Comparison between Ido and Novial
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Novial was created by Otto Jespersen, who had also been a co-author of Ido. Both languages base their vocabularies primarily on the Germanic and Romance languages but differ grammatically in several important respects. Comparisons among Ido, Novial, and other notable international auxiliary languages have formed an important part of interlinguistic studies. For example, both Ido and Novial were among the languages investigated by the International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA), which developed Interlingua. This article is intended to provide an overview of the salient differences and similarities of Ido and Novial.
Alphabets and pronunciation
In the Phonetic Novial spelling system (1928, 1930) the main differences between the Novial vocabulary and those of other systems come from the suppression of the letters c and z. The letter s plays an important part but tends to distort the visual appearance of some words (sientie = science, sesa = cease, sivil(i) = civil). 
|A, a||/a/||A, a|
|B, b||/b/||B, b|
|C, c||/ts/||TS, ts|
|CH, ch;||/tʃ/||CH, ch|
|D, d||/d/||D, d|
|E, e||/e/ or /ɛ/||E, e|
|F, f||/f/||F, f|
|G, g||/ɡ/||G, g|
|Dj, dj||/dʒ/||J, j|
|H, h||/h/||H, h|
|I, i||/i/||I, i|
|J, j||/ʒ/||J, j|
|K, k||/k/||K, k|
|L, l||/l/||L, l|
|M, m||/m/||M, m|
|N, n||/n/||N, n|
|O, o||/o/ or /ɒ/||O, o|
|P, p||/p/||P, p|
|QU, qu||/kw/ or /kv/||QU, qu|
|R, r||/r/||R, r|
|S, s||/s/||S, s (also Z,z)|
|SH, sh||/ʃ/||SH, sh|
|T, t||/t/||T, t|
|U, u||/u/||U, u|
|W, w||/w/||W, w (before a vowel)
U, u (after a vowel)
|V, v||/v/||V, v|
|X, x||/ks/ or /ɡz/||X, x|
|Y, y||/j/||Y, y|
|Z, z||/z/||Z, z (also S, s)|
The grammars of Novial and Ido differ substantially in the way that the various tenses, moods and voices of verbs are expressed. Both use a combination of auxiliary verbs and verb endings. However, Novial uses many more auxiliary verbs and few endings, while Ido uses only one auxiliary verb and a greater number of verb endings.
As with most international auxiliary languages, all verb forms in Ido and Novial are independent of person (1st, 2nd or 3rd persons) and number (singular or plural).
Language sample for comparison
Here is the Lord's Prayer in both languages:
- Ido and Interlingua compared
- Esperanto and Novial compared
- Esperanto and Ido compared
- Esperanto and Interlingua compared
- Ido language
- Chapter IV of "A Planned Auxiliary Language" by Henry Jacob, 1947.
|Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: Novial|
- Kompleta Gramatiko di la Linguo Internaciona Ido (187-page PDF file.)
- An International Language: Otto Jespersen's 1928 book which introduced Novial. Contains discussion of earlier auxiliary languages including Ido.
- An International Language: The Delegation. Ido Chapter of the first book about Novial which discusses Ido (specific criticisms of Ido are mentioned in various chapters of the book).
- OTTO JESPERSEN His Work for an International Auxiliary Language By Henry Jacob, 1943, Comparative Texts comparing Ido, Novial, Occidental, Latino sine flexione, Esperanto and English.
- A PLANNED AUXILIARY LANGUAGE By Henry Jacob, 1947. A detailed comparative study of interlinguistics with full grammatical details of five systems of demonstrated usefulness, Esperanto, Ido, Occidental, Novial, and Latino sine flexione.
- About Direct Derivation in International Languages By Friedrich Auerbach, 1930 (in Novial).
- A passage from Machievelli in Ido and Novial
- Contains many links pertinent to Novial, Ido, and Otto Jespersen