Compulsory dance

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Compulsory dances, now called pattern dance in ice dancing, are a part of ice dancing and artistic roller skating in which all the couples perform the same standardized steps and holds to music of a specified tempo. One or more compulsory dances were usually skated as the first phase of ice dancing competitions. The 2009-10 season was the final season in which the segment was competed in ISU junior and senior level competition.[1] In June 2010, the International Skating Union replaced the name "compulsory dance" with "pattern dance" for ice dancing,[2] and merged it into the short dance beginning in the 2010–2011 figure skating season.

Compulsory dances are also popular as a form of recreational or social dance among skaters.

The patterns for most dances either cover one-half or one full circuit of the rink. The International Skating Union (ISU) and the Fédération Internationale de Roller Sports (FIRS) publish the step diagrams and descriptions of the dances that are competed internationally, and also provides a set of standard music recordings for each dance with uniform tempo and introductory phrasing for use in competition.

Ice dancing[edit]

Jana Khokhlova and Sergei Novitski on a backward outside edge as they perform the Yankee Polka.
Meryl Davis and Charlie White perform the Argentine Tango.
Anna Cappellini and Luca Lanotte perform the Finnstep.
Oksana Klimova and Sasha Palomäki perform the Westminster Waltz.
Oksana Domnina and Maxim Shabalin on a forward inside edge as they perform the Tango Romantica
Tessa Virtue and Scott Moir perform the Golden Waltz at the 2010 World Championships

The dances that have been performed in junior and senior international competition include:

Name First performed Creators Other notes
Fourteenstep[3] 1889 Franz Scholler Also known as Ten Step or Scholler March.
European Waltz[4] before 1900 unknown
American Waltz[5] unknown unknown
Kilian 1909 Karl Schreiter
Tango[6] 1932 Paul Krechkow, Trudy Harris
Foxtrot[7] 1933 Eric van der Weyden, Eva Keats
Argentine Tango[8] 1934[9] Reginald J. Wilkie, Daphne B. Wallis
Blues[10] 1934 Robert Dench, Lesley Turner
Rocker Foxtrot[11] 1934 Eric van der Weyden, Eva Keats
Viennese Waltz[12] 1934[13] Eric van der Weyden, Eva Keats
Paso Doble 1938 Reginald B. Wilkie, Daphne B. Wallis
Quickstep 1938 Reginald J. Wilkie, Daphne B. Wallis
Rhumba 1938 Walter Gregory
Westminster Waltz 1938 Eric van der Weyden, Eva Keats
Silver Samba 1963 Courtney J. L. Jones, Peri V. Horne
Starlight Waltz[14] 1963 Courtney J. L. Jones, Peri V. Horne
Yankee Polka[15] 1969 James Sladky, Judy Schwomeyer, Ronald Ludington
Ravensburger Waltz 1973 Angelika Buck, Erich Buck, Betty Callaway
Tango Romantica 1974 Lyudmila Pakhomova / Aleksandr Gorshkov, Elena Tchaikovskaia
Austrian Waltz 1979 Susi Handschmann, Peter Handschmann
Golden Waltz[16] 1987[17] Natalia Dubova, Marina Klimova / Sergei Ponomarenko
Cha Cha Congelado 1989 Bernard Ford, Kelly Johnson, Laurie Palmer, Steven Belanger
Finnstep[18] 1995[19] Susanna Rahkamo / Petri Kokko, Martin Skotnicky. Kati Winkler / René Lohse helped adapt to CD.
Midnight Blues 2001 Roy Bradshaw, Sue Bradshaw, Mark Bradshaw, Julie MacDonald

The American Waltz, European Waltz, Fourteenstep, and Kilian (a march) date back to the early days of figure skating. Several of the compulsory dances were first performed by dancers in the United Kingdom in the 1930s. Others were adapted from original dances performed after that segment was added to dance competitions in the 1960s. For example, the Golden Waltz, considered the most complex and challenging of the compulsory dances, was adapted from the original set pattern performed by Marina Klimova and Sergei Ponomarenko in the 1987 season.

In addition to the international dances, there are also several simpler dances that are taught to beginning skaters. For example, in the United States, the first dance learned by most skaters is the Dutch Waltz, which features only forward skating in a side-by-side hold, skated to music with a very slow waltz tempo.

By season[edit]

Each season, the ISU published a number of compulsory dances to be competed that season on both the international senior level and junior level. Which compulsory dance was competed depended on the event, and some events, such as the Grand Prix of Figure Skating Final, had no compulsory dance segment in the competition.

Although the ISU published assigned dances for the 2010-11 season, these were not used in competition, as the compulsory and original dances were merged into a single segment, the short dance, starting in 2010-11. The International Skating Union adopted the name "pattern dance" in 2010 and in 2011 U.S. Figure Skating also switched to the new name.[20]

Season Senior-level[21] Junior-level[21]
2005–2006 Yankee Polka
Ravensburger Waltz
Tango Romantica
Paso Doble
Austrian Waltz
Westminster Waltz
Quickstep
2006–2007 Westminster Waltz
Golden Waltz
Rhumba
Starlight Waltz
Silver Samba
Midnight Blues
2007–2008 Austrian Waltz
Yankee Polka
Argentine Tango
Viennese Waltz
Cha Cha Congelado
Blues
2008–2009 Viennese Waltz
Finnstep
Paso Doble
Starlight Waltz
Paso Doble
2009–2010 Golden Waltz
Tango Romantica
Westminster Waltz
Argentine Tango[22]
2010–2011 Ravensburger Waltz
Finnstep
Quickstep
Blues [23]

Artistic roller skating[edit]

The dances that are performed in junior and senior international competition include[24]

  • Argentine Tango
  • Blues
  • Castel March
  • Flirtation Waltz
  • Fourteen Step
  • Fourteen Step Plus
  • Harris Tango
  • Iceland Tango
  • Italian Foxtrot
  • Kilian
  • Paso Doble
  • Quickstep
  • Rocker Foxtrot
  • Starlight Waltz
  • Tango Delanco
  • Westminster Waltz

Artistic roller skating in the United States also has competitive divisions of team and solo dance for all ages and skill levels that compete at the local, regional, and national levels. At competitions, skaters perform between two and six dances set to organ music for a maximum of 3 minutes per dance. Skaters are judged on a number of things that include American technique, pattern placement, and overall performance.

By season[edit]

Season Senior Junior Senior Solo Junior Solo
2005-2006 Starlight Waltz
Iceland Tango
Blues
Harris Tango
2006-2007 Paso Doble
Westminster Waltz
Rocker Foxtrot
Flirtation Waltz
Blues
Harris Tango
2007-2008 Kilian
Quickstep
Fourteen Step
Imperial Tango
-
-
Rocker Foxtrot
Flirtation Waltz
2008-2009 Italian Foxtrot
Argentine Tango
Blues
Harris Tango
Quickstep
Westminster Waltz
14 Step Plus
Imperial Tango
2009-2010 Castel March
Starlight Waltz
Rocker Foxtrot
Flirtation Waltz
Paso Doble
Argentine Tango
Harris Tango
Blues
2010-2011 Paso Doble
Westminster Waltz
Fourteen Step
Imperial Tango
Italian Foxtrot
Iceland Tango
Flirtation Waltz
Rocker Foxtrot

References[edit]

  1. ^ "ISU Congress News". ice-dance.com. 
  2. ^ "Communication No. 1621". International Skating Union. June 24, 2010. Retrieved July 19, 2011. 
  3. ^ "1. Fourteenstep". International Skating Union. Archived from the original on 12 November 2012. 
  4. ^ "4. European Waltz". International Skating Union. Archived from the original on 12 November 2012. 
  5. ^ "5. American Waltz". International Skating Union. Archived from the original on 12 November 2012. 
  6. ^ "21. Tango". International Skating Union. Archived from the original on 12 November 2012. 
  7. ^ "2. Foxtrot". International Skating Union. Archived from the original on 12 November 2012. 
  8. ^ "22. Argentine Tango". ice-dance.com. 
  9. ^ "Argentine Tango". ice-dance.com. 
  10. ^ "24. Blues". International Skating Union. Archived from the original on 12 November 2012. 
  11. ^ "3. Rocker Foxtrot". International Skating Union. Archived from the original on 12 November 2012. 
  12. ^ "7. Viennese Waltz". ice-dance.com. 
  13. ^ "Viennese Waltz". ice-dance.com. 
  14. ^ "9. Starlight Waltz". International Skating Union. Archived from the original on 12 November 2012. 
  15. ^ "13. Yankee Polka". International Skating Union. Archived from the original on 12 November 2012. 
  16. ^ "11. Golden Waltz". ice-dance.com. 
  17. ^ "Golden Waltz". ice-dance.com. 
  18. ^ "15. Finnstep". ice-dance.com. 
  19. ^ "Finnstep". ice-dance.com. 
  20. ^ p.32, 2011-12 Tests Book", U.S. Figure Skating http://www.usfsa.org/Content/201112TestsBook.pdf (accessed July 19, 2011).
  21. ^ a b "Compulsory & Original Dance History". ice-dance.com. 
  22. ^ "International Skating Union Communication No. 1496" (PDF). International Skating Union. 2 May 2008. Retrieved 8 February 2010. 
  23. ^ "ISU Communication No. 1567 ICE DANCE" (PDF). International Skating Union. 8 May 2009. Retrieved 8 February 2010. 
  24. ^ "Artistic Roller Skating Special Regulations & Sports Rules : 2009 Edition" (PDF). Federation International de Roller Skating. Retrieved 8 February 2010. 

External links[edit]