railway: history")". obernai.dna.fr (in French). 27 January 2010. Retrieved 24 March 2012. 
  7. ^ 030T Borsig de 1906
  8. ^ a b c d CTS 2003, 1962–1989: innovations et réflexion ("Innovation and reflection")
  9. ^ a b c CTS 2003, 1989-2003 : le choix du tramway ("Choice of tramway")
  10. ^ (French) "Information Multimodale en Alsace - État des lieux ("Information about multimodal transport in Alsace: Places")". lara.inist.fr (in French). 10 November 2004. Retrieved 14 March 2012. 
  11. ^ (French) "Strasbourg inaugure son nouveau réseau de tramway ("Strasbourg inaugurates its new tramway network")". www.europe1.fr (in French). 25 August 2007. Retrieved 14 March 2012. 
  12. ^ (French)"Le tram à Lingolsheim... et après? ("The Lingolsheim tram... and after?")". strasbourg.dna.fr (in French). 12 May 2008. Retrieved 14 March 2012. 
  13. ^ (French) "Ouverture d'une desserte Strasbourg-aéroport, prélude au tram-train ("Opening of Strasbourg airport stop, before the tram-train starts")". libestrasbourg.blogs.liberation.fr (in French). 15 December 2008. Retrieved 14 March 2012. 
  14. ^ a b (French) "Strasbourg s'équipe d'un bus articulé hybride ("Strasbourg gets a hybrid bendy bus")". www.avem.fr (in French). 5 November 2008. Retrieved 18 March 2012. 
  15. ^ (French) "Le projet de tram-train strasbourgeois ("The Strasbourg tram-train project")". www.strasbourg.eu (in French). Retrieved 14 March 2012. 
  16. ^ (French) "Une révolution sur le réseau tram ("A revolution in the tram network")". www.dna.fr (in French). 17 September 2010. [dead link]
  17. ^ a b (French) "TCSP: un tram sur pneus à Strasbourg? ("TCSP: A rubber-tyred tram in Strasbourg?")". www.wk-transport-logistique.fr (in French). 12 March 2011. Retrieved 14 March 2012. 
  18. ^ a b (English) "Supply contract - 113425-2011". ted.europa.eu. 9 April 2011. Retrieved 14 March 2012. 
  19. ^ a b c (French) "Le nouveau visage de la CTS ("The new face of the CTS")". www.tc-alsace.eu (in French). 21 October 2011. Retrieved 14 March 2012. 
  20. ^ (French) "Le statut juridique de la CTS ("Legal structure of the CTS")". www.cts-strasbourg.fr (in French). 2 February 2011. Retrieved 14 March 2012. 
  21. ^ "Les chiffres clés au 31/12/2011 ("Key facts")". Rapport d'activité 2010 ("Annual Report") (in French). CTS. 2011. Retrieved 14 March 2012. 
  22. ^ "Les chiffres clés au 31/12/2003 ("Key facts")". Rapport d'activité 2003 ("Annual Report") (in French). CTS. 2004. Retrieved 14 March 2012. 
  23. ^ (French) "Nouveaux tarifs des transports en commun ("New fare structure for public transport")". www.strasbourg.eu (in French). June 2010. Retrieved 14 March 2012. 
  24. ^ (French) "Lettre circulaire n° 20110000062 " Modification du taux de versement transport (art. L. 233364 et s. du Code Général des Collectivités Territoriales " ("Circular letter 20110000062: Tax changes for the versement transport")". www.urssaf.fr (in French). 17 May 2011. Retrieved 14 March 2012. 
  25. ^ "Rapport d'activités 2009 ("Annual Report")". cts-strasbourg.fr (in French). pp. 8–9. Retrieved 24 March 2012. 
  26. ^ "Strasbourg: you can't take it home with you". humantransit.org. 17 July 2010. Retrieved 18 March 2012. 
  27. ^ (French) "Histoire de Transdev - 2008 ("Transdev History – 2008")". www.transdev.eu (in French). 1 April 2011. Retrieved 15 March 2012. 
  28. ^ (French) "Réseau interurbain ("Suburban network")". www.cts-strasbourg.fr. 12 December 2011. Retrieved 15 March 2012. 
  29. ^ (French) "A Strasbourg, le vélo partagé se déconnecte de la publicité ("In Strasbourg, bicyclists get their own signage")". lemoniteur.fr (in French). 11 September 2009. Retrieved 15 March 2012. 
  30. ^ (French) "Strasbourg : le Vélhop en selle à la rentrée ("Strasbourg: The Vélop ")". libestrasbourg.fr (in French). 30 June 2010. Retrieved 15 March 2012. 
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h (French) "Le parc de tramways en service ("Tramways in service")" (in French). 23 October 2011. 
  32. ^ (French) "Commande de Citadis Dualis de la SNCF ("SNCF orders Citadis Dualis")". www.citadismag.transport.alstom.com (in French). 2 May 2011. Retrieved 16 March 2012. [dead link]
  33. ^ a b c (French) "Etat de parc Strasbourg ("Strasbourg fleet facts")". www.tc-alsace.eu (in French). 12 December 2011. Retrieved 16 March 2012. 
  34. ^ (French) Reibenberg, David (12 June 2009). "Solaris passe à l'attaque en France ("Solaris goes on the attack in France")". www.wk-transport-logistique.fr (in French). Retrieved 16 March 2011. 
  35. ^ a b (French) "Premiers Bus Tomi Ungerer sur la ligne 19 à partir de mardi 15 novembre 2011 ("First Tomi Ungerer bus starts on line 19 from 15 November 2011")". cts-strasbourg.fr (in French). 15 November 2011. Retrieved 16 March 2011. [dead link]
  36. ^ (French) Plantin, Manuel (25 October 2008). "Galop d'essai pour un premier bus hybride ("Trial run for the first hybrid bus")". www.dna.fr (in French). Retrieved 16 March 2012. 
  37. ^ (French) "Une grève dans les bus 21 et 31 ("Strike on bus routes 21 and 31")". www.20minutes.fr (in French). 8 December 2010. Retrieved 16 March 2012. 
  38. ^ Bleicher, Fernand (1985). Le Tramway jusque vers 1937 (Aspects du Strasbourg) ("The tramway up to 1937") (in French). Oberlin. ISBN 2-85369-042-3. 
  39. ^ "1962-1989: innovations et réflexions ("1962-1989: Innovations and reflections")". 75 ans d’autobus en France ("75 years of French buses") (in French). EPA. 1989. ISBN 2-85120-089-5. 
  40. ^ (French) "Ça bouge dans les transports publics ("Paint the town on public transport")". www.20minutes.fr (in French). 11 October 2011. Retrieved 16 March 2012. 
  41. ^ (French)"A propos des nous: Les depôts ("About us: depots")". www.cts-strasbourg.fr (in French). 3 May 2011. Retrieved 16 March 2012. 
  42. ^ a b "ASTUS Info n°43 - Le poste de commandement centralisé (PCC) de la CTS à Cronenbourg ("ASTUS Info 43: The Central Command Post of the CTS at Cronenbourg")" (in French). July 2011. Retrieved 16 March 2012. [dead link]
  43. ^ (French)Fabien, Romary (25 January 2009). "Siège de la CTS (compagnie des transports Strasbourgeois) ("HQ of the CTS")". archi-strasbourg.org (in French). Retrieved 16 March 2012. 
  44. ^ (French) "Dépôt mixte bus - tramway à Strasbourg ("Mixed tramway/bus depot at Strasbourg")". www.ote.fr (in French). 27 April 2011. Retrieved 16 March 2012. 
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  46. ^ (French) "Vite dit ("Quick talk")". dna.fr (in French). 28 April 2006. Retrieved 16 March 2012. 
  47. ^ (English) "F-Strasbourg: repair, maintenance and associated services related to railways and other equipment". ted.europa.eu. 26 November 2010. Retrieved 16 March 2012. 

Sources[edit]

  • La Compagnie des Transports Strasbourgeois: 125 ans d'histoire illustrée ("The Strasbourg Transport Company: A 125-year illustrated history") (in French). Strasbourg: Compagnie des Transports Strasbourgeois. August 2003. ISBN 2-9520527-0-0. 
  • Muller, Georges (2000). Génération Tram (in French). Strasbourg: Oberlin. ISBN 2-85369-209-4. 
  • Muller, Georges (1994). L'année du Tram (in French). Strasbourg: Ronald Hirlé. ISBN 2-910048-15-2. 
  • Perry, Laurence (2005). Répertoire numérique détaillé des archives de la compagnie des transports strasbourgeois (C.T.S) : des origines à la fin du premier tramway ("Detailed numerical list of the archives of the CTS: From its origin to the demise of the original tramway") (in French). Strasbourg: Archive service.