Comparison of movie cameras

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

35 mm[edit]

The 35 mm film gauge has long been the most common gauge in professional usage, and thus enjoys the greatest number of cameras currently available for professional usage. The modern era of 35 mm cameras dates to the 1970s, when Arri's Arriflex 35BL and Panavision's original Panaflex models emerged as the first self-blimped, lightweight cameras. Another distinguishing characteristic of modern cameras is the adoption of stronger lens mount seatings secured with a breech lock - namely the Arri PL and PV mount, both of which were designs descended from the BNCR mount of Mitchell cameras.

General[edit]

  • Camera model - specific camera body models and variants, usually officially authorized
  • Camera line - either the body family (similar bodies) or system family (complementary design)
  • Manufacturer - company of origin
  • Introduced - first year of known usage
  • Weight - usually just the body, but may include accessories as mentioned
  • MOS/Sync - Sync-sound cameras are able to both maintain a constant speed (usually crystal lock) and run quietly enough not to be heard by the sound recordist. MOS cameras do not meet either one or both of these requirements, and are usually used either for applications where camera noise is not a concern, or non-standard camera speeds are required. A camera is also deemed MOS if it can not hold a constant speed, regardless of its noise levels.
  • Noise level - measured noise made by the camera, usually without film and at a given distance of several feet. MOS cameras do not have a noise level since they are not intended to be used with recorded sound and thus are much louder.
A limited number of cameras prior to the modern period are listed due to their prevalence in special applications.
Camera model Camera line Manufacturer Introduced Weight MOS/Sync Noise Level
Eyemo 71K Eyemo Bell and Howell 1925 11 lb (5.0 kg) MOS N/A
Arriflex 35-2C Arriflex 35-II Arri 1964 13.5 lb (6.1 kg), with empty magazine MOS N/A
Arriflex 35BL-1 Arriflex 35BL Arri 1972 28.5 lb (12.9 kg), with empty magazine Sync 26 dB
Panaflex-X Panaflex Panavision 1974 20.5 lb (9.3 kg) Sync <24 dB
Arriflex 35BL-2 Arriflex 35BL Arri 1975 28.5 lb (12.9 kg), with empty magazine Sync 26 dB
Panaflex Gold II Panaflex Panavision 1976 24.4 lb (11.1 kg), with short eyepiece Sync <24 dB
Arriflex 35BL-3 Arriflex 35BL Arri 1980 28.7 lb (13.0 kg), with empty magazine Sync 22 dB
Arriflex 35-3C Arriflex 35-III Arri 1982 8.8 lb (4.0 kg); 13.5 lb (6.1 kg), with empty magazine MOS N/A
Moviecam SuperAmerica Moviecam SuperAmerica Moviecam 1984 29 lb (13 kg) Sync 20 dB
Arriflex 35BL-4 Arriflex 35BL Arri 1986 30.9 lb (14.0 kg), with empty magazine Sync 22 dB
Panaflex Platinum Panaflex Panavision 1986 24 lb (11 kg) Sync <22 dB
Panaflex Panastar II Panaflex Panastar Panavision 1987 24.4 lb (11.1 kg) MOS N/A
Arriflex 35BL-4s Arriflex 35BL Arri 1988 31.9 lb (14.5 kg), with empty magazine Sync 20 dB
Arriflex 535 Arriflex 535 Arri 1990 21.6 lb (9.8 kg), body only; 29.4 lb (13.3 kg), with finder; 36.4 lb (16.5 kg), with finder and empty magazine Sync 19 dB
Moviecam Compact Moviecam Compact Moviecam 1990 13.6 lb (6.2 kg) Sync <20 dB
Arriflex 535B Arriflex 535 Arri 1992 26 lb (12 kg), with empty magazine Sync 19 dB
Arriflex 435 Arriflex 435 Arri 1995 14.3 lb (6.5 kg), without magazine MOS N/A
Arriflex 435ES Arriflex 435 Arri 1995 14.3 lb (6.5 kg), without magazine MOS N/A
Moviecam SL Moviecam SL Moviecam 1995 8.25 lb (3.74 kg) Sync 25 dB
Aaton 35-III Aaton 35 Aaton 1997 16 lb (7.3 kg), with full magazine and onboard battery Sync 30 dB (4 perf), 26 dB (3 perf)
Panaflex Millennium Panaflex Millennium Panavision 1997 17.5 lb (7.9 kg) Sync <19 dB
Panaflex Millennium XL Panaflex Millennium Panavision 1999 11.8 lb (5.4 kg) Sync <23 dB
Arricam LT Arricam Arri 2000 8.7 lb (3.9 kg), body only; 11.56 lb (5.24 kg), with finder Sync <24 dB
Arricam ST Arricam Arri 2000 11.9 lb (5.4 kg), body only; 17.95 lb (8.14 kg), with finder Sync <20 dB
Arriflex 435 Advanced Arriflex 435 Arri 2001 14.3 lb (6.5 kg), without magazine MOS N/A
Aaton 35-3P Aaton 35 Aaton 2002 16 lb (7.3 kg), with full magazine and onboard battery Sync 30 dB (4 perf), 24 dB (3 perf)
Arriflex 235 Arriflex 235 Arri 2004 7.7 lb (3.5 kg), with viewfinder MOS N/A
Arriflex 435 Xtreme Arriflex 435 Arri 2004 14.3 lb (6.5 kg), without magazine MOS N/A
Aaton Penelope Aaton Penelope Aaton 2008 17 lb (7.7 kg), with full magazine and onboard battery Sync 23 dB (3 perf), 22 dB (2 perf)

Lens and gate aperture[edit]

  • Lens mount - the type of mount required for using the camera. Certain lenses may not be able to be used with particular cameras if the mounts are incompatible.
  • Super 35? - is the mount capable of quickly being converted to Super 35 centering? This is a horizontal shift from Academy centering. Cameras not designed for this may need to otherwise disassemble the entire hard front to re-align.
  • Aperture size - the size of the aperture of the gate.
  • Aperture plate - is the gate removable for inspection and what accessories may it have?
  • Lens interface - electronic information system located in the lens mount to communicate lens data to the camera and accessories.
  • Ground glass - interchangeable ground glasses allow for the viewfinder to display whichever aspect ratio is being framed for.
  • Frameline glow - can the camera make the framelines glow for easier viewing in low-light conditions?
Camera model Lens mount Super 35? Aperture size Aperture plate Lens interface Ground glass Frameline glow?
Eyemo 71K Eyemo mount, many conversions No, but conversions exist Full frame fixed none interchangeable No
Arriflex 35-2C Arri standard and Arri bayonet No, but conversions exist Academy ratio fixed none interchangeable No
Arriflex 35BL-1 Arri bayonet No Academy ratio, custom sizes exist removable none interchangeable No
Panaflex-X PV mount; Yes Full frame removable; interchangeable format masks none interchangeable Yes
Arriflex 35BL-2 Arri bayonet No Academy ratio, custom sizes exist removable none interchangeable No
Panaflex Gold II PV mount Yes Full frame removable; interchangeable format masks none interchangeable Yes
Arriflex 35BL-3 Arri PL or BNCR mount No Academy ratio, custom sizes exist removable none, but Lens Data Archive (LDA) can be used interchangeable No
Arriflex 35-3C Arri PL No Academy ratio removable none, but Lens Data Archive (LDA) can be used interchangeable No
Moviecam SuperAmerica Arri PL and BNCR mount Yes full range available removable none, but Lens Data Archive (LDA) can be used interchangeable Yes
Arriflex 35BL-4 Arri PL Yes Academy ratio, custom sizes exist removable none, but Lens Data Archive (LDA) can be used interchangeable Yes
Panaflex Platinum PV mount Yes Full frame removable; interchangeable format masks none interchangeable Yes
Panaflex Panastar II PV mount Yes Full frame removable; interchangeable format masks none interchangeable Yes
Arriflex 35BL-4s Arri PL Yes Academy ratio, custom sizes exist removable none, but Lens Data Archive (LDA) can be used interchangeable Yes
Arriflex 535 Arri PL Yes full range available removable; interchangeable format masks and filter holders none, but Lens Data Archive (LDA) can be used interchangeable Yes
Moviecam Compact Arri PL and BNCR mount Yes full range available removable none, but Lens Data Archive (LDA) can be used interchangeable Yes
Arriflex 535B Arri PL Yes full range available removable; interchangeable format masks and filter holders none, but Lens Data Archive (LDA) can be used interchangeable Yes
Arriflex 435 Arri PL, PV mount Yes full range available removable; interchangeable format masks and filter holders none, but Lens Data Archive (LDA) can be used interchangeable Yes
Arriflex 435ES Arri PL, PV mount Yes full range available removable; interchangeable format masks and filter holders none, but Lens Data Archive (LDA) can be used interchangeable Yes
Moviecam SL Arri PL Yes full range available removable none, but Lens Data Archive (LDA) can be used interchangeable Yes
Aaton 35-III Arri PL, PV mount, or Nikon Yes full frame fixed none, but Lens Data Archive (LDA) can be used interchangeable Yes
Panaflex Millennium PV mount Yes full frame removable; interchangeable format masks none interchangeable Yes
Panaflex Millennium XL PV mount Yes full frame removable; interchangeable format masks none interchangeable Yes
Arricam LT Arri PL Yes full frame removable; interchangeable format masks and filter holders Lens Data System (LDS) contacts; integrated Lens Data Box (LDB) interchangeable Yes
Arricam ST Arri PL Yes full frame removable; interchangeable format masks and filter holders Lens Data System (LDS) contacts; integrated Lens Data Box (LDB) interchangeable Yes
Arriflex 435 Advanced Arri PL, PV mount Yes full frame removable; interchangeable format masks and filter holders Lens Data System (LDS) contacts; usable with FEM-2 unit interchangeable Yes
Aaton 35-3P Arri PL, PV mount, or Nikon Yes full frame fixed none, but Lens Data Archive (LDA) can be used interchangeable Yes
Arriflex 235 Arri PL Yes full frame removable none, but Lens Data Archive (LDA) can be used interchangeable Yes
Arriflex 435 Xtreme Arri PL, PV mount Yes full range available removable; interchangeable format masks and filter holders Lens Data System (LDS) contacts and integrated electronics interchangeable Yes

Shutter[edit]

  • Reflex - is the shutter a reflex mirror design?
  • Design - rotary disc shutters have two common designs - a "half-moon" disc of 180° or "butterfly" of two 90° segments opposite each other which spins at half-speed.
  • Location - where the shutter is centered
  • Adjustment - how the shutter angle can be adjusted. Most manual designs can only be adjusted when the camera isn't running, often with the lens removed. All electronic shutters allow adjustment at all times, including when the camera is running.
  • Angles - shutter angles available and in what increments or stops, if not continuous
Camera model Reflex? Design Location Adjustment Angles
Eyemo 71K No, but many conversions Half-moon Beside gate fixed 160°; many conversions for different angles
Arriflex 35-2C Yes Butterfly Underneath gate fixed 180°, although the V/B variant is adjustable from 0° to 165°
Arriflex 35BL-1 Yes Butterfly Underneath gate fixed 180°
Panaflex-X Yes Butterfly Beside gate manually while running or in standby between 50° and 200°, continuously adjustable
Arriflex 35BL-2 Yes Butterfly Underneath gate fixed 180°
Panaflex Gold II Yes Butterfly Beside gate manually while running or in standby between 50° and 200°, continuously adjustable
Arriflex 35BL-3 Yes Half-moon Underneath gate manual stops at 144°, 172.8°, and 180°
Arriflex 35-3C Yes Butterfly Underneath gate manual 0° to 165° with stops every 15°
Moviecam SuperAmerica Yes Half-moon Underneath gate manual stops at 45°, 90°, 120°, 144°, 172.8°, and 180°.
Arriflex 35BL-4 Yes Half-moon Underneath gate manual stops at 144°, 172.8°, and 180°
Panaflex Platinum Yes Butterfly Beside gate electronic or manually while running or in standby between 50° and 200°, in 0.1° stops
Panaflex Panastar II Yes Butterfly Beside gate electronic or manually while running or in standby between 45° and 180°, in 0.1° stops
Arriflex 35BL-4s Yes Half-moon Underneath gate manual stops at 144°, 172.8°, and 180°
Arriflex 535 Yes Half-moon Underneath gate electronic between 11° to 180°, in 0.01° stops
Moviecam Compact Yes Half-moon Underneath gate manual stops at 45°, 90°, 120°, 144°, 172.8°, and 180°. 22.5° available on newer models.
Arriflex 535B Yes Half-moon Underneath gate manual stops every 15° between 15° and 180°, also stops at 144° and 172.8°
Arriflex 435 Yes Half-moon Underneath gate manual stops every 15° between 30° and 135°, also stops at 11.2°, 22.5°, 144°, 172.8°, and 180°
Arriflex 435ES Yes Half-moon Underneath gate electronic between 11.2° to 180°, in 0.1° stops
Moviecam SL Yes Half-moon Underneath gate manual stops at 22.5°, 45°, 90°, 120°, 144°, 172.8°, and 180°.
Aaton 35-III Yes Half-moon Underneath gate manual stops at 144°, 150°, 172.8°, and 180°
Panaflex Millennium Yes Butterfly Beside gate electronic or manually while running or in standby between 11.2° and 180°, in 0.1° stops
Panaflex Millennium XL Yes Butterfly Beside gate electronic or manually while running or in standby between 11.2° and 180°, in 0.1° stops
Arricam LT Yes Half-moon Underneath gate electronic between 0° and 180°, in 0.1° stops
Arricam ST Yes Half-moon Underneath gate electronic between 0° and 180°, in 0.1° stops
Arriflex 435 Advanced Yes Half-moon Underneath gate electronic between 11.2° and 180°, in 0.1° stops
Aaton 35-3P Yes Half-moon Underneath gate manual stops at 144°, 150°, 172.8°, and 180°
Arriflex 235 Yes Half-moon Underneath gate manual stops every 15° between 45° and 150°, also stops at 144°, 172.8°, and 180°
Arriflex 435 Xtreme Yes Half-moon Underneath gate electronic between 11.2° and 180°, in 0.1° stops

Movement[edit]

  • Movement type - design of the movement mechanism
  • Pulldown claws - number of claws which engage the film perforations to transport the film while the shutter is closed. Some claws may have more than one pin in order to engage multiple perfs at a time.
  • Registration pins - number of pins which engage the film perforations during exposure in order to ensure consistent image stability from frame to frame.
  • Frame rate (forward) - range of speeds in frame/s (frames per second) and smallest increments of change allowed. Accessories noted where required for certain speeds.
  • Frame rate (reverse) - range of speeds in frame/s (frames per second) and smallest increments of change allowed. Accessories noted where required for certain speeds.
  • Motor - type of motor, voltage, crystal-controlled speeds (Xtal)
  • Pulldown - negative pulldown options available
  • Pitch control? - does the camera allow for adjustment of the pulldown claw to optimize camera noise and avoid perforation damage?
Camera model Movement type Pulldown claws Registration pins Frame rate (forward) Frame rate (reverse) Motor Pulldown Pitch control?
Eyemo 71K clockwork mechanism 1 0 4-50 frame/s No spring-wound, several motors available 4 perf No
Arriflex 35-2C cam-driven 1 0 depends on motor; speeds ranging from 5-80 frame/s available No several available, including 32V DC handgrip, 16V DC governor, 24-28V DC and 16V DC variables. 4 perf No
Arriflex 35BL-1 cam-driven 4 2 5-100 frame/s No 12V DC, Xtal at 24, 25, and 30 frame/s 4 perf No
Panaflex-X Mitchell-design, cam driven 2 2 4-34 frame/s No 24V DC brushed, Xtal at 24, 25, and 29.97 frame/s 4 and 3 perf Yes
Arriflex 35BL-2 cam-driven 2 2 5-50 frame/s No 12V DC, Xtal at 24, 25, and 30 frame/s 4 perf No
Panaflex Gold II Mitchell-design, cam driven 2 2 4-34 frame/s No 24V DC brushed, Xtal at 24, 25, and 29.97 frame/s 4 and 3 perf Yes
Arriflex 35BL-3 cam-driven 2 2 5-50 frame/s No 12V DC, Xtal at 24, 25, and 30 frame/s 4 perf No
Arriflex 35-3C cam-driven 1 (dual-pin) 1 4-100 frame/s; some models can reach 130 frame/s 4-100 frame/s; some models can reach 130 frame/s 12/24V DC, Xtal at 24, 25, and 30 frame/s 4 and 3 perf No
Moviecam SuperAmerica compensating link movement 2 2 12-32 frame/s in 1 frame/s increments; 1-50 frame/s in 0.001 frame/s increments with speedbox 12-32 frame/s in 0.001 frame/s increments with speedbox 24V DC microprocessor-controlled, Xtal at all speeds 4 perf Yes
Arriflex 35BL-4 cam-driven 2 2 5-40 frame/s No 12V DC, Xtal at 24, 25, and 30 frame/s 4 perf No
Panaflex Platinum Mitchell-design, cam driven 2 2 4-36 frame/s in 0.1 frame/s increments 4-36 frame/s in 0.1 frame/s increments 24V DC brushed, Xtal at all speeds 4 and 3 perf Yes
Panaflex Panastar II Mitchell-design, cam driven 4 2 4-120 frame/s in 1 frame/s increments 4-120 frame/s in 1 frame/s increments 24V DC brushed, Xtal at all speeds 4 and 3 perf Yes
Arriflex 35BL-4s seven-link movement 2 2 5-40 frame/s No 12V DC, Xtal at 24, 25, and 30 frame/s 4 and 3 perf Yes
Arriflex 535 seven-link movement 2 2 3-50 frame/s in 0.001 frame/s increments; 1 frame/s if phase button held 3-50 frame/s in 0.001 frame/s increments 24V DC microprocessor-controlled, Xtal at 1, 24, 25, 29.97, and 30 frame/s forwards 4 and 3 perf Yes
Moviecam Compact compensating link movement 2 2 12-32 frame/s in 1 frame/s increments; 2-50 frame/s in 0.001 frame/s increments with speedbox 12-32 frame/s in 0.001 frame/s increments with speedbox 24V DC microprocessor-controlled, Xtal at all speeds 4 perf; 3 perf available for Mk 2 Yes
Arriflex 535B seven-link movement 2 2 3-60 frame/s in 0.001 frame/s increments; 1 frame/s if phase button held 3-60 frame/s in 0.001 frame/s increments 24V DC microprocessor-controlled, Xtal at all speeds 4 and 3 perf Yes
Arriflex 435 five-link movement 2 (3-pin) 2 1-150 frame/s in 0.001 frame/s increments up to 100 frame/s and 0.01 frame/s increments after 1-150 frame/s in 0.001 frame/s increments up to 100 frame/s and 0.01 frame/s increments after DC quartz-controlled, Xtal at all speeds 4 and 3 perf Yes
Arriflex 435ES five-link movement 2 (3-pin) 2 1-150 frame/s in 0.001 frame/s increments up to 100 frame/s and 0.01 frame/s increments after 1-150 frame/s in 0.001 frame/s increments up to 100 frame/s and 0.01 frame/s increments after DC quartz-controlled, Xtal at all speeds 4 and 3 perf Yes
Moviecam SL compensating link movement 2 2 12-40 frame/s in 1 frame/s increments; 2-40 frame/s in 0.001 frame/s increments with speedbox 12-32 frame/s in 0.001 frame/s increments with speedbox (Compact mags only) 24V DC microprocessor-controlled, Xtal at all speeds 4 perf Yes
Aaton 35-III magnetic drive wheels between body and mag co-planar No 3-32 frame/s in 0.001 frame/s increments No tri-phase brushless, Xtal at all speeds 4 and 3 perf Yes
Panaflex Millennium Mitchell-design, cam driven 2 2 3-50 frame/s in 0.001 frame/s increments 3-50 frame/s in 0.001 frame/s increments dual brushless for shutter and movement, single variable for shutter angle, Xtal all speeds 4 and 3 perf Yes
Panaflex Millennium XL Mitchell-design, cam driven 2 2 3-40 frame/s in 0.001 frame/s increments No dual brushless for shutter and movement, single variable for shutter angle, Xtal all speeds 4 and 3 perf Yes
Arricam LT five-link movement 2 2 1-48 frame/s in 0.001 frame/s increments; speeds with decimal places must be set with accessories 1-32 frame/s in 0.001 frame/s increments; speeds with decimal places must be set with accessories dual brushless for shutter and movement, Xtal all speeds 4, 3, and 2 perf Yes
Arricam ST five-link movement 2 2 1-60 frame/s in 0.001 frame/s increments; speeds with decimal places must be set with accessories 1-32 frame/s in 0.001 frame/s increments; speeds with decimal places must be set with accessories dual brushless for shutter and movement, Xtal all speeds 4, 3, and 2 perf Yes
Arriflex 435 Advanced five-link movement 2 (3-pin) 2 0.1-150 frame/s in 0.001 frame/s increments up to 100 frame/s and 0.01 frame/s increments after 0.1-150 frame/s in 0.001 frame/s increments up to 100 frame/s and 0.01 frame/s increments after DC quartz-controlled, Xtal at all speeds 4 and 3 perf Yes
Aaton 35-3P magnetic drive wheels between body and mag co-planar No 2-40 frame/s in 0.001 frame/s increments No triphase brushless, Xtal at all speeds 4 and 3 perf Yes
Arriflex 235 five-link movement 1 (dual-pin) 1 1-75 frame/s in 0.001 frame/s increments 25 frame/s (can't be used with shoulder mags or older 200' mags) DC quartz-controlled, Xtal at all speeds 4, 3, and 2 perf No
Arriflex 435 Xtreme five-link movement 2 (3-pin) 2 0.1-150 frame/s in 0.001 frame/s increments up to 100 frame/s and 0.01 frame/s increments after 0.1-150 frame/s in 0.001 frame/s increments up to 100 frame/s and 0.01 frame/s increments after DC quartz-controlled, Xtal at all speeds 4 and 3 perf Yes

Viewfinder[edit]

Camera model Viewfinder Video assist
Eyemo 71K Originally parallax, but reflex conversions frequently use Arri eyepiece accessories.
Arriflex 35-2C Fixed eyepiece on camera door; 6.5x magnified image. Interchangeable doors for pivoting or anamorphic viewfinders available. A periscope attachment accessory can also be used for odd angles, but will slightly crop the frame in the viewfinder.
Arriflex 35BL-1 Standard and anamorphic extension tubes; eyepiece rotates 90° above and below level with continuous upright image.
Panaflex-X Fixed angle and includes integrated anamorphic switch and contrast viewing filters (ND .6 and .9). Short, medium and long eyepieces; all can be heated and have manual iris. Medium and long eyepieces include extra magnifier switch.
Arriflex 35BL-2 Standard and anamorphic extension tubes; eyepiece rotates 90° above and below level with continuous upright image.
Panaflex Gold II Rotates 360° vertically with continuously upright image and includes integrated anamorphic switch and contrast viewing filters (ND .6 and .9). Short, medium and long eyepieces; all can be heated and have manual iris. Medium and long eyepieces include extra magnifier switch.
Arriflex 35BL-3 Standard and anamorphic extension tubes; eyepiece rotates 90° above and below level with continuous upright image.
Arriflex 35-3C 6.5x magnified image; doors can be changed between fixed eyepiece, 210° rotating eyepiece, and offset eyepiece.
Moviecam SuperAmerica Spherical and anamorphic short eyepieces, spherical long eyepiece, and long eyepiece with anamorphic switch. Orientable viewfinder block also allows rotation from left to right of and extension away from the camera, but standard viewfinder does not. Both can rotate 360° vertically, offer continuous upright image, and include an integrated contrast viewing filter (ND .6), heated eyepiece, and manual iris. 6.1x magnification, with 2.4x zoom available on long eyepieces.
Arriflex 35BL-4 Super Wide Angle eyepiece with 6.5x magnification and manual iris. Standard and anamorphic extension tubes, as well as a longer standard tube with switchable contrast viewing filter and 2x zoom; eyepiece rotates 90° above and below level with continuous upright image. Bigger exit pupil for brighter image than older BL models.
Panaflex Platinum Rotates 360° vertically with continuously upright image and includes integrated anamorphic switch and contrast viewing filters (ND .6 and .9). Short, medium and long eyepieces; all can be heated and have manual iris. Medium and long eyepieces include extra magnifier switch.
Panaflex Panastar II Rotates 360° vertically with continuously upright image and includes integrated anamorphic switch and contrast viewing filters (ND .6 and .9). Short, medium and long eyepieces; all can be heated and have manual iris. Medium and long eyepieces include extra magnifier switch.
Arriflex 35BL-4s Super Wide Angle eyepiece with 6.5x magnification and manual iris. Standard and anamorphic extension tubes, as well as a longer standard tube with switchable contrast viewing filter and 2x zoom; eyepiece rotates 90° above and below level with continuous upright image. Bigger exit pupil for brighter image than older BL models.
Arriflex 535 Spherical and anamorphic viewfinders; can rotate vertically and left to right, with upright image continuously. Switchable contrast viewing filters (ND .3 and .6); medium and long extension tubes, heated eyepiece, and manual iris.
Moviecam Compact Spherical and anamorphic short eyepieces, spherical long eyepiece, and long eyepiece with anamorphic switch. Orientable viewfinder block also allows rotation from left to right of and extension away from the camera, but standard viewfinder does not. Both can rotate 360° vertically, offer continuous upright image, and include an integrated contrast viewing filter (ND .6), heated eyepiece, and manual iris. 6.1x magnification, with 2.4x zoom available on long eyepieces.
Arriflex 535B Spherical and anamorphic viewfinders; can rotate vertically and left to right, with upright image continuously. Switchable contrast viewing filters (ND .3 and .6); medium and long extension tubes, heated eyepiece, and manual iris.
Arriflex 435 Spherical and anamorphic viewfinders; can rotate 360° vertically and 270° left to right, with upright image continuously and can be extended out. Integrated contrast viewing filter (ND .6); medium and long extension tubes, heated eyepiece, and manual iris.
Arriflex 435ES Spherical and anamorphic viewfinders; can rotate 360° vertically and 270° left to right, with upright image continuously and can be extended out. Integrated contrast viewing filter (ND .6); medium and long extension tubes, heated eyepiece, and manual iris.
Moviecam SL Spherical and anamorphic short eyepieces, spherical long eyepiece, and long eyepiece with anamorphic switch. Orientable viewfinder block also allows rotation from left to right of and extension away from the camera, but standard viewfinder does not. Both can rotate 360° vertically, offer continuous upright image, and include an integrated contrast viewing filter (ND .6), heated eyepiece, and manual iris. 6.1x magnification, with 2.4x zoom available on long eyepieces.
Aaton 35-III Short, medium, and long eyepieces, also available in anamorphic; all can rotate 360° and to left or right of camera with upright image continuously and have manual iris. Heated eyepiece integrated into long eyepiece and optional in medium eyepiece.
Panaflex Millennium Rotates 360° vertically with continuously upright image and includes integrated anamorphic switch and contrast viewing filters (ND .6 and .9). Short, medium and long eyepieces; all can be heated and have manual iris. Medium and long eyepieces include extra magnifier switch.
Panaflex Millennium XL Rotates 360° vertically with continuously upright image and includes integrated anamorphic switch and contrast viewing filters (ND .6 and .9). Short, medium and long eyepieces; all can be heated and have manual iris. Medium and long eyepieces include extra magnifier switch.
Arricam LT Can use LT, ST, LT universal, or ST universal viewfinders (universals have anamorphic switch); all can rotate 360° and to left or right of camera with upright image continuously. Integrated contrast viewing filter (ND .6); medium and long extension tubes, heated eyepiece, and manual iris.
Arricam ST Can use LT, ST, LT universal, or ST universal viewfinders (universals have anamorphic switch); all can rotate 360° and to left or right of camera with upright image continuously. Integrated contrast viewing filter (ND .6); medium and long extension tubes, heated eyepiece, and manual iris.
Arriflex 435 Advanced Spherical and anamorphic viewfinders; can rotate 360° vertically and 270° left to right, with upright image continuously and can be extended out. Integrated contrast viewing filter (ND .6); medium and long extension tubes, heated eyepiece, and manual iris.
Aaton 35-3P Short, medium, and long eyepieces, also available in anamorphic; all can rotate 360° and to left or right of camera with upright image continuously and have manual iris. Heated eyepiece integrated into long eyepiece and optional in medium eyepiece.
Arriflex 235 spherical or universal (with anamorphic switch) viewfinder; arm can telescope further away from camera, rotate 360° on camera axis, and 270° left and right of camera, all with continuous upright image. Optional heated eyecup; medium and long extension tubes, heated eyepiece, and manual iris.
Arriflex 435 Xtreme Spherical and anamorphic viewfinders; can rotate 360° vertically and 270° left to right, with upright image continuously and can be extended out. Integrated contrast viewing filter (ND .6); medium and long extension tubes, heated eyepiece, and manual iris.

16 mm[edit]

16 mm film occupies a rather curious position within filmmaking - with a wide range encompassing virtually every field - amateur home movies, student films, experimental films, television work, commercials, music videos, corporate films, industrial research, medical applications, and lower budget features. Its robust image quality in relation to its size allows for a much more versatile, accessible, and affordable usage in many fields where neither 35 mm nor Super 8 would be well-suited. Despite current challenges from the burgeoning digital video market, the consistent improvement of cameras, lenses, and film stocks have enabled the Super 16 format to flourish recently, with many labs reporting increased usage. The modern era of 16 mm cameras is concurrent with that of 35 mm for both the same reasons as 35 mm as well as an additional change: the creation of the Super 16 format by Rune Ericsson in 1971. The format expanded the usable film negative horizontally, which required a larger film gate and necessitated either specialized conversion of machined parts or purchase of new cameras designed with Super 16 gates. Since the format took more than a decade to slowly standardize, the competition from both high and low end video cameras has decimated the demand for 16 mm cameras for most non-professional usage. Therefore there are relatively few Super 16 cameras, although most are considered professional-grade.

General[edit]

A limited number of cameras prior to this period are listed due to their prevalence in special applications.
Camera model Camera line Manufacturer Introduced Weight MOS/Sync Lens mount
7LTR (Super 16) Aaton LTR Aaton 1974 Sync Aaton universal
Panaflex 16 ("The Elaine") Panaflex 16 Panavision 1981 16.6 lb (7.5 kg), with eyepiece Sync PV mount
54LTR Aaton LTR Aaton 1982 Sync Aaton universal
Arriflex 16HSR2 (Super 16) Arriflex 16SR Arri 1982 11.02 lb (5.00 kg), with empty magazine Sync Arri bayonet (Arri PL for some later models)
Arriflex 16SR2 (Super 16) Arriflex 16SR Arri 1982 11.02 lb (5.00 kg), with empty magazine Sync Arri bayonet (Arri PL for some later models)
XTR Aaton XTR Aaton 1984 Sync Aaton universal
Arriflex 16HSR3 Arriflex 16SR Arri 1992 14.5 lb (6.6 kg) Sync Arri PL
Arriflex 16SR3 Arriflex 16SR Arri 1992 14.5 lb (6.6 kg) Sync Arri PL
X0plus Aaton XTR Aaton 1992 Sync Aaton universal
XTRplus Aaton XTR Aaton 1992 Sync Aaton universal
XTRprod Aaton XTR Aaton 1994 13 lb (5.9 kg), with onboard battery and full magazine Sync Arri PL, Aaton universal, or PV mount
A-Minima A-Minima Aaton 2000 5 lb (2.3 kg), with onboard battery and full magazine Sync Arri PL and Nikon
Arriflex 416 Arriflex 416 Arri 2006 12.1 lb (5.5 kg), with full magazine Sync Arri PL
Arriflex 416 Plus Arriflex 416 Arri 2006 12.6 lb (5.7 kg), with full magazine Sync Arri PL
Xtera Aaton XTR Aaton 2006 Sync Arri PL, Aaton universal, or PV mount

See also[edit]

References[edit]