Computational Thinking (CT) is a problem solving method that uses computer science techniques. The term computational thinking was first used by Seymour Papert in 1996. Computational thinking can be used to algorithmically solve complicated problems of scale, and is often used to realize large improvements in efficiency.
The phrase computational thinking was brought to the forefront of the computer science community as a result of an ACM Communications article on the subject by Jeannette Wing. The article suggested that thinking computationally was a fundamental skill for everyone, not just computer scientists, and argued for the importance of integrating computational ideas into other disciplines.
Center for Computational Thinking
Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh has a Center for Computational Thinking. The Center's major activity is conducting PROBEs or PROBlem-oriented Explorations. These PROBEs are experiments that apply novel computing concepts to problems to show the value of computational thinking. A PROBE experiment is generally a collaboration between a computer scientist and an expert in the field to be studied. The experiment typically runs for a year. In general, a PROBE will seek to find a solution for a broadly applicable problem and avoid narrowly focused issues. Some examples of PROBE experiments are optimal kidney transplant logistics and how to create drugs that do not breed drug resistant viruses. 
Computational Thinking (CT) for Pre-College levels
While Computational Thinking is mostly practiced in college level education, it has gained its ground in K-12 levels in STEM education. You may find a small handful of online institutions which provides curriculum, and other related resources to build and strengthen pre-college students with Computational Thinking, Analysis and Problems Solving. One prominent one is the Carnegie Mellon Robotics Academy. It offers a rich array of training sessions for both pre-college students, as well as teachers. CMU's programs exercise instructional scaffolding methods via engineering process. There is also another online site named legoengineering.com. offering similar resources.
As far as a physical facility, in Central New Jersey, there is a small institution, named Storming Robots, offers technology programs to Grade 4 to 12 with focus on Algorithmic and Computational Thinking via robotics projects throughout the school year. Students may follow its road map  starting from Grade 4 until they graduate to college.
Characteristics of Computational Thinking
Computational Thinking is a problem-solving process that includes the following characteristics:
- Analyzing and logically organizing data
- Data modeling, data abstractions, and simulations
- Formulating problems such that computers may assist
- Identifying, testing, and implementing possible solutions
- Automating solutions via algorithmic thinking
- Generalizing and applying this process to other problems
- Papert, Seymour (1996). "An exploration in the space of mathematics educations". International Journal of Computers for Mathematical Learning 1. doi:10.1007/BF00191473.
- Repenning, A.; Webb, D.; Ioannidou, A. (2010). "Scalable game design and the development of a checklist for getting computational thinking into public schools". Proceedings of the 41st ACM technical symposium on Computer science education - SIGCSE '10. p. 265. doi:10.1145/1734263.1734357. ISBN 9781450300063.
- Guzdial, Mark (2008). "Education: Paving the way for computational thinking". Communications of the ACM 51 (8): 25. doi:10.1145/1378704.1378713.
- Wing, J. M. (2008). "Computational thinking and thinking about computing". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 366 (1881): 3717. doi:10.1098/rsta.2008.0118.
- Center for Computational thinking at Carnegie Mellon cmu.edu
- Exploring Computational Thinking, Google.com
- Conrad Wolfram: Teaching kids real math with computers on YouTube, TED talk 2010-11-15
- What is Computational Thinking? CS4FN at CS4FN
- The Sacramento Regional CPATH Team has created a Think CT website with information on CT developed by this NSF-funded project.
- A short introduction to Computational Thinking by the Open University
- Wing, Jeanette M. (2006). "Computational thinking". Communications of the ACM 49 (3): 33. doi:10.1145/1118178.1118215.
- PROBE Experiments
- "LEGO Engineering". Retrieved 30 Dec 2013.
- "Roadmap for learning path". Retrieved 30 Dec 2013.
- Stephenson, Chris; Valerie Barr (May 2011). "Defining Computational Thinking for K-12". CSTA Voice 7 (2): 3–4. ISSN 1555-2128. "CT is a problem solving process..."